The sustainable development framework: THE WHOLE AGENDA Economic: Issue of traditional growth path; GDP, capital stock, and debt; government’s role: provision of public goods, regulation, energy pricing (DEMOCRATIC) GOVERNANCE Social Environmental Social inclusion, access to Biodiversity, water, food, jobs, health, education, energy, climate change impact good governance, culture Green (and decent) jobs Poverty-environment nexus; Social impact of ecosystem damage; Social inclusion effects of pollution, and of environmental disasters.
PROCESSES & INSTITUTIONS Central Government Level of Decentralization, Fiscal empowerment INCLUSION and Local Government EMPOWERMENT Services RULE OF LAW Equal access Equal Community opportunity Human and Social Collective action Capital Private sector / incentives Livelihoods Justice Eco- TRANSPARENT efficiency DECISION- MAKINGREGULATION Environment Natural resource heritage 2
REALITY: RISKS AND CHALLENGES• Not one but three different internally diverse regions• Hierarchical close regimes• Relative high levels of corruption• Weak institutional frameworks• Weak checks and balances• Weak civil society/democratic civic culture• Conflicting or not-converging interests• No structures/traditions for dialogue and accommodation
DEMOCRACIES (OR ALETERNATIVE SYSTEMS THAT PROVIDE VOICE & ACCOUNTABILITY) AREINDISPENSABLE FOR DEBATING PROBLEMS LIKE THE NECESSITY TO HAVE SUSTAINABLEDEVELOPMENT, FOR ACCOMODATING CONFLICTING INTERESTS AND FOR SHAPING SOCIALCONSENSUS AND A NEW PARADIGM.
Core democratic governance features which support human development Programmatic politics Inclusive institutions Human development Policy coherence & performance monitoring Collective action (state capacity)Programmatic politics and political commitmentsEvidence shows that, over and above the existence of particular forms of democracy, credibleprogrammatic political commitments by politicians influence service delivery and developmentoutcomes. These commitments are often linked to the existence of well-established programmaticpolitical parties, which advocate particular positions on issues of broad public concern, and thus canmake credible commitments to their electorate. This programmatic approach to politics is in contrast tomore clientelistic or patronage models, which tends to produce benefits for certain groups of thepopulation only.
DEMOCRACY & GOVERNMENT EFFECTIVENESSWE ALSO KNOW THAT NON-DEMOCRACIES AND AUTOCRATICREGIMES ARE CORRUPT, ARE NOT EFFECTIVE NOR EFFICIENT,TAKE ARBITRARY DECISIONS AND ARE NOT ACCOUNTABLE,DELIVER VERY POOR RESULTS.
THREE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ISSUES• The governance of natural resources• Urbanization and urban governance• Environmental governance, and global environmental governance• DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE: NOT MARKET, NOT HIERARCHICAL, BUT NETWORK GOVERNANCE/INCLUSIVE GOVERNANCE IN WHICH ALL ACTORS (COMMUNITY, PUBLIC, PRIVATE ACTORS, NATIONAL AUTHORITIES AND INTERNATIONAL COMPANIES)
WHAT TO DO? EXAMPLE: Fostering an Enabling Environment for Green Investments through GovernanceCHALLENGE:An enabling environment that fosters low-carbon investments by the private sector requires incentives, access tocredit, knowledge transfer and technologies, as well as transparency and a stable and predictable legalenvironment.PROJECT OBJECTIVES:The objective of this project is to foster the requisite legal, financial and institutional frameworks to catalyze thegreen economy. Working directly with the Government, the project will ensure that the private sector can benefitfrom an appropriate enabling environment when making green investments.The project also provides incentives to the private and public sectors by creating innovative arrangements forcapacity building while strengthening quality efficiency and regional competitiveness. This includes municipal-level public-private partnership schemes for low-carbon development, inter-municipal co-operation partnerships,schemes for foreign investors, and the launch of a technical support fund for financing green investments.
FOUR DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE CONDITIONS WICH SUPPORT EEFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT1. UNDERSTANDING THE POLITICAL ECONOMY: INTERNAL (POLITICS AND SYSTEM) AND EXTERNAL (GLOBAL GOVERNANCE)2. INCLUDE FUTURE GENERATIONSWITHIN GOVERNANCE STRUCTURES AT ALL LEVELS THROUGH SOME FORM OF REPRESENTATION.3. GREATER ENGAGEMENT FROM DIFFRENTE STAKEHOLDERS AND STRUCTURES FOR CONFRONTATION AND COLLABORATION.4. INSTITUTIONAL COHERENCE IN IMPLEMENTATION Ensuring political incentives for Inclusive institutions (including sustainability proxies for future generations) Sustainable human development Policy coherence & performance monitoring on sustainable human Collective action for sustainability development 11