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Kyrgyzstan: Promoting Gender-sensitive Political Reforms in the Parliament


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Country case studies from Kyrgyzstan: presentation by Zulfia Kochorbaeva, Association of Women’s Legal Initiative (AWLI) presented at UNDP Regional Forum on Equal participation in decision-making, …

Country case studies from Kyrgyzstan: presentation by Zulfia Kochorbaeva, Association of Women’s Legal Initiative (AWLI) presented at UNDP Regional Forum on Equal participation in decision-making, Istanbul, 16 November, Session 7: Enhancing women’s participation trough Parliamentary Mechanisms

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  • 1. Promoting gender-sensitive political reforms in the Parliament Zulfia Kochorbaeva Alliance of Women’s Legislative Initiatives, Kyrgyzstan
  • 2. Impact on the Parliaments Agenda of KyrgyzstanImpact strategies differ:In conditions when women MPs are in small numbers or their complete absence (untill 2007)In conditions broad representation of women in the parliament
  • 3. Kyrgyzstan experience when women MPs in small numbers and lack of MPs• Introduction of the draft law “Social and Law Protection from Domestic Violence” by the women’s NGOs in the Parliament through the legislative right of peoples initiative. The Parliament accepted in 2003.• Law “On Basic Guarantees of Gender Equality State” was initiated by female MP and taken together with the above law in 2003.Note: at that moment Legislative Chamber of Parliament had only 4 women out of 60 members (6,6 %)
  • 4. Challenges, year 2005• Strengthening of the traditional stereotypes about women in society• Failing to record implicit barriers for women’s participation in politics, unfriendly to women majoritarian system of elections to Parliament• “Wash-out” of women from the government• Rhetorical strategy of State towards gender equalityOne of the consequences – zero representation of women in the Parliament in 2005 Elections.
  • 5. The Answer Of Women’s MovementRevision of the strategy at the National Forum of Women’s Organizations in April 2005.: Joint Platform of ActionStrategy for lobbying of institutional changes, including in the legislationUsing of symbolic actions to attract the attention of politicians and the
  • 6. Results: Established the post of Special Representative of the President on gender development in Parliament and appointed the candidate from women’s organizations. Promoting the procedures of gender expertise of draft laws to Parliament through Special Representative. In 2008, Gender Expertise approved in the Parliament as a mandatory procedure for all laws.
  • 7. Anara Niyazova, Special Representative of the President on Gender development in Parliament,
  • 8. “Alternative March 8, 2007»
  • 9. “For the Secular Kyrgyzstan!”
  • 10.
  • 11. “For the Secular Kyrgyzstan!”: Results• Preservation of criminal responsibility for Polygamy.• Updating and Identification of return of the definition of “Secular State”.• Managed to discuss explicitly the issues of gender equality in a month through the “Hot” topic.
  • 12. Lobbying for Gender Quotas in the Electoral Code, 2007• Development, discussion of proposals for the law in the target groups• Support for special measures at regional public hearings• Meetings with committees, factions of the Parliament, “Fleeting Press Conference”• Action “Mom need all, and important in parliament!”• Pressure on the electorate MPs• Parliament Hearings on Election Code• Action “Zebra”
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  • 14.
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  • 16. The Action of 1 June 2007 “Mom need all, and important in parliament!”
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  • 19. A Meeting of the Organizing Committee of NGO Forum with the President of Kyrgyzstan, September 5,
  • 20. “Gender Quotas”: Results• The draft laws includes special gender measures. In the following referendum in 2007, gender quotas have become a reality• Women’s participation in politics – ideas are shared and promoted by not only women’s groups, but also included in the agenda of NGOs with highest
  • 21. Art. 72 of the Election Code of Kyrgyz Republic: In determining the list of candidates political party should take in account the representation: • No more 70 % persons of the same sex, meanwhile the difference in the order of candidate lists for women and men, nominated by political parties, should not exceed three position; • At least 15 % of those under the age of 35; • At least 15 % of citizens representing different
  • 22. A Campaign “The New Face of Kyrgyzstan!” o The inclusion of “our” women in the lists of parties: panel discussions, letters to parties with the list of contacts women’s network in the regions (10 of “our” women entered in the list of top 5 parties, many of our partners) o 18 informational meetings in the regions with women leaders, advising them o Forum with the women-candidates from all 12 registered parties, November 29, 2007 o TV program in live, December 14,
  • 23.
  • 24. Forum with women-candidates November 29,
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  • 28. TV Program in live, December 14,
  • 29. “The New Face of Kyrgyzstan!”: results• Women in parliament – 25,5 %• Vice-speaker - women• 5 of 12 committees are in the management of women: • Defense, Security, Law Enforcement and Judicial Reform • Land and Agrarian issues, Ecology and Emergency Situation • Education, Science, Culture and Information Politics • Youth, Gender Policy, Sport • Ethics and Regulation of the Jogorku Kenesh KR• In the Government – 22 %
  • 30. Women face of the Kyrgyzstan
  • 31. Women in the parliamentary deputies of Kyrgyzstan Years Total MPs Women’s share (person) Person %1995 105 5 4,72000 105 7 6,82005 75 0 02007 90 23 25,52010 120 28 23,
  • 32. Women and Men Access to Managerial Positions in theParliament of Kyrgyzstan (2010-2011) Position Total, per. Number of Number of women, per. men, perSpeaker 1 0 1Vice-speaker 5 2 3Chairman of the 16 4 12 CommitteeDeputy Chairman of the 30 7 23 CommitteeTotal, per. (%) 52 13 (25%) 39 (75%)
  • 33. Gender quotas  ascension in parliament of large number of women  women-deputies in managerial positions in parliament Position Number of women, per  In 2007,15 of women-deputies 2007 2010 held managerial positions inSpeaker parliament, nowadays – every 0 0 second.Vice-speaker 1 2  In 2007, 12 committees inChairman of the 1 4 parliaments, in 2010-2011 – 16Committee committees.Deputy Chairman 4 7of the CommitteeTotal 6 13
  • 34. According to Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) In 2007, Kyrgyzstan recognized as the country, where the progress in political promotion accomplished most
  • 35. Kyrgyzstan’s experience in a broad representation of women of MPs• Joining of women MPs on in the Alliance of Women’s Legislative Initiatives• The use of parliamentary procedures: – Gender Expertise of Legislation – Parliament Proceedings – Meetings of the Committees• Addresses, statements on current
  • 36. May 2008Joining of women MPs, women ministers, women’s organizations and gender experts in The Alliance Of Women’s Legislative
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  • 38. Achievements of the joint work with women MPs• A new revision of the Law “On State guarantees of Equal Rights and Equal Opportunities for men and women” (No. 184, dated August 4, 2008)• Introduced amendments to the gender of more than 15 laws, including Constitution, Family Code, Penal Code, The election laws, the laws on the judicial system, etc..• Gender Quotas of 30% admitted in the formation of the auditors of the Accounting Chamber, the Supreme Court, the Constitutional Court and Central Election Commission• In the draft Regulations of Parliament enshrined procedures Gender Expertise of the legislation, the requirements for gender composition of the employees of the parliament (no more than 70 number of one sex)
  • 39. Achievements of the joint work with women MPs (2)• Annually, 2-3 Parliament Proceedings on the issue of gender equality and gender based violence• The methodology of gender expertise of legislation is applied in common regulations (Regulation adopted by the Government on December 8, 2010)• A Section of “Policy of Gender Equality” is included in the Country Development Strategy 2007-2011 and noted that National Action Plan on gender equality is an integrated part of Strategy• Due to the decision of meeting of relevant committees of parliament, initiated by the Alliance of Women’s Legislative Initiatives, a decision on the need to develop a national strategy to achieve gender by 2020 and National Action Plan for 2012-2014.
  • 40. Challenges, difficulties in promotion of the gender agenda in Parliament• Non-compliance with the law approved by Parliament rules and procedures• The large number of MPs who separates gender stereotypes and sexist attitudes• Active promotion of “religious” patriarchal discourse in the Parliament• Low capacity and lack of motivation among the staff of the Parliament
  • 41. Thank you!