ethnic relation in Sabah


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ethnic relation in Sabah

  1. 1.  UNIVERSITI UTARA MALAYSIA  Ungku Intan Dianna Binti Ungku A Bakar  Noorul Ashikin Binti Zulkarnain  Mohammed Rezaul Karim  Chwa See Chew  Wong Chee Leong
  2. 2. A Discourse in the difference ethnic group
  3. 3.  to study the history of Sabah and Sarawak.  to identify the background of certain ethnic in Sabah and Sarawak.  to identify the similarities and difference between those ethnics.  to highlights the ethnic relationship in Sabah and Sarawak.
  4. 4.  The Brooke dynasty ruled Sarawak for a hundred years  James Brooke was appointed Raja by the Sultan of Brunei on 18 August 1842  Sarawak was officially granted independence on 22 July 1963 (joined with Malaya, Sabah, and Singapore, in the federation of Malaysia.)  home to 27 ethnic groups, each with own distinct language and culture.
  5. 5. The various Orang Ulu ethnics together make up roughly 6% of Sarawak's population. Major tribes making up the Orang Ulu group include:  Kayan  Lun Bawang  Kelabit  Kenyah  Penan  Bisaya
  6. 6.  close ties to the Lun Bawang  live in inherited longhouses and practice a generations-old form of agriculture.  Population:approximately 5,000 people.  Ethnic group received visits from Christian missionaries.The Kelabit are now predominantlyChristian
  7. 7.  sometimes referred as “Land Dayaks”.  second largest Dayak ethnic group in Sarawak.  worked by rotational agriculture and hunting based around farms.  Today, almost all the traditional longhouse- villages have been replaced by individual houses.  Fruit trees especially Durian remain important property of market.
  8. 8.  known as “Sea Dayaks” by British.  largest people group in Sarawak  main indigenous people group in Brunei  main occupation is farming, hunt wild animal in the jungle.  the weapons used are the blowpipe. Nowadays, they trained dog to run down their prey.  lived in longhouses.  Nowadays, begin to abandon the longhouse style of living  No longer rely on the forest’s resources to survive. Instead, they are migrating to the cities.  they are mostly Christians and Muslim
  9. 9.  Malanau are considered among the earliest settlers in Sarawak.  They make up about 6% of Sarawak’s total population.  They have never called themselves as Malanau until recently.  They call themselves ‘alikou’ meaning people of the river.  Then, where is the name Malanau come from?  Most of them are farmers, fisherman, sago producers, and traders.  They have abandoned their original religion-Liko. Nowadays, Majority of them are either Christians or Muslims.
  10. 10.  originally migrated from Sumatra.  Basically, speak language (called Bahasa Melayu Sarawak)  lived along the coast and worked as fishermen.  Definitely, they are Muslim...  Huge majority of the Malays in Sarawak were not actually Malays but ethnics of Indonesian origin
  11. 11.  1761- Alexander Dalrymple,concluded an agreement with the Sultan of Sulu.  1846 -the island of Labuan, in theWest Coast of Sabah, was ceded to Britain by the Sultan of Brunei  1848 - it became a British Crown Colony.  Following the series of transfers, the rights to North Borneo were transferred to Alfred Dent, whom in 1881 formed the British North Borneo Provisional Association  In the following year, British North Borneo Company was formed and Kudat was made its capital.
  12. 12.  Originally from the Cocos (Keeling) Islands  Scottish and Malay decent.  The Orang Cocos of Sabah are mostly living in Lahad Datu, Kunak, Sandakan and in Tawau.  The Cocos Malays are originated from the descendents of Malays settler from the British colonies.  Most of Malays follow the Sunni branches of Islam.  other cultural element : marriage ritual, dances, social gathering and traditional delicacies.  Their ancestors in Cocos Island worked in coconut plantations owned by the English.
  13. 13.  indigenous to the highlands of east Kalimantan, Brunei, SouthWest of Sabah and Northern of Sarawak.  In Sarawak, Lun Dayeh are officially recognized by the Constitution as the native of Sarawak (categorized under the Orang Ulu people)  Lun Dayeh are related to the rice plantation and they cultivate both rice on hill and on the paddy field.  Practiced an ancient tradition of secondary treatment of the dead.
  14. 14.  Located in western Sabah along the northern coast of Brunei Bay and also in northern Sarawak along the rivers which flow into Brunei Bay.  Primarily farmers, with rice being their staple crop.  Women gather plants and jungle products for food, medicines, resin, and other supplies.  Family members of a long house share house repairs, observe the same taboos, and share major rituals.
  15. 15.  largest ethnic  culture that revolves heavily around the cultivation of rice  various delicacies and alcoholic drinks using rice  ‘Bobohizan’  ‘Tadau Ka’amatan’
  16. 16.  second largest ethic group  boat-dwelling nomadic folks  weaving and needlework skills  cowboys of Sabah
  17. 17.  third largest ethic group  'hillpeople‘  Interior Division:Tenom, Keningau and Pensiangan  communal longhouses  Hunting with blowpipe
  18. 18. Ethnics Population Iban Chinese Malay Bidayuh Melanau Orang Ulu Others
  19. 19. population estimates based on ethnic groups in 2010 Kadazan-Dusun Bajau Malay Murut Other Bumiputra Chinese Other non-Bumiputra Non-Malaysian citizens
  20. 20. SIMILARITIES  Most of them use agriculture as a source of food.  Some of them are still practicing their ancestor believes.  Living near to the lake for the daily routines and other purpose. DIFFERENCES  Bringing new culture to their ethnic.  Have different skills of hunting.  Belief and rituals.  Religion
  21. 21.  Sea dayak (iban)  SARAWAK  Kelabit  (orang Ulu) SARAWAK  Land dayak (bidayuh)  SARAWAK  Lun bawang/ Lun dayeh  (orang ulu- SARAWAK)/SABAH
  22. 22.  playing the critical role that represents Malaysia’s richness in culture and, of course, unity in diversity.  different background and development process led them to practice different religious and beliefs.  resulting many kinds of lifestyles available all over Malaysia  Sarawak consists of more than 40 ethnic groups  Sabah has more than 32 recognized ethnics group