Life expectancy – number of years newborn chidren will live if subject to the exiting mortality risksNeonatal mortality – probability of dying during the first 28 days of lifeInfant mortality – probability of dying during the first year of lifePrimary school enrolment ratio: number of primary school aged children enrolled in primary schoolStunting – too short for the age
NepalCountry Context Nepal is… •½ the land size of Norway •½ the land size of Finland •⅓ the land size of Sweden
Nepal – Key Facts (1)The country is at its transition stage. (Decade-long conflict ended in 2006, awaiting newconstitution)• Population 29 million with 43% under 18 yrs.• Ranked 138 out of 177 on the Human Development Index• 55% of population living under the 1.25 USD/day (international poverty line)• Life expectancy at birth of 67 years• Neonatal mortality rate of 27/1000 live births• Infant mortality rate of 39/1000 live births• High maternal mortality ratio of 281/1000 live births• 49% stunting among children under 5 yrs.
Nepal – Key Facts (2)• Primary school Net Enrolment Rate 93.7%• 23 % of population lack access to improved water supplies• 61% of population lack access to toilets• 35% of under 5 children have birth certificates• HIV/AIDS prevalence 0.39%In addition to socio-economic and geographical disparities, gender, disabilities, and caste-based disparities are prominent in Nepal.• Literacy rate 15years and above(2008) Women 43.3% ↔ Men 70.7%Women face double/triple layers of disparity. Dalit women 17.2% ↔ Dalit men 48.5 % Dalit women 17.2% ↔ Brahmin men 96.9% (Dalit=lowest caste) (Brahmin= highest caste)
3. UNICEF Country Programme 2008-2012 (1)All programme components have a special focus onthe most disadvantaged and marginalised.Programme components :• Health & nutrition• Education• HIV/AIDS• Protection• Water & Sanitation
Education Context (1)Enrolment rates:• Primary net enrolment rate – 94.5 % (girls 93,6% but low retention)• Primary grade repetition – 14 %• Survival rate to grade 5 – 80.6%• Survival rate to grade 8 – 66 %• Secondary net enrolment rate – 69,3% (girls 68,5 %)• About 400,000 children (5-14 yrs.) out of schoolDisparities• 17 % of children 5-14yrs. out of school in less-performing district• 17% of girls 10-14 yrs. out of school, compared to 8% of boysCentres/Schools• ECD: 31 089 (26 773 Government funded)• Primary level (Grades1-5): 27 093. No school fees.• Lower Secondary level (Grades 6-8): 8 823• Higher Secondary level (Grades 8-10): 4 946
Education Challenges (1)Overall: To reach the unreached (socialexclusion: marginalized children and girls)Root causes:•Socio economic (child labor)•Cultural (social exclusion, castes, ethnicity,early marriages, girls, mother tongue)•Security
Education Challenges (2)Programmatic:Access: geographical disparities, seasonalobstacles, infrastructure (incl. WASH),scholarship distributionQuality: students learning achievements, highdrop out, low retention and survival rates, schoolmanagement, ECD facilitators and teachersqualifications/employment conditions, unevendistribution of teachers, insufficient capacity ofresource centres and supervisors, unclear role ofSchool Management Committees, textbooks notreceived on timeMonitoring: data reliability, tracking systems,number of out-of-school children & drop outs
UNICEF Education Programme (1)Expected Result :Children will have increased equitable access to child-friendly learning opportunities that are inclusive, conflict & gender sensitiveKey work areas :1) Early Childhood Development,2) Basic Education,3) Non-formal Education,4) Peace Education & Education in Emergencies
UNICEF Finland’s Support to Education• Duration: 2010-2013• Project budget: €750.000 (USD 1.000.000)• Project location: nation-wide (policy and advocacy), 23 programme districts, including Sihara and Saptari (Child- Friendly Schools, Early Childhood Development, non-formal education), 7 conflict-affected areas (Schools as Zones of Peace)• Project beneficiaries: Basic education aged children, especially girls and children from disadvantaged households• Out-of-school children aged 6–14 years• ECD-aged children (3–5 years), especially girls and children from poor households.
Early Childhood DevelopmentProgress to date•Good coverage increase. Gross Enrolment: 70%31,089 centre-based ECD (1,018,543 children)Equal participation of boys and girlsObjective•Strengthen institutional capacity of serviceproviders including, scaling- up of centre-basedECD focusing on disadvantaged villagesAction•Policy-level support to government (advocacy,guidelines, frameworks, studies)•Direct support to 29 districts • Trainings for DEO and ECD facilitators • Support to development of Guidelines • Support to community/parents to develop child-friendly class rooms with play materials and provision of kits to centres in disadvantaged communities • Support to Parenting Education
Basic EducationProgress to date: Increased attendance of students and enrolment rate for girls, decreased drop outObjective• Provide specific support to improve access and completion rates, in particular in vulnerable districtsAction• Advocacy and policy development at National level (UNGEI)• Direct support to 1200 target schools in 32 districts as Child-friendly Schools• Special support to Girls Education through focusing on 7 districts with lowest girls’ enrolment (awareness raising e.g. radio programes, WSC, latrines, WFP partnership, Young Champions)
A Child-Friendly School:Providing conditions that attract childrento school, keep them there and providethem with a safe and protectiveenvironment where they can learn, playand get skills which help them to thrivethrough their lives.
A child-friendly school is a school which is: 1. Inclusive of children: guarantees opportunities and meets the needs of all children (children with disabilities, girls, children of ethnic and religious minorities etc.) 2. Secure and protective: helps to defend children from abuse and aggression; teaches them their rights 3. Healthy: assures proper hygienic conditions by providing adequate water and sanitation facilities, promoting healthy behaviour and providing health services.
4. Effective with children: good teaching andlearning processes; provides relevant content,materials and resources; support teachers’training.5. Sensitive to gender: advocate gender equality,guarantees girl-friendly facilities, environmentand teaching.6. Involved with communities: works tostrengthen families; helps stakeholders establishcollaborative relationships, involves parents indecision-making.
How does UNICEF make a school child-friendly? Building and rehabilitating schools Training teachers to provide children with quality basic education and skills for surviving and thriving in life Creating schools that offer a safe and protective environment where children can learn and play and where girls and boys are treated equally Ensuring that children are informed among others on day to day hygiene, health issues and HIV prevention in order to make healthy choices in their lives
How does UNICEF makea school child-friendly? Ensuring that children have accessto clean water and sanitation facilities,including separate latrines for girlsand boys Ensuring that children receiveexercise books, pens, other schooland sports materials as well properschool furniture Giving a stimulating start in life tochildren under the age of 5. Childrenbenefiting from early learningopportunities are more likely to stay inschool and perform well
Non-formal EducationProgress to date• 8 019 out-of-school children of mostdisadvantaged communities participated in NFE in2010(of which 45% reinserted to formal schools).Objective•Provide alternative learning opportunities tochildren out of schools, with a special focus ongirlsActionDirect support to 18 districts + 4 urban areas•Advocacy and policy development (support torevision of curricula at national level etc.)•Conduct mappings of out-of-school children•Organize Non-formal Education Programese.g.“ Flexible Schooling Programe”, “Girls’ Accessto Education”, “Urban Out-of-School Programe” tofacilitate re-integration into formal schools , ChildClubs
Peace Education&Education in EmergenciesProgress to date• “Schools as zone of peace” mainstreamed by the governmentObjectives• Promote peace & human rights education to build solid basis for peace.• As Cluster lead agency ensure preparedness and response to emergencies (earthquakes, floodings)ActionDirect support to 23 districts• Training of Education Cluster stakeholders in preparedness/response activities to emergencies, pre- provisioning of supplies• Enforcement of “Schools as Zone of Peace” through trainings and establishment of CoC• Peace Education to be integrated into curricula grades 1 -8
Why Asia ? 67 million children in the world are not enrolled in school, the majority of which live in Africa and in Asia. 26 million 29million Precentages of out of school children - 43 percent: sub-Saharan Africa - 27 percent in South and West Asia - 12 percent in East Asia and Pacific
SfAsia: 2012 – 2015• Mission: Provide access to quality education to millions of children with a special focus on the most marginalized, including girls, children from disadvantaged ethnic groups and vulnerable children living in remote areas and in extreme poverty, through the Child-Friendly Schools approach.• 11 Countries: Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Laos, Mongolia, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Timor-Leste, and Vietnam.• Fundraising target: $ 70 million.
11 SfAsia Countries Selection based on programme needs and on countries that would most benefit from the allocation of private sector resources.