to study the history of Sabah and Sarawak.
to identify the background of certain ethnic in
Sabah and Sarawak.
to identify the similarities and difference
between those ethnics.
to highlights the ethnic relationship in Sabah
The Brooke dynasty ruled Sarawak for a
James Brooke was appointed Raja by the
Sultan of Brunei on 18 August 1842
Sarawak was officially granted independence
on 22 July 1963 (joined with Malaya, Sabah,
and Singapore, in the federation of Malaysia.)
home to 27 ethnic groups, each with own
distinct language and culture.
The various Orang Ulu ethnics together make up
roughly 6% of Sarawak's population.
Major tribes making up the Orang Ulu group
close ties to the Lun Bawang
live in inherited longhouses and practice a
generations-old form of agriculture.
Population:approximately 5,000 people.
Ethnic group received visits from Christian
missionaries.The Kelabit are now
sometimes referred as “Land Dayaks”.
second largest Dayak ethnic group in
worked by rotational agriculture and hunting
based around farms.
Today, almost all the traditional longhouse-
villages have been replaced by individual
Fruit trees especially Durian remain
important property of market.
known as “Sea Dayaks” by British.
largest people group in Sarawak
main indigenous people group in Brunei
main occupation is farming, hunt wild animal in the
the weapons used are the blowpipe. Nowadays, they
trained dog to run down their prey.
lived in longhouses.
Nowadays, begin to abandon the longhouse style of
No longer rely on the forest’s resources to survive.
Instead, they are migrating to the cities.
they are mostly Christians and Muslim
Malanau are considered among the earliest
settlers in Sarawak.
They make up about 6% of Sarawak’s total
They have never called themselves as Malanau
They call themselves ‘alikou’ meaning people of
Then, where is the name Malanau come from?
Most of them are farmers, fisherman, sago
producers, and traders.
They have abandoned their original religion-Liko.
Nowadays, Majority of them are either Christians
originally migrated from Sumatra.
Basically, speak language (called Bahasa
lived along the coast and worked as
Definitely, they are Muslim...
Huge majority of the Malays in Sarawak were
not actually Malays but ethnics of Indonesian
1761- Alexander Dalrymple,concluded an agreement
with the Sultan of Sulu.
1846 -the island of Labuan, in theWest Coast of
Sabah, was ceded to Britain by the Sultan of Brunei
1848 - it became a British Crown Colony.
Following the series of transfers, the rights to North
Borneo were transferred to Alfred Dent, whom in 1881
formed the British North Borneo Provisional
In the following year, British North Borneo Company
was formed and Kudat was made its capital.
Originally from the Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Scottish and Malay decent.
The Orang Cocos of Sabah are mostly living in
Lahad Datu, Kunak, Sandakan and in Tawau.
The Cocos Malays are originated from the
descendents of Malays settler from the British
Most of Malays follow the Sunni branches of
other cultural element : marriage ritual, dances,
social gathering and traditional delicacies.
Their ancestors in Cocos Island worked in
coconut plantations owned by the English.
indigenous to the highlands of east
Kalimantan, Brunei, SouthWest of Sabah and
Northern of Sarawak.
In Sarawak, Lun Dayeh are officially recognized
by the Constitution as the native of Sarawak
(categorized under the Orang Ulu people)
Lun Dayeh are related to the rice plantation and
they cultivate both rice on hill and on the paddy
Practiced an ancient tradition of secondary
treatment of the dead.
Located in western Sabah along
the northern coast of Brunei Bay
and also in northern Sarawak
along the rivers which flow into
Primarily farmers, with rice being
their staple crop.
Women gather plants and jungle
food, medicines, resin, and other
Family members of a long house
share house repairs, observe the
same taboos, and share major
culture that revolves heavily around the
cultivation of rice
various delicacies and alcoholic drinks using
second largest ethic group
weaving and needlework
cowboys of Sabah
third largest ethic group
Interior Division:Tenom, Keningau and
Hunting with blowpipe
population estimates based on ethnic groups in 2010
Most of them use
agriculture as a source of
Some of them are still
practicing their ancestor
Living near to the lake for
the daily routines and
Bringing new culture to
Have different skills of
Belief and rituals.
playing the critical role that represents
Malaysia’s richness in culture and, of
course, unity in diversity.
different background and development process
led them to practice different religious and
resulting many kinds of lifestyles available all
Sarawak consists of more than 40 ethnic groups
Sabah has more than 32 recognized ethnics