This national designated authority will recommend to the Board funding proposals in the context of national climate strategies and plans, including through consultation processes. Financing will be tailored to cover the identifiable additional costs of the investment necessary to make the project viable.
Regarding composition, the decision decides that the Committee shall consist of 16 members, to be elected by the COP, as follows:• two members for each of the five UN regional groups;• one member from a small island developing state;• one member from an LDC;• two Annex I party members; and• two non-Annex I party members.Annex V of the decision outlines an indicative list of activities for the Adaptation Committee:• considering relevant information and providing recommendations to the COP on ways to rationalize and strengthen coherence among adaptation bodies, programmes and activities under Convention;• preparing an overview of the capacities of regional centres and networks working on adaptation issues, and recommending to parties ways that their role can be enhanced;• preparing periodic overview reports synthesizing information and knowledge relating to, inter alia, implementation of adaptation activities and good adaptation practices; and• upon request, considering technical support and guidance to parties as they develop national adaptation plans, and work in support of the work programme on loss and damage.
Kazakhstan, in accordance with its request was added in the table of proposed amendments of Annex B, with a base year of 1992 and a pledge of emission reductions of -15% by 2020. Cyprus was added to the list of Annex B, as it will become an Annex I Party on 1 January 2013, so far without an emission reduction target. The names of Canada, Japan and Russia are at the end of the table, in line with their declaration that they will not join a second commitment period and Canada announced withdrawal from the KP shortly after the conclusion of the COP.
Transcript of "Outcomes of Durban"
Outcomes ofCOP17/CMP7Durban, South Africa28 November - 11 December 2011 Daniela Carrington Climate change policy advisor Energy and Environment Practice UNDP BRC January 2012, Bratislava, Slovakia
MilestonesCOP 13 2007, Bali Action Plan – Negotiating a comprehensiveframework for enhanced action on climate change:COP 15 2009 , Copenhagen Accords - Political declarationCOP 16 2010, Cancun Agreements - Laying the foundation to tackle CC through a new post-2012 regime: a number of institutional mechanisms were established, incl. Green Climate Fund, but no agreement on a Second Commitment Period of the Kyoto ProtocolCOP 17 2011, Durban Platform– a roadmap towards a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the UNFCCC; operationalization of the post 2012 institutional mechanism, incl. Green Climate Fund; Second Commitment Period 1 1
Durban Platform for Extended Action• Durban Platform should lead to the development of “a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change applicable to all Parties”• relates to ‘all parties’, trying to break down the distinction between developed and developing countries• Establishment of an Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (AWG-DP) - will begin its work in 2012, with a view to concluding the “agreed outcome with legal force” by 2015 such that it can come into force by 2020 3 3
Green Climate Fund (GCF)• One of the major accomplishments - the launch of the GCF• Agreed governing rules of the GCF• Access to Fund resources through national, regional and international implementing entities accredited by the Board• Recipient countries may designate a national authority• The Fund will provide financing in the form of grants and concessional lending, and through other modalities, instruments or facilities as may be approved by the Board• Capitalization of the GCF – in 2012 work on how to mobilize $100 billion in annual contributions to the GCF 4 4
Technology Mechanism• Modalities and procedures for the Technology Executive Committee (TEC) were set - members were appointed 2010, work programme in February 2012• The 6 key elements of the functions of the TEC are: analysis and synthesis; policy recommendations; facilitation and catalysing; linkage with other institutional arrangements; engagement of stakeholders and; information and knowledge sharing• Climate Technology Centre and Network (CTCN): The Technology Centre will receive and respond to requests from developing countries related to technology development and transfer. The Network, made up of "relevant institutions" including private sector organisations, will undertake the "substantive" work needed to address developing country requests 5 5
Outcome of the work of the AWG-LCA• Shared vision for long term cooperative actions• Nationally appropriate mitigation commitments or actions by developed country Parties• Nationally appropriate mitigation commitments or actions by developing country Parties (NAMAs)• Policy approaches and positive incentives on issues relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries; and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+)• Sectoral approaches and sector-specific actions• Various approaches, including opportunities for using markets to enhance the cost-effectiveness of, and to promote, mitigation actions (market and non-market approaches)• Response measures• Adaptation• Finance• Technology development and transfer• Capacity building• Review of the long-term global goal• Other matters 6 6
Shared vision for long term cooperative actions• The work on the shared vision did not progress much• It will continue with regard to working towards identifying a global goal for substantially reducing global emissions by 2050 and a time frame for a global peaking of greenhouse gas emissions• A workshop will be organized under the AWG-LCA to consider the issue of equitable access to sustainable development at its next session 7 7
Nationally appropriate mitigation commitments or actions by developed countries• Agreed to continue the process of clarifying developed countries’ mitigation targets by May 2012• Elaborated the guidelines for biennial reporting, with the first reports requested by January 2014• International Assessment and Review (IAR) will occur two months after the submission of the first round of biennial reports. The due date for submission of a full national communication (biannual report submitted as an Annex or a separate document to it) is 1 January 2014 8 8
Nationally appropriate mitigation actions by developing countries• Encouraged to develop LEDS and submit information on NAMAs• Guidelines were agreed for biennial update reports and parties are to submit their first biennial update report by Dec 2014• agreed to develop modalities for the registry, housed by UNFCCC that will facilitate the matching of NAMAs to financial, technical and capacity building support• Guidelines for International Consultation and Analysis (ICA) of biennial reports adoptedNext steps: to submit more information on NAMAs by 5 March 2012; in- session workshops within the 36th session of the SBs; to develop general guidelines for domestic MRV of domestically supported NAMAs 9 9
Policy approaches and positive incentives on issues relating toreducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation indeveloping countries; and the role of conservation, sustainablemanagement of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocksin developing countries (REDD+)• agreed that results-based finance provided to developing countries that is new, additional and predictable may come from a wide variety of sources, public and private, bilateral and multilateral, including alternative sources• considers that, in the light of the experience gained from current and future demonstration activities, appropriate market-based approaches could be developed by the COP to support results-based actions by developing countries 1010
Sectoral approaches and sector-specific actions• main areas: general framework, agriculture, and international aviation and maritime transport• agrees to continue considering a general framework for cooperative sectoral approaches and sector-specific actions with a view to adopting a decision on this matter at COP 18• requests that SBSTA 36 consider issues relating to agriculture• agrees to continue consideration of issues related to addressing emissions from international aviation and maritime transport 1111
Various approaches, including opportunities for usingmarkets to enhance the cost-effectiveness of, and topromote, mitigation actions (market and non-marketapproaches)• Parties have made an important step in moving from agreement to "consider" new market-based mechanisms at COP 16 to "define" a new market-based mechanism, "operating under the guidance and authority of the Conference of the Parties, to enhance the cost-effectiveness of, and to promote, mitigation actions"• However, there is little detail on how the new mechanism will operate 1212
Response measures• developed country parties to assist developing country parties to promote economic diversification in the context of SD• gives full consideration to the positive and negative impacts of the implementation of response measures on society• recognizes the decision that establishes the Forum to Implement the Work Programme on the Impact of the Implementation of Response Measures• implementing policies to promote a just transition of the workforce 1313
Adaptation• Decided that the Adaptation Committee (AC) should make use of the following modalities in exercising its functions: workshops and meetings; expert groups; compilation, review, synthesis, analysis reports of information, knowledge, experience and good practice; channels for sharing information, knowledge and expertise; and coordination and linkages with all relevant bodies, programmes, institutions and networks, within and outside the Convention• The AC is under the authority of, and be accountable to, the COP• Composition, AC consists of 16 members, elected by the COP• Decision outlines an indicative list of activities for the AC 1414
FinanceStanding Committee (SC) shall: • report and make recommendations to the COP • assist the COP in exercising its functions with respect to the financial mechanism of the Convention in terms of improving coherence and coordination in the delivery of CC financing, rationalization of the financial mechanism, mobilization of financial resources, and MRV of support provided to developing countries • develop a work programme for presentation to COP 18• Composition and working modalities of the SC in Annex VI• Decided to undertake a work programme on long-term finance in 2012, including workshops, to progress on long-term finance 1515
Capacity building• SBI to organize an annual in-session Durban Forum for in- depth discussion on capacity building, with a view to sharing experiences, and exchanging ideas, best practices and lessons learned regarding the implementation of capacity- building activities• The first meeting of the Durban Forum during SBI would explore potential ways to further enhance monitoring and review of the effectiveness of capacity building 1616
Review of the long-term global goal• Periodically to assess the adequacy of the long-term global goal, in the light of the ultimate objective of the Convention• The first review should start in 2013 and conclude by 2015• The Review will be concluded with the assistance of SBSTA and the SBI and further define expert consideration of inputs by COP 18 1717
Other matters - economies in transition and countrieswhose special circumstances have been recognized bythe COP (Turkey)The COP invites Annex I parties, through multilateral agencies, including through the GEF, bilateral agencies and the private sector or through any further arrangements, to make available the capacity- building, financial, technical and technology transfer assistance for EITs in order to assist these Parties in the development and implementation of their national low- carbon development strategies and action plansFor Turkey it was agreed to continue with the discussion on modalities for the provision of support for mitigation, adaptation, technology development and transfer, capacity- building and finance 1818
Proposals for amendments under the Convention• Proposals under the Convention article 17 (5 proposals for a protocols)• Proposals for amendments to the Convention under articles 15 and 16 (Mexico and Papua New Guinea made a proposal on voting)• Proposal by the Russian Federation to amend Convention article 4.2 (commitments)• Proposal from Cyprus and the EU to amend Annex I to the Convention (inclusion of Cyprus in Annex I of the Convention) 1919
Decisions under the Kyoto Protocol (CMP7) 2020
Outcome of the work of the AWG on Further Commitmentsfor Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol• Second commitment period agreed until 2017 or 2020 (pending further negotiation of the date)• The EU, Croatia, Belarus, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Norway, Switzerland, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and potentially New Zealand, Australia signing up to it• Many of the technicalities, such as converting emissions reduction targets into quantified emission limitation or reduction objectives (QELROS) will be determined in 2012• The issue of carry-over of assigned amount units (AAUs) was not resolved (of great interest for Russia and Ukraine) 2121
Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)• Decision on further guidance - improving the efficiency of the Executive Board (EB) decision making process and facilitating greater participation of under-represented regions in the CDM• Advancement on definitions - provides a standardised definition of “materiality”• Appeals mechanism against EB decisions – delayed• Establishment of the CDM Policy Dialogue Panel - a new independent panel tasked with reviewing the CDM• Carbon capture and storage in the CDM - rules for carbon- capture plants 2222
Joint implementation (JI)• encourages the JISC to continue to streamline the process of accrediting independent entities, and enhancing the implementation of the verification procedure• to consider at CMP 8 the issuance of ERUs for projects considered by the JISC• JISC to draft a revised set of key attributes and transitional measures dealing with the possible changes to the JI guidelines with a view to develop revised ones for adoption at CMP 9• The decision also contains some provisions on governance and resources for the work on JI• Parties have to submit by 16 April 2012 to the Secretariat their views on the revision of the JI guidelines 2323