Gender Dimensions of Environmental Unsustainability
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Gender Dimensions of Environmental Unsustainability



Presented by Koh Miyaoi, Gender Specialist, Team Leader, at Bratislava Regional Centre at CEU, in Budapest ...

Presented by Koh Miyaoi, Gender Specialist, Team Leader, at Bratislava Regional Centre at CEU, in Budapest

2nd presentation available from CEU:Global gender action towards sustainable and equitable development by Klelija Balta, Gender Analyst



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  • Women’s participation inpaid labor is one indicator of gender equality. As a matter of fact, the statistics put the ECIS region in a positive light. The graph illustrates the over-time development from 1980 to 2008 of women’s share of the labor force. Also in global comparison, the ECIS region does well: its rate is way over the world average, and above the EU average, too - although the EU average is rising while the ECIS average is not showing any increase. Women’s participation in the labor force (share of total labor force) 1980-2008 WB stats
  • Are women in the ECIS region having a success story, then? When we look at the wage statistics, women’s participation in the labour force does not seem like a success. In all the countries where data is available in UNECE statistics women made less money from their work. The graph illustrates the hourly wages of women as a share of men’s hourly wage in 2008. The slice being extracted shows the pay gap - the money women do not receive when they work the same time as men do. By the way, the gap seems the smallest in Serbia, where the principle of equal pay for equal work OF EQUAL VALUE is in the country’s labor code since 2005.
  • Women retire earlier than men, but because of their longer life expectancy, the period they depend on pension is longer.Dark red area: the time men/women spend on pension The left column=women; the right column=men Women in the region receive less money, are more likely to work part-time, and they retire earlier than men. In every account, women’s pension and career development opportunities are negatively impacted. Regarding the retirement age, the ECIS is the most unequal region in the world for men and women. E.g. In Russia women live 12 years longer than men on average but retire at 55, men at 60. EU requires gender harmony in pension age. DATA: WB doing business report, WB pensions feature, UNECE, Stats Tajikistan + own calculations
  • Source:Eurostat, EU-SILC (ilc-di04)
  • Source: ‘Gender Equality and Climate Change’, European Institute for Gender Equality, 2012
  • Source: Eurostat, EU-SILC )data calculated by Eurostat at the request of EIGE)
  • According to recent estimates, women control about 70 % of global consumer spending.
  • Promoting UNDP’s human development paradigm is like tending a garden. Some plants need extra water; some plants need extra light; and some plants need to be protected from the sun. Whatever they need to grow to their fullest potential should be provided, because they all have the right to do so.

Gender Dimensions of Environmental Unsustainability Gender Dimensions of Environmental Unsustainability Presentation Transcript

  • Gender Dimensions ofEnvironmental Unsustainability Koh Miyaoi Gender Practice Leader UNDP Bratislava Regional Centre Follow me on Twitter: @kohmiyaoi
  • In this session, we are going to ask ourselves….• What are ‘gender dimensions’?• Why do they matter to environmental sustainability?• What can we do to make sure ‘gender dimensions’ are properly addressed in environmental sustainability discussions?
  • Gender Dimensions• What is GENDER?• What does it mean to individual men and women?• What does it mean to a family?• What does it mean to a community?• What does it mean to policy-making?
  • 4947454341393735 ECIS World European Union WB Gender Statistics 1980-2008
  • Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Chez Republic Croatia Cyprus Kyrgyzstan KazakhstanLithuania Moldova Slovakia Serbia Romania Tajikistan Ukraine UNECE Gender Statistics
  • Poland Russia Tajikistan WB; UNECE; Statistics Tajikistan
  • • What does it mean if a woman on average earn less than a man?• What impacts can it have on a household income?
  • Unpaid and Paid Care Work
  • • What can happen to women and men if climate change or natural disasters cause additional care burdens on their households?
  • Percentage of single person households by car ownership, 2009
  • • What can we say about the different influences women and men are making on GHG emissions?• Are there other circumstances you can think of in which men and women are differently impacting on climate change?
  • Differences as a result of gender roles• Resilience• Vulnerability• Participation• Control
  • Gendered Differences: Resilience• What makes individuals resilient?• What makes a household resilient?• What makes a community resilient?• What makes a nation resilient?
  • Gendered Differences: Vulnerability• What makes a nation vulnerable?• What makes a community vulnerable?• What makes a household vulnerable?• What makes individuals vulnerable?
  • Gendered Differences: Participation• How do you know if you are ‘participating’?• Who are participating in your country’s policy- making?
  • Gendered Differences: Control• How do we know who are in control of natural resources?• Are men in control of their own life choices?• Are women in control of their own life choices?
  • Land ownership & control over land use• Common barriers to women’s ownership rights: – the precedence given to tradition over modern laws – women’s own lack of awareness about their entitlements
  • Examples of useful services Kyrgyzstan• 66 % of the population n rural areas and depend on agriculture for a living• Societal norms and customs often limit women’s opportunities and rights to land• Media campaigns and local seminars to raise awareness about women’s land rights• Legal advisory centres in districts where local organizations provide legal aid and assistance on land issues to women, including direct legal representation• Working with the courts of elders that are authorized by the government to resolve disputes at the local level and serve as informal justice systems in rural areas• Working with reigious leaders, imams, eg. a review of the basic principles of Islamic Sharia law regulating property rights• A small grants fund to support women’s cooperatives and small local government projects to address practical gender needs at the village level to improve their livelihoods through a variety of agricultural extension services such as increasing women’s access to irrigation and improved terms for grinding wheat.
  • Examples of useful services Tajikistan• Smaller proportion of farms registered to women (2% in 2002)• Provision of legal advice on land rights• Support rural women to attend classes on leadership skills, cooperative formation, farm management and community activism.• Meetings and consultations in villages
  • Why Gender Balance?• The aim is diversity, and not a competition between men and women• Studies from various countries show that companies with a higher share of women at top levels deliver strong organisational and financial performance• Companies with the most gender-diverse management teams had 17 percentage-point higher stock price growth between 2005 and 2007 compared to the industry average (McKinsey & Co)• Their average operating profit was almost double the industry average between 2003 and 2005 (McKinsey & Co)• Companies with more women on their boards were found to outperform their rivals with a 42 % higher return in sales, 66 % higher return on invested capital and 53 % higher return on equity (Catalyst research )
  • Transformation of gender roles• At present, gender norms influence the roles men and women play in their households and wider communities.• Gender norms also influence opportunities and choices.• While sustainable development interventions must take into account these gendered differences, we need to remember what we ultimately seek is a world where people’s life choices are not restrained by gender.
  • Come and see what we do at UNDP equality-2/ Follow: @kohmiyaoi