Steps In Educational Research

16,344 views
15,663 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
3 Comments
5 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
16,344
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
14
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
3
Likes
5
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Steps In Educational Research

  1. 1. Steps in Educational Research Undurthy Lakshmi Narayana Regional Institute of Education Bhopal, India Regional Institute of Education, Bhopal
  2. 2. Regional Institute of Education, Bhopal Steps in Educational Research Planning Execution Reporting
  3. 3. Regional Institute of Education, Bhopal Steps in Planning Research Problem Literature review Objectives Methodology Work plan Budget Utilization of results Proposal
  4. 4. Questions to be asked <ul><li>What is the problem and why is it to be studied? </li></ul><ul><li>What information is available? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we want to carry out research? What do we hope to achieve? </li></ul><ul><li>What additional data we require to achieve our research objectives? How are we going to collect this information? </li></ul><ul><li>Who will do what and when? </li></ul><ul><li>What resources do we need to carry out study? What resources do we have? </li></ul><ul><li>How will project be administered? How will utilization of results be ensured? </li></ul><ul><li>How will we present our proposal to relevant authorities/funding agencies? </li></ul>Regional Institute of Education, Bhopal
  5. 5. Steps to be taken <ul><li>Selection, analysis and statement of the research problem </li></ul><ul><li>Literature review </li></ul><ul><li>Formulation of research objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Research Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Work plan </li></ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for project administration and utilization of results </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal summary </li></ul>Regional Institute of Education, Bhopal
  6. 6. Elements in each step <ul><li>Research problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem identification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prioritizing problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>justification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Literature review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formulation of research objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General and specific objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypotheses </li></ul></ul>Regional Institute of Education, Bhopal
  7. 7. Elements in each step contd.. <ul><li>Research Methodology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data collection techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan for data collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan for data processing and analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethical considerations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-test or pilot study </li></ul></ul>Regional Institute of Education, Bhopal
  8. 8. Elements in each step contd.. <ul><li>Work plan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time table </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Material support and equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plan for project administration and utilization of results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification of potential users </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proposal summary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Briefing sessions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentations </li></ul></ul>Regional Institute of Education, Bhopal
  9. 9. Regional Institute of Education, Bhopal Selection and statement of Research Problem Literature review Formulation of research objectives What is the problem and why is it to be studied? What information is available? Why do we want to carry out research? What do we hope to achieve? <ul><li>Problem identification </li></ul><ul><li>Prioritizing problems </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>justification </li></ul><ul><li>Literature </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Other information </li></ul><ul><li>General and specific objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Hypotheses </li></ul>
  10. 10. Regional Institute of Education, Bhopal What additional data we require to achieve our research objectives? How are we going to collect this information? Research Methodology <ul><li>Variables </li></ul><ul><li>Types of study </li></ul><ul><li>Data collection techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for data processing and analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-test or pilot study </li></ul>Who will do what and when? Work plan <ul><li>Human resources </li></ul><ul><li>Time table </li></ul>
  11. 11. Regional Institute of Education, Bhopal What resources do we need to carry out study? What resources do we have? Budget <ul><li>Material support and equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Finance </li></ul>How will project be administered? How will utilization of results be ensured? Plan for project administration and utilization of results <ul><li>Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of potential users </li></ul>How will we present our proposal to relevant authorities/funding agencies? Proposal summary <ul><li>Briefing sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Presentations </li></ul>
  12. 12. Regional Institute of Education, Bhopal Steps in Execution Research Proposal Instrumentation sampling Data Screening Data Collection Data Analysis Spread Sheet Coding
  13. 13. Instrumentation <ul><li>Selection of Techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preparation of Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionnaires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rating scales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>checklists </li></ul></ul>Regional Institute of Education, Bhopal
  14. 14. Preparation of Tools <ul><li>Definition of variables </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of behavioral indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of blue print </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of items </li></ul><ul><li>Try – out </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Item analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Validity </li></ul></ul>Regional Institute of Education, Bhopal
  15. 15. Sampling <ul><li>Decide the population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrive at different sampling frames </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources of data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Target groups/Respondents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative/Qualitative </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Define samples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sampling frames for different sources of data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decide sampling procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Probability/Non-probability </li></ul></ul>Regional Institute of Education, Bhopal
  16. 16. Data Collection <ul><li>Modes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In person </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Timing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific context occurrence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phasing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In one shot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spacing </li></ul></ul>Regional Institute of Education, Bhopal
  17. 17. Coding <ul><li>Procedures of transformation of data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitative to Quantitative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative to Qualitative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous to discrete </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Numerical expressions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideas to Numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbers to Ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assigning numbers to categorical variables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Triangulation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbolizing common ideas from different sources </li></ul></ul>Regional Institute of Education, Bhopal
  18. 18. Regional Institute of Education, Bhopal Steps in Reporting Scheme of Chapters Theoretical Framework Gaps in Research & Theoretical Confusions Presentation of Modus Operandi Results Argumentation Conclusions Implications
  19. 19. Regional Institute of Education, Bhopal

×