Studying Institutional Interaction

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Studying Institutional Interaction

  1. 1. STUDYING INSTITUTIONAL INTERACTION: THE CASE OF REPAIR SEQUENCES Dr. Carles Roca Cuberes Department of Audiovisual Communication UNIVERSITY POMPEU FABRA Barcelona
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Study of interaction in psychiatric interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Main task of the psychiatrist: assess the patient’s behaviour and modify it </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of therapy: the patient gains insight according to some theory </li></ul><ul><li>In practice: improvement must coincide with the psychiatrist’s in situ expectations </li></ul><ul><li>How is this accomplished? A ‘repair’ sequence </li></ul>
  3. 3. METHODOLOGY: CONVERSATON ANALYSIS <ul><li>Ethnomethodology’s cognate discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative and inductive </li></ul><ul><li>Real interaction as the object of study </li></ul><ul><li>Special attention is paid to the sequential organisation of interactional activities </li></ul><ul><li>Employment of audio or video recordings </li></ul><ul><li>Transcription of data </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Goal : detecting the sequential organisation of interaction in the form of patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying a potential phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>Building a collection of cases to ascertain if it constitutes a recurring interactional pattern </li></ul>
  5. 5. THE BASIC UNIT OF INTERACION: ADJACENCY PAIRS <ul><li>A: Can you tell me the time? </li></ul><ul><li>B: It’s five o’clock </li></ul><ul><li>* Type of adjacency pair : question-answer </li></ul>
  6. 6. ADJACENCY PAIRS: PROPERTIES <ul><li>Two turns in size </li></ul><ul><li>Change of speaker after the production of each turn </li></ul><ul><li>What is said in the first turn is relevant for the producer of the second turn </li></ul><ul><li>What is said in the second turn is related to what is said in the first one </li></ul>
  7. 7. ADJACENCY PAIRS: IMPLICATIONS <ul><li>They suggest the presence of a wider structure available for interactants </li></ul><ul><li>They show how members can display a public understanding of the preceding talk </li></ul><ul><li>They demonstrate how shared meanings are created and sustained </li></ul><ul><li>The form of analysis addressed to these paired utterances can be applied to more intricate and longer sequences of talk </li></ul>
  8. 8. ADJACENCY PAIRS: CONCLUSION ADJACENCY PAIRS AS THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF INTERSUBJECTIVITY
  9. 9. CA AND INSTITUTIONAL TALK <ul><li>Different forms of communication depending on the context </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of interaction or ‘speech-exchange systems’ </li></ul><ul><li>At one pole: ordinary conversation </li></ul><ul><li>At the other pole: debates, court hearings, news interview, etc. -> institutional talk -> formal settings </li></ul><ul><li>Somewhat in between: medical or psychiatric environments, social services, etc. -> institutional talk -> non-formal settings </li></ul>
  10. 10. REPAIR SEQUENCES IN CONVERSATION <ul><li>Repair as an organised set of practices through which participants are able to address and potentially resolve problems of speaking, hearing or understanding in talk. </li></ul><ul><li>It involves two interrelated components: initiation and repair </li></ul>
  11. 11. REPAIR: EXAMPLES
  12. 12. REPAIR: INITIATED BY A PARTIAL REPEAT
  13. 13. ANALYSIS OF A REPAIR SEQUENCE IN A PSYCHIATRIC INTERVIEW
  14. 14. CONCLUSION <ul><li>1. Repair is an ordinary occurrence in everyday encounters. In the context of a psychiatric interview, though, psychiatrists might exploit its interactional properties to accomplish some therapy-related tasks: it can help therapists to assess, probe and invite patients to change their statements . </li></ul>
  15. 15. CONCLUSION <ul><li>2. The concept of insight is conventionally described in psychiatric theory as the ability of patients to produce introspection, accept their mental condition and finally transform their cognitive state. This study reveals this conceptualisation to be equivocal and misleading. Transformations in the patients’ avowals appear to be the outcome of psychiatrists’ persuasion or even pressure, which materialises in the implementation of repair sequences. </li></ul>
  16. 16. CONCLUSION <ul><li>3. As a result of the implementation of repair sequences (and other interactional devices) the psychiatric interview is characterised as an asymmetric interactional event. </li></ul>
  17. 17. REFERENCES <ul><li>Benson, D., and Hughes, J. (1991). Method: Evidence and inference for ethnomethodology. In G. Button (Ed.) Ethnomethodology and the human sciences (pp. 109-136). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Drew, P. and Heritage, J.C. (1992). Analyzing talk at work: An introduction. In P. Drew and J.C. Heritage (Eds.) Talk at work: Interaction in institutional settings (pp. 3-65). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Heritage, J. C. (1984). Garfinkel and ethnomethodology . Cambridge: Polity Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Heritage, J. C. (1988). Current developments in conversation analysis. In D. Roger and P. Bull (Eds.) Conversation: An interdisciplinary perspective (pp. 21‑47). Clevendon: Multilingual Matters. </li></ul><ul><li>Schegloff, E. A. (1987). Analyzing single episodes of interaction: An exercise in conversation analysis. Social Psychology Quarterly, 50 (2), 101-114. </li></ul><ul><li>Schegloff, E. A. (1997). Practices and actions: Boundary cases of other-initiated repair. Discourse Processes, 23 , 499-547. </li></ul><ul><li>Schegloff, E. A., Jefferson, G., & Sacks, H. (1977). The preference for self-correction in the organization of repair in conversation. Language, 53 (2), 361-382. </li></ul><ul><li>Schegloff, E. A. (1991). Reflections on talk and social structure. In D. Boden and D.H. Zimmerman (Eds.). Talk and social structure: studies in ethnomethodology and conversation analysis (pp. 44-70). Cambridge: Polity Press. </li></ul>

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