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The institutional communication of the public administration, approaches for an anti corruption communication campaign
 

The institutional communication of the public administration, approaches for an anti corruption communication campaign

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Advanced Training in prevention of Corruption Systems and Methodologies,10-11 November, Vienna

Advanced Training in prevention of Corruption Systems and Methodologies,10-11 November, Vienna

Claudia Salvi

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    The institutional communication of the public administration, approaches for an anti corruption communication campaign The institutional communication of the public administration, approaches for an anti corruption communication campaign Presentation Transcript

    • Advanced training on Prevention corruption Techniques and Methodologies: The Institutional communication of the Public Administration; different approaches for an anti-corruption communication campaign Vienna, 11 November 2011 Claudia Salvi FormezPA
    • What is communication? Webster's Dictionary defines the communication as the activity of "sending, giving, or exchanging information and ideas," Communication is a typical behavior of the human being
    • What is communication?
      • Communication is the exchange of signals (words or behaviors) among two actors:
        • The one who perceives the message
        • the other who sends the message
    • Information and communication: an important difference
      • It is the transmission of a message to a receiver
      • The content of the message refers to “objective” facts and is codified independentely from the human relationship between the informer and the informed
      • The whole message is codified through a conventional system of sign and composition rules
      • The message is sent intentionally by the sender who expects an obtainable result .
      Information is:
    • Information Who? Font What? Message Through which channel? Medium To Whom? Receiver To which aim? Expected result
      • It is the bi-directional sequence of transmission of messages where the counterparts are both “ senders and receivers ”
      • The meaning of these messages can be understood only in the context of the actual interaction of the communicators
      • besides the message codified through a "conventional" language the communicating actors send also a series of message codified "naturally" (e.g. body language) for example the tone of the voice, the rhythm of the sentence, the physical postures, etc .
      • Not all messages are transmitted consciously : The results of communication can be pre-planned by the actors before the communication is undertaken, because results depend on the other's choices; ( e.g. the voice can reveal anxiety and may prompt unexpected results of hostility, etc .)
      Communication is:
    • Communication Codification Interpretation Decoding Codification Interpretation Decoding Message Message
    • The importance of communication Communication is easily overlooked , but the ability to communicate effectively is necessary to carry out the thoughts and visions of an organization to the people . The importance of speech and words whether through a paper or a voice is a communication medium to convey directions and provide synchronization. Without communication, there is no way to express thoughts, ideas and feelings.
    • The importance of communication
      • There are many ways to provide communication from the organization to the people of your community :
        • phone, fax, email,
        • letter, website, instant message softwares,
        • social networking websites (facebook, twitter, myspace) and etc…
      • These tools allow you to be able to communicate your organization to the world .
      Communication allows you to express things, to share ideas, and to join thoughts
    • The importance of communication
        • The ability and the importance of communication becomes much more crucial when you are on a mission or need to fulfill a goal.
        • Without a means to communicate, organizations become isolated .
      The ability to effectively communicate is very important when it is usually underestimated and overlooked .
    • Different forms of communication the verbal and nonverbal interaction between two interdependent people (sometimes more). Interpersonal communication Internal communication External communication is the function responsible for effective communication among participants within an organization the exchange of information and messages between an organization and other organizations, groups, or individuals outside its formal structure
    • Interpersonal Communication Four principles underlie the workings in real life of interpersonal communication. They are basic to communication. Inescapability Irreversibility Complexity Contextuality
        • We can't not communicate .
        • The very attempt not to communicate communicates something.
        • Through not only words , but through tone of voice and through gesture, posture, facial expression, etc., we constantly communicate to those around us. Through these channels, we constantly receive communication from others.
        • Even when you sleep, you communicate.
      Interpersonal Communication: Inescapability A basic principle of communication is: People are not mind readers. People judge you by your behavior, not your intent.
        • You can't really take back something once it has been said . The effect must inevitably remain.
        • Despite the instructions from a judge to a jury to " disregard that last statement the witness made ," the lawyer knows that it can't help but make an impression on the jury.
      Interpersonal Communication: Irreversibility
        • A Russian proverb says, "Once a word goes out of your mouth, you can never swallow it again."
      • No form of communication is simple . Because of the number of variables involved, even simple requests are extremely complex.
      • Whenever we communicate there are really at least six "people" involved:
        • who you think you are;
        • who you think the other person is;
        • who you think the other person thinks you are;
        • who the other person thinks /she is;
        • who the other person thinks you are;
        • who the other person thinks you think s/he is.
      Interpersonal Communication: Complexity
      • Besides let’s remember that:
      • If communication can fail , it will
      • if a message can be understood in different ways , it will be understood in just that way which does the most harm
      • There is always somebody who knows better than you what you meant by your message
      • The more communication there is, the more difficult it is for communication to succeed .
      Interpersonal Communication: Complexity
        • We don't actually swap ideas, we swap symbols that stand for ideas
        • Words/symbols do not have inherent meaning; we simply use them in certain ways, and no two people use the same word exactly alike
      • In other words, communication does not happen in isolation. There is:
      • Psychological context , which is who you are and what you bring to the interaction . Your needs, desires, values, personality, etc., all form the psychological context.
      • Relational context , which concerns your reactions to the other person - the "mix.“
      • Situational context deals with the psycho-social "where" you are communicating . An interaction that takes place in a classroom is very different from one that takes place in a bar
      • Environmental context deals with the physical "where" you are communicating . Furniture, location, noise level, temperature, season, time of day, all are examples of factors in the environmental context.
      • Cultural context includes all the learned behaviors and rules that affect the interaction . If you come from a culture where it is considered rude to make long, direct eye contact, you will out of politeness avoid eye contact. Cultural context can be a basis for misunderstanding
      Interpersonal Communication: Contextuality
      • Some of the types of interpersonal communication tools commonly used within an organisation are:
        • staff meetings
        • formal project discussions,
        • employee performance reviews,
        • informal chats.
      • Interpersonal communication with those outside of the business organization can take a variety of forms:
        • client meetings,
        • employment interviews,
        • sales visits.
      Interpersonal Communication Tools
        • In other words, communication does not happen in isolation.
      • Interpersonal communication can be classified as either:
          • ONE-way
          • or
          • TWO-way:
      Interpersonal Communication Style
    • In One-way communication the sender transmits information in the form of direction, without any expectation of discussion or feedback. ( For example, a manager informs an employee that a certain project is due the following day ). Interpersonal Communication Style One-way communication is faster and easier for the sender – (because he or she does not have to deal with potential questions or disagreement from the receiver). It tends to be overused in business
    • In Two-way communication involves the sharing of information between two or more parties in a constructive exchange. ( For example, a manager holds a staff meeting in order to establish the due dates for a number of projects ). Two-way communication indicates that the sender is receptive to feedback and willing to provide a response . Interpersonal Communication Style Although it is more difficult and time-consuming for the sender than one-way communication, it also ensures a more accurate understanding of the message.
        • Communication plays a key role in the success of any workplace program or policy. Internal Communication helps achieve the desired outcomes for the employee and the organization in a variety of ways:
        • Bottom-up communication (from employees to management) provides information about employee needs, values, perceptions and opinions. This helps organizations select and tailor their programs and policies to meet the specific needs of their employees.
        • Top-down communication (from management to employees) can increase utilization of specific workplace programs by making employees aware of their availability, clearly explaining how to access and use the services, and demonstrating that management supports and values the programs.
      Internal communication " ( effective external Communication cannot be implemented without an effective internal Communication . ”
        • Internal Communication should achieve the following objectives:
        • Motivate staffs towards Administration strategies
        • Strengthen the sense of belonging to the Administration
        • Favour relationships among the involved Administration Departments
        • Stimulate creativity
        • Activate the different stages of the working activity
        • Improve collaboration and synergy among all the concerned Departments
        • Spread a positive image of the Administration through staffs’ behaviours and attitudes
        • Create an identity inside and outside the various institutions involved
      Internal communication
    • Internal communication Beneficiaries
      • The internal communication beneficiaries can be divided in 3 main groups :
      • 1 level: The employees end the collaborators with the related families and al the possible services and goods providers
      • 2. level: the shareholders , the bank institutes and the investment funds (private) ONG, non-profit (for public)
      • 3 level: the beneficiaries of our institution
    • External communication
      • External communication is the exchange of information and messages between an organization and other organizations, groups, or individuals outside its formal structure.
      • The goals of external communication are to facilitate cooperation with groups such as suppliers, investors, and stockholders , and to present a favorable image of an organization and its products or services to potential and actual customers and to society at large.
    • External communication
      • A variety of channels may be used for external communication:
      • face-to-face meetings
      • print or broadcast media
      • electronic communication technologies such as the Internet.
      • External communication includes also
      • the fields of PR
      • media relations
      • Advertising
      • marketing management
    • The Institutional Communication of the Public Administration The objective of the communication of the public administration is to serve public interest , no matter which is the Organisation that disseminate the information It thus includes communication actions aimed at civil society and which are always subjected to assessment by civil society
    • The Institutional Communication of the Public Administration The Key element of this kind of communication is the relationship between the public administration and the citizen. Public administration should serve the citizens
    • The Institutional Communication of the Public Administration: A Public Administration at the service of the citizens must ensure a clear communication written with a simple language which can be understood by everybody.
    • The Meaning of the Institutional Communication of the Public Administration
      • Communication means being on the side of the citizen in the sense of seeing and telling the administration of the citizen
      • The communication must transform citizens from passive recipients of decisions in active and motivated players
      • Communication must be thus a response to the new rights of citizenship that thanks to new technologies, listening and dialogue begins to reshape relations with citizens and businesses
    • The Institutional Communication of the Public Administration should favour the following processes: Promote change Govern the territory Reorganize services Redistribute resources Highlight the work of individuals and apparatuses Review the procedures Streamline the administrative processes Simplify the language Perceiving the services and not only institutions Listen to the people Recovering ethics and values Give identity to the public and employees
    • It is important to remember that….
        • Communication cannot compensate for facilities or services lacking or non-existent
        • Communicating means entering into the substance of the issues
        • Communicate also means being able to explain the delays and weaknesses in administrative action
        • Public communication must transform citizens from passive recipients of decisions in active players motivated by specific interests
    • An important distinction
        • Public Communication can be sub-divided into three macro-sets :
      Political communication Social and environmental communication institutional communication
        • developed by the political parties and by the political organizations
        • developed by organizations whose purposes concern the social (ONG, associations, etc)
        • developed by public organizations and institutions (universities, all levels of the Public administrations)
    • Conclusion
        • Communication must be a reply to the new rights of citizenship , which thanks to new technologies and to the listening and to dialogue starts to re-design the relationships with the citizens and the Administration.
      Dialogue Listening
    • Different approaches for an anti-corruption communication campaign
        • Different strategic approaches can be used:
      Transparency approach Collaborative approach Cost-saving approach Success results campaign
    • Different approaches for an anti-corruption communication campaign
        • which could be problematic from a creative point of view (for example difficulty in making a video spot out of it, and to target it), but which could see the drawing up of some tools like:
              • Citizens Rights Charter;
              • the code of conduct for the people exposed to corruption;
              • A Citizen’s guide to fight corruption;
              • Publication of the corruption perception index
      Transparency approach
    • Different approaches for an anti-corruption communication campaign Transparency approach Citizen’s Rights Charters
        • which explain what services these departments are going to provide for the citizens .
        • The Citizens’ Charters should also have a provision for compensation to the citizen in case the departments fail to perform.
        • The existing charters can be examined and a campaign can be launched to include a compensation clause . In the citizens’ charter of services published by Government organizations there should also be specific provisions to help the citizens in getting their due in the form of services to which they are entitled. If the services are not being rendered properly or if a citizen has a complaint, there must be detailed information included in the charter about which offer or office the citizen can approach for getting a proper compensation.
    • Different approaches for an anti-corruption communication campaign Transparency approach Code of Conduct
        • reminds people who are exposed more easily to corruption in Public Office, the behaviours expected by them and the punishments foreseen in case of breach of the rules
      Citizen’s guide to fight corruption
        • could be delivered through the form of brochures and leaflets to give advice on how to behave in case of corruption attempts
    • Different approaches for an anti-corruption communication campaign Transparency approach publishing the corruption perception index
        • It provides an informed basis for a debate about corruption .
        • Secondly, they can shame some of the honest officers in the organizations, which are perceived to be the most corrupt, to spur them and ensure that, at least, in the next report the position of their organizations improves.
        • is desirable that data are regularly published so that they become a reference point for sensitizing the public about the corruption in the various organizations.
        • They can also act as a catalyst for motivating the honest people in the corrupt departments to asset themselves and check corruption.
    • Different approaches for an anti-corruption communication campaign Transparency approach
        • One major source of corruption arises because of lack of transparency . There is a scope for patronage and corruption especially in matters relating to tenders, cases where exercise of discretion relating to our of turn conferment of facilities/privileges etc.
        • Each organization may identify such items which provide scope for corruption and where greater transparency would be useful . There is a necessity to maintain secrecy in matters where discretion has to be exercised.
        • But once the discretion has been exercised or as in matters of tenders, once the tender has been finalized, there is no need for the secrecy . The right-to-information policies and sensitivity to the evil effects of corruption will grow if the true facts are presented to the public. The culture of secrecy fosters corruption.
    •  
    • Different approaches for an anti-corruption communication campaign Collaborative approach
        • which aims to make the citizen a strategic ally of the Public Administration in fighting corruption.
        • Public administration which is normally perceived as the enemy to fight becomes an ally of the Ministry of Justice in fighting corruption .
        • The message to be created could be “ we are on citizen’s side, so help us to fight corruption ”.
        • The message should create trust and confidence in the fight of the Government against corruption.
    •  
    • Different approaches for an anti-corruption communication campaign Cost-saving approach
        • The idea in this case is to base the message on “ communicating the costs of corruption ” which could underline the recent news which was made public about the Croatian money lost in anti-corruption.
        • A message of this kind could be created:“ 12 million Kuna are lost in Croatia in corruption every year, help us prevent it, we could have used this money for better roads, schools etc .”
        • By sensitizing the people at large about the evil effects of corruption and how corruption comes in the way of fulfilling the genuine demands of the public like drinking water, better roads, better power-supply etc. One method by which sensitivity to corruption could be spread is to undertake specific studies linking people’s problems and how corruption comes in the way of the problems being resolved.
    • Different approaches for an anti-corruption communication campaign Success results campaign
        • The idea in this case is to base the campaign on the successful achieved results
    • Different approaches for an anti-corruption communication campaign
        • Examples of past miscommunication in some Eastern Countries
      Copies of laws on the wall “ available somewhere on the internet Communication with public aimed at highlighting successes Training consisted of presenting laws
    • Different approaches for an anti-corruption communication campaign
        • The traditional way was based mainly on Advertisement
      posters Rock concerts
    • Different approaches for an anti-corruption communication campaign
        • The new way: Social Marketing
      Try to find out what people want : through hotline and surveys
        • Modern marketing starts by finding out what customers (citizen, employee) wants, instead of “selling”
    • Different approaches for an anti-corruption communication campaign
        • A good example: Bribeline - The Business registry for International Bribery and Extortion line
      Provides a space where organisations and their members can safely and anonymously report cases of bribery against the government officials they deal with
        • One month after this launch Bribeline received more than than 1.000 bribery reports from almost 100 countries
      Its success shows that an appropriate forum and the anonymity motivate people in sharing the information about their experience of corruption
    •  
    • Different approaches for an anti-corruption communication campaign
        • A Brazilian example: Portal da Transparencia
      This website allows the public as well the media to monitor government expenditure and thereby provides mechanisms to spot corrupt behaviour within Government
    •  
    • Different approaches for an anti-corruption communication campaign
        • The best communication should be useful and informative
      In an anti-corruption good communication starts by listening
        • Surveys
        • Focus groups
        • Direct observations
    • Different approaches for an anti-corruption communication campaign
        • The old way
      Manuals for staff of international organisations, governments and businesses
        • These books were full of jargons and abstract
      Action Plans
        • Unfunded wish-lists with no sanctions for non-compliance
        • No legislative/regulatory base
        • Resist to produce paper (codes, manuals, etc.)
    • Which is the best approach?
        • Like service users civil servants should know the rights:
      If accused of corruption If complicit or if negligent
        • Knowing how to explain law and operating procedures in simple language also helps civil servants
    • Which is the best approach?
        • Given the complexity of corruption, communication strategies should not be restricted to informing people and persuading them to change their attitudes and behaviors.
        • It should also be used to facilitate dialogue, build trust, and ensure mutual understanding .
      Stories instead of advertisements Big Public campaigns through media
    • Which is the best approach?
        • The success can be obtained through the Building of Coalitions
      Coalitions are structures of formal collaboration motivated by a common vision, seeking to attain common goals
        • Coalitions are based on the principle that collective action is more powerful than disparate efforts carried out by lone champions and loosely affiliated groups
      Coalitions means reasearch, networking, lobbying, and mass outreach activities
    • Which is the best approach?
        • The Building of Coalitions requires:
      Identification of individuals, groups and organisations whose goals and values are similar to those of your institutions
        • An affective anti-corruption Coalition helps build and maintain momentum by promoting a participatory approach that relies on dialogue among stakeholders
    • Which is the best approach?
        • The media : a strategic partner
      They are both a communication tool and a target to reach
        • Try to gain their interest
        • Awards can be settled to gain their attention and to make them your allies
    • Which is the best approach?
        • Building a Coalitions requires effective communication which may include
      Networks with like-minded political elites Fostering dialogues and debate among key stake-holders Measuring and informing public opinion Building support among diverse interest publics and the general citizens
    • Advanced training on Prevention corruption The drawing up of a communication campaign Vienna 11 November 2011 Claudia Salvi FormezPA
    • Exercise for you
      • Please at the end of the presentation write e draft communication plan which defines
        • The objectives
        • the work programme
        • The audiences you want to reach
        • Which tools you will use and the related workplan
        • How you will evaluate your plan
    • Why a communication Plan
      • The Communication Plan is a written document which helps − if accurately drawn up − identify the following essential communication elements:
        • What you want to accomplish ( your objectives ),
        • How those objectives can be accomplished ( your goals or work programme ),
        • To whom your administration communications will be addressed ( your audiences ),
        • How you will accomplish your objectives ( tools and timetable )
        • How you will measure your programme results ( evaluation ).
    • The different types of communication plan The communication plan can be of 3 types for the communication of all actions and/or interventions provided by the institution as a whole Plan of the whole institution for the communication of all actions and/or interventions programmed by one sector/area of the organization Sector or Policy Plan aimed at programming interventions and/or internal communication projects Internal Communication Plan There can be no effective external communication if there is not an effective internal communication
    • A Communication Plan definition The communication plan is a tool that serves to schedule actions of communication in an organization in a certain period of time W hy we communicate Finalization Who is communicating and to which beneficiaries Key actors identification What we are going to implement Products identification With which tools and resources The communication plan allows you to define:
    • Methodological stages of a communication plan The methodological stages of a Communication Plan can be divided in 4 phases: 1) Strategic Planning 2) Operational planning 3) Implementation 4) Evaluation
    • 1) The strategic planning (planning and drawing up) foresees: The identification of the strategic and communication objectives so as laid down by the Administration The start of a reflection on the internal and external context on which to operate the institution's policies, on the actors involved and the possible recipients of the actions of communication
    • 2) The Operational Planning It is a phase that consists in the actual translation of the strategic objectives identified, in communication tools for the implementation of the Plan
    • 3) Implementation It is the phase aimed at the realization and management of the plan in accordance with the procedures and schedule established during the design phase
    • 4) Evaluation
      • It is the verification of :
      • the results obtained,
      • the impact and effects generated on the context inside and outside the institution
      • and of any discrepancies between these elements and the previously identified objectives
      Monitoring and evaluation of the processes and of the operational decisions which across all phases of the plan do not constitute a prerogative of the last stage . In particular, the ongoing monitoring of operations allows the definition of parameters and criteria to be the basis for any corrective actions
    • Definition of the activities The communications plan defines in detail Each of which is potentially subject to a different approach to maximize the "reply" in terms of notoriety and purchase The various categories of recipients To use for each of them, which will leverage on the topics that are more sensitive The messages Which you can use to get more easily the message to each identified target The communication tools
    • Definition of the activities how we wish to distribute them throughout the year in line with the trend of demand for the type of services that are performed, events to be highlighted, special initiatives that we already know that we must promote The programming of the communication activities And thus the costs to be incurred for the implementation of planned activities The budget Capable of measuring the effectiveness of interventions The indicators
    • Strategic Planning Context analysis
        • who is communicating and its mission
      institution managing the programme whom we are communicating with The territory and the population what we are communicating The programme itself Before starting an Information Campaign we should make sure that we have have done a carefully overview of the current situation in terms of general information and data on:
    • Strategic Planning Context analysis The geographic, territorial, socio-economic context The general framework of reference The characteristics of the market in which a particular service is provided The sector context The characteristics of the Administration The organizational context The analysis of the context can be different according to the specific situations: You can take into consideration: The analysis of the context is functional to the contextualization of the strategic objectives for an effective translation into communication goals
    • Strategic Planning SWOT Analysis Strength It is useful at this stage to carry out a SWOT analysis SWOT is the acronym of 4 English terms : SWOT analysis serves to identify potential areas on which to focus the communication Plan Weaknesses Opportunities Threats
    • Strategic Planning SWOT Analysis Strengths Weaknesses External opportunities outside the institution/organization External threats to the institution/organization Within the organization (for example an innovative service) Within the organization (for example lack of professional skills, damaged reputation) For example, a particular channel of communication may prove to be effective in a particular region , high-level of education in the identified reference group For example, lack of trust of the public in the local media , lack of regular use of internet by citizens
    • Strategic Planning SWOT Analysis SWOT analysis provides information useful to combine the resources and skills existing in the institution with the attitudes of the environment in which works An organizational analysis can also be introduced at this stage since it provides useful indications on the institution and on the various roles of the different actors involved
    • Strategic Planning Which Tools can we use for the SWOT analysis?
      • Are the following tools available ?
      • current researches stating public opinion in your country and in Europe on anti-corruption
      • current quantitative and/or qualitative researches on social trends in your country
      • past experience in terms of people, know-how and tools realized during the anti-corruption campaigns
      • statistical and demographical information about your country
    • Strategic Planning Research communication audit
      • We suggest you also to carry out also a research-communication audit , which helps evaluate your current Communication .
      • To such end, some Administrations hire firms but the price for the objectivity of an external auditor may easily be high.
      • So as to analyse your Communication potential, you should find out :
        • What every staff person is doing within the Communication Department;
        • What each Communication activity is designed to achieve , and how effective each activity is or has so far been.
    • Strategic Planning Research communication audit
      • To get your answers, you need try to follow the following steps :
        • Brainstorm with Communication staff
        • Talk to other Departments, notably those dealing with connected issues
        • Interview the Head of the Press Office of your Administration
        • Interview all the key actors involved in the anti-corruption issues on your territory
        • Talk to Communication committee members
        • Host focus groups and query non members
    • Strategic Planning Objectives The definition of objectives can be obtained from the awareness of the strategic objectives of the Organization and from the data and information that the analysis of the context of reference, provided. Operational objectives are declinations of the strategic goal
    • Strategic Planning Objectives in an anti-corruption campaign Once you have obtained information from your audit, define your overall Communication objectives and the results you wish to achieve.
        • To convince the target audience to feel responsible on matters linked to corruption
      Specific Objective 1 Specific Objective 2 Specific Objective 3
        • To inform the target audience of the anti-corruption measures that are being taken
        • To change mentalities on anti-corruption issues
      Overall objective reducing corruption by promoting transparency and accountability for public institutions Specific Objective 4
        • To promote and increase citizen’s right and access to information
    • Strategic Planning Different typologies of Strategic objectives Objectives of guarantee and protection of the rights in the public/private relationship Policy Objectives
      • Securing the rights of access to information
      • promoting participation
      • privacy policy
      • the relaunch of the territory
      • Enacting Freedom of Information Act, id applicable
      • Increase citizen’s awareness of their right to information so that they may hold the government accountable
    • Strategic Planning Different typologies of Strategic objectives Objectives of improving the quality of services provided
      • publicize the opportunity on the use of a specific service
      • simplify procedures
      • reduce costs
      • to provide services tailored as much as possible to the needs of users
      Objectives of identity and image
      • need to communicate the identity of the institution and its mission
      • initiatives and programmes carried out
      • the will to correct the perception among the public
    • Strategic Planning Different typologies of Strategic objectives Objectives of promotion within the Organization of a culture of respect and service to the citizen
      • To share goals with the employees
      • To favor the participation of employees to the organizational choices of the administrations
    • Strategic Planning SMART Objectives S pecific Objectives should always be SMART M easurable A chievable R ealistic T ime-bound To be monitored and evaluated Through a correct definition of objectives , communication must indicate clearly what a P.A. wants to achieve with the communication activities
    • Strategic Planning Useful tips Advertise your website to target groups that use internet through on-line and off-line communication Once again this is not a goal but a method The Agency will use innovative media Communicate our project to the community through a good coverage of the opinion press This is not an objective but rather a strategy and a tactic A key objective is the creation of a strong relationship with the media by organizing a press office Clear and measurable objectives Comments Wrong objectives
    • Strategic Planning Target segmentation
      • In audiences identification, it is important to define with whom you want to share information .
      • These people are your target audiences .
      • Most times, you will be communicating with a variety of audiences , both internally and externally.
      • Furthermore, some audiences may be more important than others, therefore you will need to make such distinction (e.g. primary audience versus other audiences). Think broadly but realistically about whom you can inform and influence .
      • List all the audiences involved in your anti-communication campaign as well as other audiences you can contact, attempt to influence, or serve.
    • Strategic Planning Target segmentation There are different ways to perform Public target segmentation. The choice is influenced by the type of Communication strategy we choose both at strategic and operational level. The most traditional segmentation ways to be also used in an integrated manner are the following: Geographic segmentation socio-demographic segmentation psycho-graphic segmentation segmentation based upon service use Segmentation based upon required benefits
    • Strategic Planning Target segmentation Geographic segmentation Target Groups are divided according to area of geographic origin (countries, regions, headquarters, areas), population numbers, city centre dimension, climate environment); Socio-demographic segmentation the Target Group is divided on the basis of demographic variables , such as age, sex, family size, income level, occupation, educational level, religion, etc.; Psycho-graphic segmentation Target Groups are divided according to their lifestyles , user status and main characteristics
    • Strategic Planning Target segmentation Segmentation based upon service use Target Groups are divided on the basis of their frequency in the use of a specific service offered, and level of trust in the Administration providing that specific service, awareness of the value of the service used and behaviour to that specific service Segmentation based upon required benefits Target Groups are divided by advantages for users in the use of a specific service Geographic and socio-demographic segmentations are usually the most used as they are easier and simpler to be adopted
    • Strategic Planning Target Macro-segmentation Another possible way of identifying the stakeholders is the macro-segmentation. The macro-segmentation divides audiences into four categories: Beneficiaries In an anti corruption campaign could be: general population, businesses, civil society and the Government . Institutions Government, Parliament, government agencies, regions, provinces and municipalities Media Newspapers, periodicals, specialised and local press, national and local TV, national and local radio, internet Influential entities or individuals who have an influence on political and social issues (trade unions, professional orders, training institutes)
    • Strategic Planning Stakeholders’ role The influential and stakeholders are categories of the public who can prove decisive for the achievement of the identified objectives Stakeholders help you disseminate the contents of our Communication initiatives. It is a good practice to operate in network with them.
      • Involve Stakeholders at the very beginning of the implementation of Communication actions.
      • Co-shared decisions are less likely to be objected.
      • If you know a person or group will react negatively to what you are doing, ignoring them is a bad idea
    • Strategic Planning Other potential key audiences Besides key audiences and key stakeholders, there are other potential audiences that need to be identified i.e.:
        • Opinion leaders
        • Professional groups
        • Governments (other Ministries or Public bodies involved in the anti-corruption campaign)
        • Industry analysts
        • Administration employees
        • On-line audiences (the recent trend is to communicate news within social networks, niche communities or bloggers)
        • Interest groups
        • Media (both a target group and a tool).
    • Strategic Planning Target segmentation: useful tips Segmentation sometimes leads to the identification of a large number of audiences . This is why it is important to give priority to different groups of recipients.
      • Make sure that you share the decision about which target group to address with your internal and external partners
      • Be clear in the definition of target groups and assign a priority order based on the importance and influence compared to the identified objectives
    • Operational Planning The Strategy The choice of strategy consists in translating the object in communication activities and tools Strategies help frame future decisions . Once objectives have been identified, the strategy simply helps you picture how you will reach such aims
    • Operational Planning The Strategy The Public A Communication strategy can be identified in relation to : Relationship between those who issue the message and those who receive it (issueing and receiving) Contact mode Communication style and tone
    • Operational Planning The choice of strategy in relation to public As the Public can be widely diversified , we have to choose among Non-differentiated strategy Differentiated strategy Concentrated strategy
    • Operational Planning The choice of strategy in relation to public Non-differentiated strategy Differentiated strategy Concentrated strategy we use a single message for all the identified Target Groups without any difference . It is less expensive but also the least effective in terms of message impact on Target Groups, as it is less flexible and too general foresees a different kind of message depending on the Target Group we want to reach. It is more expensive but also more effective from a Communication point of view. It is an evolution compared to the differentiated strategy . Once the Target Groups we want to reach have been identified, we select the ones on which to concentrate our message . The concentrated strategy offers a well-targeted message but it penalises the other identified Target Groups .
    • Operational Planning Relationship between issueing and receiving Propaganda Persuasion Facilitation In such option, the message is adapted to the feed-back we wish to receive on the Final Beneficiaries of the message. In this respect, the following choices can be made:
    • Operational Planning Relationship between issueing and receiving Propaganda Persuasion Facilitation provides the message unidirectionality . The Administration enforcing such strategy enables no feed-back from citizens is based on the idea citizens must take a position versus the policy adopted by a given Administration. Message receivers have to choose between good and bad, right or wrong. Persuasion tries to direct towards a single point of view and thus allows little differentiation. assumes the presence of different Beneficiaries of public Communication choices . They all have their own lifestyles and may follow (or not) the policy undertaken by the Administration. Facilitation tries to train citizens leaving them free to choose and providing them with clear messages aiming to protect their own individuality as well as Final Beneficiaries’ choice. A Communication Plan drawn up by a Public Administration has to follow the facilitation option although sometimes persuasion options may be adopted.
    • Operational Planning The strategy choice in relation to the contact mode Direct interaction or through the adoption of a filter − namely, another tool or another target in this case the target audience can be reached in two different ways: Actions On a large or small case
    • Operational Planning The strategy choice in relation to Communication style and tone Educational style Informative style Entertainment style In the strategy choice in relation to Communication style and tone: we can choose among A mix of the previous categories
    • Operational Planning The strategy choice in relation to Communication style and tone Educational Style Informative style the communicator plays an educational role and is therefore able to train the end-user on the message content the communicator is neutral in disseminating the message and just provides useful information , data and news Entertainment style A mix of the previous categories the communicator provides the information while trying to amuse the end-user; derives from a mix of the above mentioned styles . It uses some combinations of the above categories’ entertainment/informative styles or educational/informative/entertainment styles
    • Operational Planning The choice strategy: useful tips Economic resources available The choice of the strategy must be done bearing in mind a number of constraints and feasibility criteria that your organization should consider, for example in reference to: Human resources available within the administration The public identified in the plan Technological resources which you have
    • Operational Planning Content Once objectives, strategy and target has been identified it is important to make a choice on the communication content , i .e. what are the values and/or information that we want to convey in the construction of the messages in a consistent manner The contents must be clear, explicit and accurate with respect to the potential of the organization.
    • Operational Planning Messages After the content definition it is time to devise the message. Messages help you communicate the right things to the right people. As messages permeate all the Communication activities, they attract wide attention from decision makers. It is therefore important to spend time on this section The message must be visible, clear and easily identifiable Its validity depends on the possibility to be adapted to the different Communication forms and tools Originality helps capture the audience – humour as well as metaphors help increase noticeability
    • Operational Planning Messages : Useful tips
      • A message to be effective should:
        • Focus on main points
        • Be brief
        • Be written in a simple way so that anyone can understand
        • Not take anything for granted, explain each term that does not belong to common language
        • Highlight the positive sides of what you are doing
        • Decide what stories are to be about and focus on that
      • Messages are easier to be understood if you can give some context and to what you are doing . In this case, use concrete examples and support the messages with facts, if available.
    • Operational Planning Messages: Useful tips
      • An effective communication can be achieved through:
        • Simplicity - Remove messages from all secondary and less important information that you can afford to live without
        • Consistency - Communication approaches key audiences in many different ways. If the different activities say different things the overall effect is weakened . If the message spread is always the same a multiply effect is guaranteed.
    • Operational Planning How to choose tools and activities
      • Tools can range from a simple flyer to a glossy magazine
      • Don't overlook less obvious tools such as posters, report covers and websites
      • Brainstorm ideas with your staffs
      • Also think about some innovative tools .
      • Use your creativity still trying to remain objective .
      The selected tools depend on strategic goals , Communication programme objectives, target audience profile, advantages and disadvantages of each tool, and Communications budget
    • Operational Planning How to choose tools and activities
        • P ublications (newsletters, magazines, handbooks, brochures, leaflets, posters)
        • Events (conferences, seminars, workshops, the anti-corruption day)
        • Media (traditional and new media)
        • Community (networks, blogs, etc.)
        • Advertisement
      An effective Communication programme will combine some or all of the following tools to communicate the intended message to the target audience
    • Operational Planning How to choose tools on the basis of the identified objectives
        • Overall Objective : reducing corruption by promoting transparency and accountability for public institutions
      Publication of government information as a way of decreasing corruption Increase citizens’ access to information Citizens are execising their right to know Exposure and training of relevant non-governmental organizations, media, and government officials regarding access to information Increase citizen’s awareness of their right to information so that they may hold government accountable There are cultural and social dynamics of not demanding information to hold public institutions accountable Government institutions are transparent and the level of corruption is reduced Government departments are implementing a new law Advocacy for promoting the right to know among civil society, media, and the general public Promote citizen’s right and access to information Civil society and media are not educated enoungh and not informed about their access to government information Impact: contribution of communication to ovell project’s Outcomes: what change has the communication produced? Communication intervention Communication objectives to support the main one Communication challenges/start from the nagtive
    • Operational Planning How to choose tools for each target group Compile a national, annual anti-corruption report that outlines the activities of your agency and distribute them to the media Develop internet-based interactive games to allow participnats to test their knowledge of what is corruption Organise awards for journalists, training on reporting on corruption, Communicate directly with the public through the web site, new media such as blogs Anticipate media enquiries about on-going corruption cases preparing on the web site a restricted area devoted to them Coordinate public forums and publish pamphlets, brochures, and newsletters for public distribution to show the different forms of corruption Meetings, workshops, seminars Regularly brief journalists and editors. Hold public events focusing on corruption as a means to build coalitions Organise exhibition in schools, colleges, and universities to highlight examples of corruption and its consequences Form an advisory group and exchange inmformation with stakeholders Tools with the media and civil society Tools for the public Tools for stakeholders
    • Operational Planning Tasks and Timing
      • Separate objectives into logical time periods (i.e. monthly, weekly, etc.)
      • Tasks and Timing involves mapping out the tasks to be performed, their timelines, and who will be responsible for each of them
      Once objectives, goals, audiences, and tools have been identified, quantify the results in a calendar grid that roughly outlines which projects will be accomplished and when.
    • Operational Planning Tasks and Timing
        • For each initiative it is necessary to specify :
        • Who is responsible for implementing it
        • When the activity has to be implemented
        • What costs are associated with each activity
    • Operational Planning Tasks and Timing
      • It is a popular type of bar chart that illustrates a project schedule.
        • It illustrates the start and finish dates of the terminal elements and summary elements of a project
        • Terminal elements and summary elements comprise the work breakdown structure of the project
      A GANTT Chart helps us keep the implementing phases under control
    • Operational Planning Budget
      • When working on it make sure that the budget is adequate to achieve the desired objectives.
      • If the budget assigned to the Communication Plan is decided in advance, tailor the Plan to fit within it
      • All Plan parties must be aware of what can realistically be delivered for the available budget
      • If the budget is inadequate and cannot be increased, review your objectives and bring them back to an achievable level
      Budget is a critical factor in communication plans
    • Implementation Result provision Activities implementation, achievement of the objectives, and contribute effectively to achieving the general objective of the project Efficient management The objective of the implementation phase is: Monitoring and drawing up of report Of the available resources Preparing a progress report
    • Implementation The phase of implementation can be managed effectively through the drafting of an annual action plan The action plan is a monthly description of activities and the sequence to be followed The action plan allows to implement the core activities and develop a level of detail for the practical management of the communication plan and to monitor its status of implementation
    • Monitoring and evaluating the result Although correlated, monitoring and evaluation are different activities implemented by different bodies in different phases through Plan implementation.
      • Monitoring consists in systematic and continuous collecting, analysis and use of information for the purpose of management and decision-making
      • Evaluation , instead, is a periodic assessment of the efficiency, effectiveness, impact, sustainability and relevance of a project in the context of stated objectives. It is usually undertaken as an independent examination with a view to drawing lessons that may guide future decision-making
    • Monitoring and evaluating the result Communication Output
        • tells us whether the message has reached the Target Group
      Communication Out take Communication Out Come
        • tells us whether the Target Group understood the message
        • tells us whether a message has produced a change in the opinions and behaviours of the given Target Group
      There are three levels of Plan measuring
    • Monitoring
      • Monitoring key elements are:
      • It is an internal management responsibility
      • It measures progress in relation to the budget foreseen by single activities
      • It identifies problems and thus allows looking for solutions
      • It uses both formal and informal methods for data collection
      • It is a key source for evaluation
      • Monitoring requires definition of two conditions :
      • That data are treated from an analytical point of view;
      • That the final aim of such data collection and manipulation is to inform the decisional process
    • Evaluation The evaluation process consists in the verification of the correspondence between planning and implementation of what was originally foreseen in the Plan. Evaluation is usually carried out by an external expert Checks whether the chosen strategies and objectives are appropriate Check the progress, acts in the event of distortions, updates your plan Why? Periodical Continuous When? Involves an external expert to guarantee its ojectivity Internal management Who? Evalutation Monitoring
    • Exercise: Draw up your Communication Plan Analyse situation What’s the problem? What are the causes? Who are the stakeholders? What can be done? Identify objectives What are the desired outcomes? What is the planned time frame? What is the desired level of effect? Identify Stakeholders Who are the key stakeholders? How can we build coalitions? Who is the key audience? Select communication channels Through which channels can the majority of target audience be reached? Design messages Depending on the audience and communication channels how can your message be articulated clearly and simply? Implement strategy What planned activities will you employ (press releases, press conferences, replies to media requests, websites, text messaging services, etc.) Monitor and evaluate What method of evaluation will you use to measure the impact of your communication strategy?
    • Contact details:
        • Thanks for your attention
        • Claudia Salvi
        • International Activities Office
        • FormezPA
        • Viale Marx, 15
        • 00137 Roma
        • [email_address]