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Results-Based Management in UNDP
 

Results-Based Management in UNDP

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Patrick Grémillet, UNDP Bratislava Regional Center, Management Practice 2011

Patrick Grémillet, UNDP Bratislava Regional Center, Management Practice 2011

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  • Which issues, or which causes should we choose to work on?
  • Area 1 is sometimes referred to as the “Nike” or “Just do it” area.In area 3, care should be taken not to readily go into that area before doing a thorough review of whether another agency (UN, CSO, etc) can provide the support required. UNDP should operate in this zone only as a last resort, as it is outside of our mandate and comparative advantage.Question: The EU is sending a electoral observation mission to x country, to observe their national elections. They wish to negotiate with UNDP an arrangement for UNDP to contract their field personnel, and handle all logistics arrangements. The EU will do the recruitment and will supervise the staff. Which area (1,2,3 or 4) would this project fit in?
  • Discussion of examples of poor problem definition. Relationship to country analytical processes
  • Crucial to ensure that problems are not defined to fit the interest or capacity of an agency. Sometimes problems can be defined with the solutions in mind – e.g. first example above where someone may think that giving minorities the right to vote will solve the problem. If the problem was formulated in one of the other 2 ways, then the right to vote could be seen as one constraint. There could be others, including social norms, lack of access roads, etc.
  • In looking at causes, dig deeper into the issues to see what is the source of the problem.Are there policy impediments? Are institutions in place? Are they set up or structured properly? Do they collaborate effectively? Do they have the capacity? Are there social or cultural norms and practices that are creating impediments?
  • Before we decide on what to fund, we should have a clear understanding of our strengths, weaknesses and comparative advantagesBased on that, we define a clear vision of what needs to happen and what must in place for the goal to be achieved.We must be aware of what others will need to do to complement our efforts to achieve the goal.In most cases, a single project by one agency will not be adequate to achieve the goal: partnerships and collaboration will be critical.
  • Simplified results matrix: conflate the two outcome levels into one, with emphasis on strategic but specific enough to country context. Number of priorities & outcomes are optional.
  • Refer to pages 56 and 57 of HandbookPublic sector investment programme makes provision for substantial increase in the real allocation to gender equality and women’s empowerment. National budget allocation procedures and processes require gender analysis of all investment decisions.

Results-Based Management in UNDP Results-Based Management in UNDP Presentation Transcript

  • Results-Based Management
    Patrick Grémillet
    Bratislava Regional Center
    Management Practice
    2011
  • Session Schedule
    Results-based Management (RBM) Principles
    Introduction to RBM
    Setting a Results Management Strategy
    Problem Analysis and Results Mapping
    UNDP planning instruments
    Results Matrix
    Understanding the RBM Typology
    Differentiating outcomes and outputs
    Indicators, baseline and targets
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    2
  • What is a Result ?
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    3
    Results are changes in a state or condition that derive from a cause-and-effect relationship. There are three types of such changes (intended or unintended, positive and/or negative) that can be set in motion by a development intervention – outputs, outcomes and impacts.
    - UNDG agreed RBM terminology
  • What are Result?*
    RESULTS
    are changes in a state or condition that derive from a cause-and-effect relationship.
    CONTROL & RESPOSIBILITY
    MAKING A DIFFERENCE
    * using UN harmonized terminology (based on OECD/DAC Glossary of Key Terms in Evaluation and Results-based Management)
  • August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    5
    What is results based management?
    RBM is a management strategy by which all actors ensure that their processes, products and services contribute to the achievement of desired results (outputs, outcomes and higher level goals or impact)
    A key component of RBM is performancemonitoring which is to
    objectively measure how well results
    are being achieved, and
    report on measures taken to improve them.
  • Why RBM?
    Stated rationale/intended gains:
    Improved focus on results instead of activities
    Improved transparency
    Improved accountability
    Improved measurement of programme achievements (performance rather than utilization)
    Enhanced strategic focus
    Industry standard
    To get more funds!!
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    6
  • Results-Based Management in practice
    In your table groups, discuss and agree…
    What are the 3 main problems you have seen in trying to monitor and assess results as part of your work?
    • one concern/problem per card/post-it
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    7
  • General problems when applying RBM?
    Difficult to apply
    Difficult to learn
    Difficult to integrate
    Difficult to revise (... or reluctance to revise? )
    Difficult to measure
    Difficult to ‘attribute’
    (at outcome level, the UN is accountable but not fully responsible)
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    8
  • Common elements of RBM
    Problem analysis to understand causes
    Stakeholder analysis
    Structuring of programmes around a chain of desired results - addressing causes
    Causality in the chain of results (if… then logic)
    Use of ‘change language’ (future conditional)
    Reliance on indicators to measure performance
    Costing of results rather than isolated activity budgeting
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    9
  • The RBM life-cycle approach
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    10
  • Session Schedule
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    11
    Results-based Management (RBM) Principles
    • Introduction to RBM
    • Setting a Results Management Strategy
    • Problem Analysis and Results Mapping
    • Results Matrix
    • Understanding the RBM Typology
    • Differentiating outcomes and outputs
    • Indicators, baseline and targets
  • Making Strategic Choices
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    12
  • Strategic Priority Setting
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    13
    Capacity
    Value
    1. “Just do it”/strategic priority
    Major national challenge
    UNDP comparative advantage
    2. Potential high priority, if consensus can be built
    3. Potential high priority, if others cannot meet demand and internal capacity development is feasible
    4. Lower priority: does not meet major national challenge
    Alignment of key actors to support action
    Support
  • Session Schedule
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    14
    Results-based Management (RBM) Principles
    • Introduction to RBM
    • Setting a Results Management Strategy
    • Problem Analysis and Results Mapping
    • Results Matrix
    • Understanding the RBM Typology
    • Differentiating outcomes and outputs
    • Indicators, baseline and targets
  • What problem?
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    15
    33-35
  • Formulate problem in a neutral manner
    “Minorities and marginalized groups do not have the right to vote.” Versus
    “Minorities and other marginalized groups do not participate in elections.” Or
    “Low levels of participation by minorities in elections.”
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    16
    33-35
  • Cause-effect analysis
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    17
    Effects
    Causes
    Are there capacity constraints? – policy level, institutional, individual
    Are there Social or Cultural Constraints?
  • Causality analysis – Why?
    Negative outcomes, manifestations of problems, unfulfilled rights
    Immediate causes
    Affecting individuals and households
    Underlying causesand capacity issues
    Policies, laws, budgetsSystems for service deliveryBehaviors and practices, low household incomes
    Root causes
    Beliefs, attitudes, culture, traditionsNatural resources, natural disastersPolitical and economic systems, ideologies, conflict
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    18
  • Problem Tree
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    19
    Manifestations
    Malnutrition &
    death
    Immediate
    causes
    effect
    Inadequate dietary
    intake
    Disease
    Underlying
    causes
    Insufficient
    food security
    Inadequate Maternal
    & Child Care services
    Insufficient health services
    & unhealthy environment
    Resource Control
    +
    Organizational structures
    Root
    causes
    Political, Ideological,
    Economic structures
    cause
  • Results Map
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    20
    Poor rural women earn meaningful wages and have improved life skills
    Women gain marketable skills in traditional and non-traditional areas
    Women learn good work attitudes and workplace behavior
    Women develop self-confidence
    Potential employers educated and committed to programme
    Women trained in vocational skills
    Some women receive traditional schooling
    Advocacy and sensitization initiative
    Women enroll
    Long-term Outcome
    Intermediate Outcomes
    Partnerships
    Outputs
    Small stipend provided to women
    Child care services provided
    Programme info provided to women
    Training agency, child care agency, NGO, and National Women’s Bureau etc collaborate to design and deliver programmes
  • Session Schedule
    Results-based Management (RBM)
    Introduction to RBM
    Key Principles
    RBM Life cycle
    UNDP planning instruments
    Results Matrix
    Understanding the RBM Typology
    Differentiating outcomes and outputs
    Indicators, baseline and targets
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    21
  • Planning and Monitoring instruments
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    22
    Simplification
    • UNDAF and CPD outcomes conflated into one
    • Results matrix streamlined
    PLANNING
    MONITORING
    National plans/strategies; PRSP; …
    Country Analysis
    UN Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF)
    Country Programme Document (CPD)
    Country Program Action Plan (CPAP)
    Annual Work Plan (AWP)
    Jointprogrammes
    Projectdocument
  • UNDAF BEFORE….
    Good Governance and the protection of Human Rights
    By 2013, achieve effective participation of citizens, and government accountability and integrity
    Laws on public demonstrations and freedom of association improved in accordance with international standards.
    Increased participation of civil society and citizens in decision making
    Strengthened community participation in the planning and implementation of local development activities
    Capacity of civil society strengthened through civic education and engagement with Parliament
    Advocacy programmes conducted for accession to the UN convention against corruption.
    Corruption in government management significantly reduced
    Advocacy programmes conducted for the adoption of a national anti-corruption law
    Effectiveness of decentralized government structures improved to deliver basic services
    Government assisted to meet its obligation under the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
    Capacities of communes for decentralized planning, management and delivery of public goods and services further strengthened.
    August 2011
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    23
  • UNDAF NOW…Single outcome layer, Outputs definition optional, integrated M&E data, no more separate M&E framework
    August 2011
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    24
    Strategic focus
    • Single Outcome to be strategic but specific enough to country context and UNDP programming needs
    • Approach supports cross-practice work
  • New UNDP Country Programme Document(CPD) Results MatrixEffective October 2010
    UNDP specific Indicators and Targets contributing to UNDAF Outcome
    • Only one Outcome layer.
    • Verbatim from UNDAF
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    25
  • Session Schedule
    Results-based Management (RBM)
    Introduction to RBM
    Key Principles
    RBM Life cycle
    UNDP planning instruments
    Results Matrix
    Understanding the RBM Typology
    Differentiating outcomes and outputs
    Indicators, baseline and targets
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    26
  • Ways how to depict the Results chain
    Narrative
    IMPACTA. XXXXXXXX
    OUTCOMEA.1. XXXXXXXXA.2. XXXXXXX XXX
    OUTPUTSA.1.1.XXX XXX XXXXA.1.2. XXXXXXXA.2.1. XXXXXXXX
    Logframe
    Results Tree
    Results Pyramid
  • Principles of RBM
    • “If-Then” causality between levels of results
    • Common results language to describe changes
    • Collective accountability increases as you move up the chain of results towards outcomes and impacts (Key message  No agency can do it alone!)
    • A results matrix is a mean not an end
    • A results matrix is contextual
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    28
  • August 2011
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    29
    Our counterparts may use different language
    (i.e. logframe), but the basis is the same…
  • CPAP Template
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    30
    UNDAF/CP
    D outcome #1:
    Extracted verbatim from the
    UNDAF/CPD
    Relevant UNDP Strategic Plan result:
    Extracted verbatim from the
    UNDAF
    /
    CPD
    Indicative Resources by outcome (per year, US$)
    Outcome
    -
    le
    vel indicators, baselines and
    Implementation modality(ies) and
    targets for UNDP contribution to
    Country programme outputs
    implementing partner(s)
    UNDAF/CPD outcomes
    Year
    Year
    Year
    Year
    Year
    Total
    Output 1:
    State the
    implementing modality
    Regular Resources
    (i.e. NIM, UN Agency, NGO, IGO or
    Annual Targets
    (recommended for multi
    -
    DIM);
    And
    year outputs)
    Government and/or UN
    ·
    Gender Marker Rating
    and
    [2]
    Implementing Partner
    [1]
    Motivation
    Output 2:
    State the
    implementing modality
    Other Resources
    (i.e. NIM, UN Agency, NGO, IGO or
    Annual Targets
    (recommended for multi
    -
    DIM);
    And
    year outputs)
    Government and/or UN
    ·
    Gender Marker Rating and
    Implementing Partner
    Motivation
    UNDAF/CPD outcome #1:
    Extracted verbatim from the UNDAF/CPD
    Relevant UNDP Strategic Plan result:
    Extracted verbatim from the UNDAF
    /
    CPD
    Regular Resources
    Other Resources
    [1]
    Gender Rating:
    3
    -
    Gender equality is a principal objective of the output;
    2
    -
    Gender equality is a significant objective of the output;
    1
    -
    Outputs that
    will contribute in some way to gender
    equality but not significantly;
    0
    -
    Outputs that are not expected to contribute noticeably to gender equality.
    Include a one sentence motivation as to the reason for the chosen rating.
    [2]
    State also IGO Implementing
    Partners who have already signed SBEAA with UNDP. Other IGOs and NGOs will not be mentioned here in CPAP. They would be selec
    ted through a
    competitive process later.
  •  
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    31
    UNDP Projects
    Results & Resources Framework
     
  • A few caveats
    The results matrix is a storyline
    It is a description of a programme or project strategy
    Shows the intended paths we think are required to achieve desired results
    The storyline comprises results, indicators & targets and assumptions & risks
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    32
  • Results chain problems
    Results not logically linked
    Results not sufficiently specific
    Results are composites of several results
    Results don’t express change (e.g. support provided to strengthen….)
    Results statements are too wordy
    Confusion between levels of results
    Indicators
    • Not logically linked to the result
    • Not measurable
    • Are new results
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    33
  • Results Chain
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    34
    Inputs
    Outputs
    outcomes
    Impact
    >
    Experts; equipment; funds
    People capacities improved; Laws/policies drafted
    Policies adopted; Laws enacted;
    Conditions improved health/ longevity
    Partnerships
    and
    other interventions
  • Results Chain
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    35
  • Results Chain
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    36
    Positive and negative, primary and secondary
    long-term effects produced by a
    development intervention, directly or indirectly,
    intended or unintended.
    Impact:
    Human Change
    Outcome:
    The likely or achieved short-term and
    medium-term effects of an intervention’s
    outputs.
    Institutional & Behavioural Change
    Outputs:
    Tangible products and services which result from the completion of activities within a development intervention.
    Products & Services
    Skills & Abilities
  • Results Chain
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    37
    Positive and negative, primary and secondary
    long-term effects produced by a
    development intervention, directly or indirectly,
    intended or unintended.
    Changes in the lives of people
    Impact:
    Human Change
    Institutional Change: values, ethic, rules, laws – associated with/to institutional performance, access..
    Behavioural change: knowledge, skills acquisition, practices (individual level)
    Outcome:
    The likely or achieved short-term and
    medium-term effects of an intervention’s
    outputs.
    Institutional & Behavioural Change
    Outputs:
    Tangible products and services which result from the completion of activities within a development intervention.
    Products & Services
    Skills & Abilities
  • Results Chain
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    38
    Positive and negative, primary and secondary
    long-term effects produced by a
    development intervention, directly or indirectly,
    intended or unintended.
    Changes in the lives of people
    Reduced infant and maternal mortality by 2018
    Impact:
    Human Change
    Institutional Change: values, ethic, rules, laws – associated with/to institutional performance, access..
    Behavioural change: knowledge, skills acquisition, practices (individual level)
    Outcome:
    Improved provision of public sanitary services to rural communities by 2015
    The likely or achieved short-term and
    medium-term effects of an intervention’s
    outputs.
    Institutional & Behavioural Change
    Outputs:
    Tangible products and services which result from the completion of activities within a development intervention.
    National Public Works Agency has the management systems, equipment, and skills to provide sanitation services to rural communities
    Products & Services
    Skills & Abilities
  • August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    39
    Results
    Like…
    Focus
    @
    Timeframe
    more
    5-10 yrs
    Impact
    Impact
    Impact
    then
    Collective Accountability
    if
    5 yrs
    UN
    Outcome
    UN
    Outcome
    UN
    Outcome
    then
    <3 yrs
    Output
    Output
    Output
    if
    then
    less
    <1 yr
    Activity
    Activity
    Activity
    if
    A Typology for RBM
    HIV incidence reduced
    Human!
    Assumptions
    Leadership empowered
    Institutional/ Behavioural
    Skills of Nat’l Aids Comm. strengthened
    Operational/ skills, abilities, products & services
    Train 250 district AIDS officers
  • August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    40
    more
    Collective Accountability
    less
    A Typology for RBM: Governance
    Results
    Like…
    Focus
    @
    Timeframe
    then
    Impact
    More transparent governance
    5-10 yrs
    Human!
    if
    then
    Outcome
    National capacity to implement governance reforms increased
    5 yrs
    Institutional/ Behavioural
    if
    then
    Output
    Legislative code for local self-governance developed
    <5 yrs
    Operational/ skills, abilities, products & services
    if
    Activity
    - Training legislators
    - National consultation
    - Assessment of laws..
    <1 yr
  • August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    41
    more
    Collective Accountability
    less
    A Typology for RBM: Poverty Reduction
    Results
    Like…
    Focus
    @
    Timeframe
    then
    Impact
    Poverty reduced
    5-10 yrs
    Human!
    if
    then
    Outcome
    Employment and income generation increased
    Institutional/ Behavioural
    5 yrs
    if
    Regulatory environ. proposed to drive small enterprise development
    then
    Output
    <5 yrs
    Operational/ skills, abilities, products & services
    if
    • Economic assessment
    • Training for chambers of commerce
    - National consultation
    Activity
    <1 yr
  • August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    42
    more
    Collective Accountability
    less
    A Typology for RBM: Environment
    Results
    Like…
    Focus
    @
    Timeframe
    then
    Impact
    Loss of environmental resources reversed
    5-10 yrs
    Human!
    if
    then
    Outcome
    Protected areas are designated
    Institutional/ Behavioural
    5 yrs
    if
    CBOs better abled to engage and mobilise communties
    then
    Output
    <5 yrs
    Operational/ skills, abilities, products & services
    if
    Activity
    • CBO trained
    • Community orientation conducted
    • Small grants provided
    <1 yr
  • Outcomes
    Let’s look at some examples…
  • How to articulate Outcomes
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    44
    • Outcomes:
    Outcomes are actual or intended changes in development conditions that interventions are seeking to support.
    Some guides:
    Avoid action verbs – ”Strengthening”, “enhancing”, etc
    Avoid intentions – “To assist the government…”,
    Use completed verbs: “…reduced”, “improved”, “have greater access to”, etc
    Must signal that something has changed
    The something which has changed must be important to the country/region/community, not just UNDP.
    Avoid UN speak: gender mainstreamed
  • Typical pitfalls
    Wordy (..and no change language)
    To promote equitable economic development and democratic governance in accordance with international norms by strengthening national capacities at all levels and empowering citizens and increasing their participation in decision-making processes
    Too ambitious
    Strengthened rule of law, equal access to justice and the promotion of rights
    Containing multiple results
    The state improves its delivery of services and its protection of rights—with the involvement of civil society and in compliance with its international commitments
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    45
  • Typical pitfalls
    Wishy-washy (ie. Support provided to improve..)
    Support to institutional capacity building for improved governance
    So general, they could mean anything
    To promote sustainable development and increase capacity at municipal level
    Overlapping with National goals/ MDGs (impacts)
    Substantially reduce the level of poverty and income inequality in accordance with the MDGs and PRSP
    Confusing means and ends
    Strengthen the protection of natural resources through the creation of an enabling environment that promotes sound resources management
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    46
  • Examples
    Legal and regulatory framework reformed to provide people with better access to information and communication technologies.
    The poor in x region have better access to capital and other financial services.
    Reduction in the level of domestic violence against women by 2016
    Increased regional and sub-regional trade
    Higher and more sustainable employment and income for urban slum dwellers.
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    47
  • Examples
    By the end of 2010, user-friendly and sustainable health care and nutrition services are provided in compliance with international standards at national and sub-national levels.
    Increased access to and completion of basic education, especially for girls.
    By 2012, increased and more equitable access to and utilization of quality, integrated and sustainable basic services by the poor and vulnerable.
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    48
  • Outputs
    Tangible, deliverable, promises
  • Outputs: Definition & key features
    Outputs are deliverables/end-project results
    • Operational changes: new skills or abilities, the availability of new products and services
    • Must be achieved within the project period
    • Managers have a high degree of control
     If the result is mostly beyond the control or influence of the programme or project, it cannot be an output
    • Failure to deliver is failure of the project
    • 3 to 6 outputs per agency outcome
    • Unless under a joint programme, outputs are NOT collective results
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    50
  • Measuring Outputs
    • Easier to measure than outcomes (tangible!)
    • Indicators usually coming from existing data, assessments, analysis or from routine progress reports
    • Indicators can be ‘yes-no’
    • Or qualitative
    • 1 to 4 indicator enough - the fewer the better to reduce costs
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    51
  • Short exercise (10 mins)
    Please reword/optimize the following draft output statement:
    “To strengthen the capacity of civil servants to do X by undertaking Y”
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    52
  • Refining results…
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    53
    To strengthen the capacity of civil servants to do X by undertaking Y,…
    Let’s use results language to emphasis the future condition we want to achieve.
    The capacity of civil servants is strengthened to do X by undertaking Y,…
    All civil servants, everywhere? Can you be more specific? Are there particularly weak or under-resourced civil servants we should emphasise?
    The capacity of civil servants in the
    4 poorest districts is strengthened to
    do X by undertaking Y,…
    We can take out information that relates to either strategy or activities.
    The capacity of civil servants in the 4 poorest districts is strengthened to do X
    by undertaking Y,…
    Now, let’s try bringing the subject of change to the front, and shifting from passive to active language.
    Civil servants in the 4 poorest districts are better able to X
  • Typical pitfalls
    Wordy
    Unclear logic and confused indicators
    Over-ambitious
    Passive voice and wishy-washy wording (ie. Support provided to improve, including but not limited to..)
    Overlapping with Country Program outcomes or repeating activities
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    54
  • Wordiness
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    55
  • Good Outputs examples (?)
    Market-based vocational training programme developed
    A legislative framework and code for local self governance is drafted
    National budget process more effectively incorporates inputs from local governance structures
    All immunization centers have a functioning cold-chain, and adequate supply of vaccines and Vitamin A.
    August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
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  • August 2011
    Management Practice - BRC
    57
    Good Output examples (cont’d)
    • National electoral body has adequate personnel, equipment and skills to administer free and fair national and local level elections by 2012.
    • Study of environment-poverty linkages completed
    • Police forces and judiciary trained in understanding gender violence
    • National, participatory forum convened to discuss draft national anti-poverty strategy
    • National human development report produced
    • Revised electoral dispute resolution mechanism established
    • Business processes reengineered
    • Compliance mechanisms established
  • Indicators
    Measures of performanceMonitoring = How are we doing?Indicators = How do we know?
  • Indicators
    • Indicators describe how the intended results will be measured - accountability
    • Objectively verifiable, repeatable measures of a particular condition
    • They force clarification of what is meant by the result …….the fine print!
    • Must be accompanied by baselines and targets
    August 2011
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  • Baseline, Target and Achievement
    August 2011
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    60
    Performance
    Commitment
    Achievement
    At end of period
    Planned
    Level of
    Achievement
    Target
    Achievement
    Current
    Level of
    Achievement
    Baseline
  • What to specify for each indicator?
    Unit of analysis;
    Existing baseline information;
    Target for subsequent comparison;
    Expected perceptions or judgments of progress by stakeholders;
    Detailed description of expected conditions or situations to be observed;
    1-4 indicators for each result are adequate – fewer the better to reduce cost.
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  • Indicators ‘indicate’ that change is happening or not happening
    They can
    Clarify the scale and scope of a result in the results framework
    Demonstrate progress when things go right
    Provide early warning when things go wrong
    Assist in identifying changes that need to be made in strategy and practice
    Inform decision making
    Facilitate effective evaluation
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  • Indicators, Baseline, Target and Source of Data
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    Indicators:
    - # and proportion of the population with access to the Internet, disaggregated by gender
    - % of population with computers and telephones
    -Extent to which key policies on information technology are revised and promulgated
    Legal and regulatory framework reformed to provide people with better access to information and communication technologies
    Source of Data:
    • National Statistics
    • Monitoring reports
    • Surveys
    Baseline:
    -(based on analysis, capacity assessment, reports, national statistics etc)
    Target: actual value corresponding to each indicator, defined per year
  • Types of indicators
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  • Indirect (Proxy) Indicators
    Direct indicators are preferable. However, they do sometimes not exist, are too expensive or inefficient to obtain. In such cases, indirect indicator have to be used.
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    OUTPUT INDICATORS
  • Indicators and Means of Verification
    A key test in ensuring whether an indicator is really good is to define “means of verification” for each indicator;
    Are data sources available?
    What does it take to obtain the data? Who needs to be involved? How much will it cost to obtain the data?
    If means of verification are unclear or unrealistic, the indicator and, possibly, the result need to be revisited;
    The definition of results, indicators and means of verification is an iterative process.
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  • Baselines and Targets
    The indicator should be neutral
    The target is what signals how much change and in what direction
    The baseline and target should use the same unit of measurement as the indicator
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  • The “SMART” way…
    Specific
    Measurable
    Attainable
    Relevant
    Trackable
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  • What are good indicators?
    SPECIFIC
    The indicator needs to be as specific as possible in terms of quantity, quality, time, location, target groups, baseline and target for the indicator
    MEASURABLE
    Will the indicator show desirable change?
    Is it a reliable and clear measure of results?
    Is it sensitive to changes in policies & programmes?
    Do stakeholders agree on exactly what to measure?
    ACHIEVABLE
    Are the result(s) realistic and based on risk assessment, partnership strategy and other factors contributing to the underlying result
    RELEVANT
    Is it relevant to the intended result?
    Does it reflect the expectations and success criteria for change in the target groups?
    TRACKABLE
    Are data actually available at reasonable cost & effort?
    Can proxy indicators be used?
    Are data sources known?
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  • Exercise for 10 mins
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    Exercise: Result Chain
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    Exercise: Result Chain
  • Thank you!
    Resource Person
    Patrick Grémillet
    Management Practice Coordinator
    UNDP Bratislava Regional Center
    Patrick.gremillet@undp.org
    This presentation is using slides/inputs from training materials developed by the UN Staff College and RBM consultants
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