The Challenges of Roma Inclusion
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

The Challenges of Roma Inclusion

on

  • 3,199 views

Andrey Ivanov,

Andrey Ivanov,

Statistics

Views

Total Views
3,199
Views on SlideShare
1,065
Embed Views
2,134

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
17
Comments
0

3 Embeds 2,134

http://europeandcis.undp.org 2002
http://unjobs.org 131
http://translate.googleusercontent.com 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

The Challenges of Roma Inclusion The Challenges of Roma Inclusion Presentation Transcript

  • Andrey Ivanov,Senior Advisor, UNDP BRCNovember 2012THE CHALLENGES OFROMA INCLUSION –FOCUSING ON RESULTSWITH RELEVANT DATA
  • AcknowledgementsThis presentation summarizes the result of the work of awhole team involved in UNDP‟s Roma related work (inalphabetic order): Christian Brüggemann, Niall O‟Higgins,Balazs Horvath, Andrey Ivanov, Justin Kagan, Jaroslav Kling,Angela Kocze, Dotcho Mihaylov, Daniel Skobla, Tatjana Peric,and Ilona Tomova.The data come primarily from The regional Roma survey 2011 supported by the European Union (DG Regional Policy), implemented by UNDP and the World Bank and administered by IPSOS, Serbia and The regional Roma survey 2004, supported by UNDP and administered by BBSS-Gallup, Bulgaria, TARKI, Hungary and Focus, Czech Republic.The data sets and the research papers based on the dataavailable from the UNDP website:http://europeandcis.undp.org/ourwork/romaAndrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • 1. General considerations
  • Defining the target Who are the Roma? Apparently a simple question but the answer differs depending on the approach you take ◦ Research (historical or ethnological) ◦ Pragmatic (policy-driven) Opinions vary but at the end, if you want clear results planned, matched by resources and monitored. For that you need ◦ Data on how many people you target ◦ The unit cost of “a result” in a specific area ◦ Data on externalities (positive and negative) ◦ Time-series and baselines to see the progress (if any) Unless you have all this, ◦ Mainstreaming Roma inclusion in national policies is a myth ◦ Results-oriented reporting becomes a poetry (a philological task)Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • A few uncomfortablequestions… Why, after massive investment in Roma inclusion in the last decade, so many Roma prefer to leave their country of origin and move westwards? What has been the impact of the funds devoted to Roma inclusion? Where has the money gone?None of those questions has a decent answer because: • The outcomes of inclusion are unclear and unmeasurable – which makes them questionable even if they are real • Interventions are often just nominally devoted to improving the situation of Roma • The outputs of individual interventions and even the inputs are vaguevaguedifficultthem potentially fake Keeping the issues and makes to account forAndrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • Three myths about data onRoma1. There is no data, so we don‟t know • The truth: there is a lot of data, we simply don‟t know how to use it2. There is no need of data because we know how bad it is anyway • The truth: it is important to know not just how bad it is – but most of all, why?3. We might need it but it can‟t be collected because of legal constraints and because of the vagueness of the „Roma universe‟ • The truth: indeed, it is difficult (if it were not, it would have been done). But it is legally possible to do and necessary for policy formulationAndrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • Cracking the contradictions Explicitly define the policy purpose ◦ Monitoring of what determines monitoring how ◦ Monitoring how determines what kind of data ◦ What kind of data determines how to The answers to collect it those questions are highly Clearly define who is the target relevant policy and thus – ◦ All Roma (whatever that means)? politically ◦ Vulnerable Roma? loaded ◦ Vulnerable anyone?Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • Defining the target: Possibleoptions Self-identification (asking people, “Are you Roma?”) ◦ Convenient and politically safe (nothing is imposed on the respondent)… ◦ …but doesn‟t yield relevant data because of the vagueness of the question triggering additional ones in respondents‟ minds, like  If yes, does it mean I am not Romanian, Bulgarian, Slovak?  Why do they ask – maybe to frame me? External („imposed‟) identification ◦ By non-Roma – verges on segregationist attitudes ◦ By Roma – “you may not know who we are – but we do” Combined (multi-stage approach) – used in the surveys of UNDP (2004 and 2011) and of FRAAndrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • Going beyond ethnic identity Be pragmatic - don‟t be obsessed by unanswerable questions like “Who‟s Roma?” ◦ But don‟t dilute the task of Roma inclusion through general “inclusive interventions” that nominally are ethnically neutral but in reality are structurally exclusive for certain groups Give priority to socio-economic status ◦ But still keep ethnic identity and specifics in sight – explicit but not exclusive focus of interventions Stick to territorial characteristics driven approach ◦ Most of the vulnerable Roma live territorially in separate (segregated) communities ◦ Territorial mapping of those communities is possible ◦ With a detailed map of Roma-dominated communities, one can target the entire area – and thus reach disproportionately the Roma You will never reach all Roma – but it‟s sufficient to reach most of those that need to be reachedAndrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • The possible data sources Regular population censuses Sample based surveys (national household budget surveys, labor force surveys, EU-SILC, LSMS, MICS, sociological surveys, etc.) Administrative registries (incl. local administrations) Line ministries registries (in particular, Ministry of Education and Ministry of Health) and special agencies registries (Health insurance institute, National social insurance institute) Anonymous surveys conducted on the spot by service providers (labor offices, hospitals) Data collected at the community different information. Each of those sources yields level You should define what do you need the data for firstAndrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • The purpose determines thedata Monitoring and evaluation of National Roma Integration Strategies ◦ Need data on the aggregate progress  EU-wide comparable national representative surveys can serve the need ◦ But defining “representative of what and who” – a matter of political compromise Monitoring and evaluation of national and local Roma Inclusion Action Plans ◦ Need quantifiable objectives and targets  territorially-focused mapping is more appropriate ◦ The challenge as regards “representative of what and who” less acute Monitoring and evaluation of individual interventions ◦ Need project outputs and outcome level data  data generation should be integrated into the project cycle ◦ “What” purpose of using (addressed in the project formulation) The triple and “who” is cleardata: to know the status, so that wedefine and quantify the objectives and monitor progress vis-à-vis a baselineAndrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • 2. A glimpse of the overallstatus
  • The UNDP/WB and FRAregional surveys: the bestgame in town Provide quantified and comparable picture of the current situation of living conditions of Roma in the EU and non-EU countries (what is the status) ◦ Based on this, they send a message to policy- makers, Illustrate the dynamics over time of some basic indicators (what has changed since 2004) ◦ …to provide the ground for progress evaluation, Suggest possible correlations and causalities (what drives the status) ◦ …to help answer the “why this status?” question Inform policymakers on possible prioritiesAndrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • What does the survey provide? An opportunity to observe fundamental changes in the status (but not short-term fluctuations)  A tool for evaluating the National Roma Integration Strategies (but not the local level inclusion plans)  Comparative perspective – the survey contains a block of questions identical to the one conducted in 2004 by UNDP that provides a base-line for the Decade of Roma Inclusion progress assessment Caveats: ◦ Still a sample survey ◦ Expensive, provides data on “Roma vulnerable toAndrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing “Roma in general” marginalization” – and not on on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • Pre-school attendancedetermines future educationalprogress Notice the distance from the national averages! UNDP/ WB/EC regional Roma survey 2011Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • Lower secondary education:most countries have madeprogress It‟s useful having a baseline…UNDP/ WB/EC regional Roma survey 2011; UNDP 2004 surveyAndrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • Challenges in secondaryeducation are more acute than inprimary Gross enrollment rates of Roma and their non- Roma neighbors in FYR Macedonia in compulsory education (7-15) differ substantively from those in upper-secondary education (16- 19)Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • Continuity of education is aburning issue Serbia illustrates the common pattern that transition from primary to secondary level of school is critical UNDP/ WB/EC regional Roma survey 2011Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • Regardless “hard” or “soft” –segregation is still segregationUNDP/ WB/EC regional Roma survey 2011 The graph shows the share of Roma kids attending school in classeswhere the majority of their classmates are Roma. Such classes exist both in segregated (attended primarily by Roma) as well as “integrated” schools (mixed schools with separate Roma classes)Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • Dropping out of school early(or rather very, very early) UNDP/ WB/EC regional Roma survey 2011; UNDP 2004 survey Again, notice the distance from the national averages (where available)!Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • Employment: a jobless generationin the making (the case ofHungary) UNDP/ WB/EC regional Roma survey 2011Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • And Hungary is still doingbetter than the other countries!Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • Roma face notoriously lowemployment rates… UNDP/ WB/EC regional Roma survey 2011Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • …with high gender disparitiesin employment Roma women are worse off both than non- Roma women living nearby and Roma men in their countries UNDP/ WB/EC regional Roma survey 2011Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • Roma in Albania are sunk deeper in poverty than their non-Roma neighbors UNDP/ WB/EC regional Roma survey 2011Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • …and in other countries aswellAndrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • Roma are surviving on less… UNDP/ WB/EC regional Roma survey 2011 The equivalent expenditure of Roma households (expenditureadjusted for household size to reflect relative advantages of living under common roof) in all countries is lower than for their non- Roma householdsAndrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • Poverty however is more thanjust lack of money Data allows calculating multidimensional poverty rates and index – an aggregate measure of deprivation in 4 dimensions ◦ Health ◦ Education ◦ Housing and ◦ Standard of Living Based on 12 indicators, 3 for each dimension A person is considered poor if s/he is deprived in at least 6 of the 12 indicators and severely poor if deprived in 9 out of 12Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • Improvement in monetary andmultidimensional poverty isunequal The two poverty measures reveal different picture and in some cases changes between 2044 and 2011 go in opposite directionsAndrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • All this results in acute materialdeprivationUNDP/ WB/EC regional Roma survey 2011 Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • …even in EU member States UNDP/ WB/EC regional Roma survey 2011Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • Roma live in worse housing –often in slums even in the EUUNDP/ WB/EC regional Roma survey 2011 Amazingly, the share of Roma living in slums is highest in some of the EU member statesAndrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • Often facing the threat ofhunger!UNDP/ WB/EC regional Roma survey 2011 Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • …and not just in RomaniaAndrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • All this translates into higher healthrisks UNDP/ WB/EC regional Roma survey 2011Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • With negative employmentimplications UNDP/ WB/EC regional Roma survey 2011Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • …made worse by unhealthy life- style UNDP/ WB/EC regional Roma survey 2011Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • …and lower access to services UNDP/ WB/EC regional Roma survey 2011Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • Health treatment could beprohibitively expensiveShare of people living in households which in the past 12 months had instances when couldntnot afford buying the prescribed medicines UNDP/ WB/EC regional Roma survey 2011, UNDP regional Roma survye 2004Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • The “complex” relationshipbetween unemployment andhealthUNDP/ WB/EC regional Roma survey 2011UNDP/ WB/EC regional Roma survey 2011, UNDP regional Roma survye 2004Being registered as unemployed for many is the only way to access health services Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • Vaccination: a time bombticking UNDP/ WB/EC regional Roma survey 2011Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • All this – despite numerousprojects and internationalinitiatives UNDP/ WB/EC regional Roma survey 2011Non-Roma are better aware of the Decade than the Roma who should be its primary beneficiary!Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • The role of civil society?CSOs are oftenmissing from theRoma reality onthe ground – butare prominentlyexposed amongentitiesimplementingRoma targetedprojects UNDP/ WB/EC regional Roma survey 2011 Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • 3. The broader context
  • Defining the target rightRoma identity is of multiple and fluid nature “Roma” is not just a meta-group, but a complex construct The meaning of the term differs depending on the interpretative frameworks of the different sides involved Roma identity is to large extent situational and reflective defined vis-à-vis the non-Roma (the Gadzo)This pattern is not just the result of discrimination andprejudice Discrimination and prejudice were augmented in the process of modernization, The process intensified even further with the 19th and 20th century nation-states consolidation… …and post-modern politics seems to be following a similar patternMethodological difficulties in that regard shouldn‟t prevent us fromtargeting Roma communities and decreasing their vulnerability and monitoring the results of the interventionsAndrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • Why modernization? Because the way of living of Roma was increasingly in conflict with ◦ the emerging disciplining structures of the sedentary societies and ◦ with the existing non-Roma hierarches, both cleric and secular Similar pattern is visible today beyond Roma ◦ Just think how contemporary institutions perceive free file-sharing or unwillingness to be That‟s what “framed”… digitally takes the issue of Roma inclusion well beyond the framework of one single (even the largest) minorityAndrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • Two major (post-modern)contradictions of Romainclusion1. Between the vague number of the targeted population (“who‟s Roma?”) and the strict allocation figures (million of EUR) • If you can‟t precisely define the target, how would you distribute the funding tsunami that is coming?!?2. Between the market-based individual- centered approaches and the implicit anticipation of “EU Leviathan” (someone to fix the problems) resulting in ◦ Passivity ◦ Low aspirations ◦ Those issuesof the status quograsp through Acceptance are difficult to quantitative surveys but appear clearly in qualitative researchAndrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • A typical picture from a Roma ghetto…
  • …and another one
  • Low aspirations andresignation Both an outcome and driving factor of exclusion One of the outcomes of focusing on “meeting basic needs” but not empowering the Roma ◦ To take control and responsibility of their own lives ◦ To have the tools to do that ◦ To have the resources to achieve thatNeeds to be seen in the context of the complex dynamics of interests involved atThis complexity is often disregarded resulting in community levelover-simplified approaches matched by political correctnessAndrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • Another vicious circle in themaking? Roma waiting for a “pan-European change” to address all the problems? Non-Roma waiting for Roma “to start doing something for themselves” first? …and the possible Or another “Roma targeted project” immediate opportunity? improvement falls through the cracks fueling the “project business” cycle An outcome of resignation? A reason of
  • Dominating extremes in explainingthe roots of Roma exclusion Exclusion is cultural ◦ driven to extreme, it says „it‟s all about race‟ Exclusion is about discrimination ◦ driven to extreme, it boils down to litigation procedure (beloved by lawyers) Exclusion is about qualification and educational deficits ◦ driven to extreme, it attributes everything to capacity gaps Sticking to each of the extremes is obviouslywrong – but is also safe because it‟s partially trueAndrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • Few oversimplifications (often)driving major policy decisions We can‟t have prosperous Europe with Roma excluded ◦ Of course we can – keeping them in ghettoes Including Roma is profitable (and vice versa – excluding Roma incurs economic losses) ◦ Yes, but if it were that simple, the business would have taken on this opportunity We all speak the same human rights language ◦ Are we? And most of all, do we attribute the same meaning to universal concepts? In a market economy it‟s private sector‟s job to create jobs (in general and for Roma in particular) ◦ Yes, but what about those who need support in getting their employability closer to the averageAndrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • 4. Conclusions and the wayforward
  • The overall message of thedata Certain progress in regards Roma inclusion has been made since the launch of the Decade of Roma inclusion ◦ But unequal in all areas ◦ Unequal between countries Quantitative data is of paramount importance for establishing reliable and robust progress monitoring systems ◦ But quantitative data needs to be properly contextualized through qualitative researchAndrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • Who can do what? Different actors involved in Roma inclusion have different comparative advantages (and limitations) at different levels The EC has been instrumental in pushing the governments in adopting clear commitments to Roma inclusion (expanding the pattern introduced by the Decade of Roma Inclusion) but the strategies need to be ◦ Translated into implementation plans (central and local) ◦ Matched with adequate funding ◦ With structures at the level of Roma communities capable of delivering tangible results The EC cannot substitute for the national governments and local communitiesAndrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012
  • As regards specificinterventions… Move away from narrow sector-specific towards an integrated approach Apply an area-based development focus to reach the most in need in “explicit but not exclusive” manner Learn from failures and don‟t expect results fast… Be critical and don‟t take things on face value Focus on the ultimate goals (improving people‟s lives) and not on the means (“delivery” or “absorption”) Apply results-based monitoringAndrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges ofand actually, liberate – data. November 2012 Un-hybernate – Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant the
  • Want to learn more? Want to go deeper into thedata?Visit us athttp://europeandcis.undp.org/povertyorfollow us on twitter @undp_europe_cisYou can also post directly your opinion on ourRoma inclusion forum:http://europeandcis.undp.org/blog/2012/12/06/towards-a-data-driven-policy-for-roma-inclusion/**********************Andrey Ivanov, UNDP: The challenges of Roma inclusion – focusing on results with relevant data. November 2012