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Putting Gender Quotas on the Political Agenda

Putting Gender Quotas on the Political Agenda



Presentation on putting quotas on the political agenda: the case of Romania by Andreea Vass, Economic adviser to Prime Minister, Romania, presentation presented at UNDP Regional Forum on Equal ...

Presentation on putting quotas on the political agenda: the case of Romania by Andreea Vass, Economic adviser to Prime Minister, Romania, presentation presented at UNDP Regional Forum on Equal participation in decision-making, Istanbul, Session 3: Quotas as a tool to enhance women’s participation on decision-making



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    Putting Gender Quotas on the Political Agenda Putting Gender Quotas on the Political Agenda Presentation Transcript

    • Andreea Paul (Vass)Regional Forum on “Equal Participation in Decision-Making”, Istanbul 15th November 2011
    • 1. State of fact. Where are we?2. Building the future3. Frontline regulations4. Why do we need more women in the public decision-making?
    • “Women are the most powerful engine in the worldeconomic recovery”.“Yet even with their remarkable increase in marketpower, women continue to find themselvesunderappreciated at home, underestimated in theworkplace and undervalued in the marketplace”. Boston Consulting Group, 2010
    • Rank Country % Women in Rank Country % Women in lower or lower or single House single House1 Rwanda 56.3% 48 Czech Republic & UK 22.0%2 Andorra 53.6% 51 Italy 21.3%3 Sweden 45% 53 Bulgaria 20.8%6 Iceland 42.9% 55 Latvia, Luxembourg & 20.0% Poland7 Finland 42.5% 56 Estonia 19.8%8 Norway 39.6% 58 Lithuania 19.1%9 Belgium 39.3% 71 Bosnia and Herzegovina 16.7%9 Netherlands 39.3% 73 Slovakia 16.0%13 Denmark 38.0% 80 Ireland 14.5%14 Spain 36.6% 81 Slovenia 14.4%19 Germany 32.8% 82 Turkey 14.2%23 Macedonia 30.9% 96 Romania 11.4%28 Austria 27.9% 98 Montenegro 11.1%31 Portugal 26.5% 108 Hungary 9.1% Data source: http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/classif.htm
    •  Parliament: 9.7% women as compared to the global average of 19.3%. ◦ 11.4% women in the Chamber of Deputies, before Hungary (9.1% women) and Malta (8.7%) in EU. ◦ 5.8% women in Senate (96 rank out of 137 countries) Ministerial level: only 3 women ministers, out of 16 ministries. Local authorities: 3% women mayors Gender Gap Index 2011: ◦ Rank 68 out of 135 countries, with a score of 0.681. ◦ Political empowerment: rank 112 out of 135 countries.  Women in parliament: rank 96 out of 135 countries
    • A. Legislated gender quotaB. Voluntary gender quota, in political partiesC. Perfect gender balance in the media during elections campaign (50% female - 50% male)D. NothingForum for public consultation on improving the politicalrepresentation of gender in Romania, www.femeileinpolitica.ro ◦ Out of 7258 votes, over 98%: for legislated gender quota.
    • “If men were well suited for the industrial era,women are well suited for in Information-orientedera.”“National development will be a function of howeffectively woman power is applied and willdepend on how well administrative systems areorganized to utilize this potential.” Jung-Sook Kim
    •  Belgium ◦ 2002 gender quota act: equal number of female and male candidates on parties lists. ◦ Candidates of the same sex may not occupy the top two positions on a list. France ◦ The “law on parity” of 2000 imposes a double rule:  50% of party candidates of each sex  strict alternation of women‟s and men‟s names is mandatory from the beginning to the end of the list.
    •  Slovenia ◦ Local Elections Act (2005): each sex accounts for at least 40% of all candidates listed, and that the candidates in the first half of the lists must alternate by sex ◦ Quota provisions are incorporated into the laws for elections at the local, national and European levels. Spain ◦ Gender quota law for public elections at all levels (2007): no sex can be represented with more than 60% on the electoral lists. ◦ Quotas are applied to the whole party list and to every five posts.
    •  Sweden ◦ Special measures to increase the number of women in elected bodies: voluntary party quotas & soft quotas (non-mandatory targets or minimum recommendations). ◦ Voluntary party quotas were introduced when the share of women parliamentarians already exceeded 30%. Germany ◦ Quotas work through the party lists („zipper system‟ ). Poland ◦ Introduction of a quota system by some parties. ◦ 2007 election: one of the three first positions on each candidate lists must be held by a woman
    •  The law regarding equal opportunities between men and women (2002): ◦ fair and balanced representation at party level of women and men, at all levels of decision-making. ◦ positive actions for the under-represented sex in its internal regulations. Law project launched in May 2011: introduction of a gender quota of 40% for political parties and political alliances, 50% for electoral alliances and 20% for citizens’ organizations belonging to national minorities ◦ Objectives:  Increasing the representation of women in political life.  Creating the mechanisms for ensuring equitable representation of women in public decision-making. ◦ Sanctions:  Loss of annual subsidy from the state budget for electoral competitors not meeting the provisions of equity in gender representation.
    •  Women have their own interests and needs. They are in the best position to defend those interests. Women are believed to have a proper style. An evenly participation of women and men may lead to a diversity of ideas, values and patterns of behavior that can only result in an enrichment.
    •  For addressing specific issues of women, children or family life in Romania: ◦ Support for families  The nurseries and kindergartens dropped with 85% since 1990. ◦ The lack of baby-sitters law ◦ Diminishing domestic violence: every 3 seconds, a woman is physically abused ◦ Increasing the education and health of family members. For increasing the wealth of nation
    • 120000 GDP/capita (USD, nominal) Luxembourg 100000 Norway 80000 Switzerland 60000 40000 20000 y = 146489x - 85505 0 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 RO Gender Gap Index, 2011Data source: http://unctadstat.unctad.org/TableViewer/tableView.aspxhttp://www3.weforum.org/docs/GGGR11/GGGR11_Rankings-Scores.pdf
    • 120000 GDP/capita (USD, nominal) Luxembourg 100000 Norway 80000 Qatar 60000 Sweden 40000 20000 y = 48883x + 5021,4 0 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 RO Women representation in Parliament, August 2011Data source: http://unctadstat.unctad.org/TableViewer/tableView.aspxhttp://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/classif.htm
    • 10 Corruption Perception 9 Index 8 New Zealand 7 6 5 4 3 Yemen 2 y = 19,731x - 9,058 1 0 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 Gender Gap Index, 2011 ROData source: http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi/2010/resultshttp://www3.weforum.org/docs/GGGR11/GGGR11_Rankings-Scores.pdf
    • The next economic power will not berepresented by China, nor India, but by women.Women are an "emerging market", witha high potential of education, ambition and ingenuity.
    • Thank you!Andreea Paul (Vass)State AdviserLecturer, PhDFaculty of International Business and EconomicsAcademy of Economic StudiesTel: 0040-722-637-140E-mail: andreea.vass@gov.ro