Corruption Trends in Serbia

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Corruption Trends in Serbia

  1. 1. CORRUPTIONBENCHMARKING IN SERBIAZERO TOLERANCE IS GAINING TRACTION!!! Report prepared for UNDP Serbia Report prepared by CeSID DOO, Belgrade December 2012
  2. 2.  Research Methods Where is Serbia headed? Major problems -- No surprises The Incidence of Corruption -- Surprises Corruption Perceptions -- More surprises Waging battle against corruption How is the Anti-Corruption Agency doing? 2
  3. 3. METHODS Research realised by CeSID for UNDP Serbia Field work December 14 - 21, 2012 Random sample of 597 Serbian Type and sample size citizens over 18 Sample frame Polling station Random sample - no substitutions – Household selection every other house within the polling station Selection of interviewees within Random sample - no substitutions households first birthday selection method Research technique Face to face Research instrument Questionnaire 3
  4. 4. Serbia is headed in the right direction!!According to 32% of interviewees Optimism leaps for the first time since UNDP launched the survey 3 years ago. Pessimism plummets, falling below 45%. Yet, many are uncertain, and challenges remain in consolidating confidence and optimism. 4
  5. 5. How are you doing? More than half say ok!!!2012 dec 0% 1% 10% 45% 31% 13%2012 jun 1% 9% 0% 31% 45% 14% Doesn`t know Exceptionally2011 nov 1% 1% 12% 35% 45% 6% good Fairly good2010 oct 3%0% 14% 39% 34% 10% Bearable Bad2010 mar 1% 13% 1% 10% 37% 38% Unbearable2009 oct 1%2% 11% 37% 38% 11% 44% say their living conditions are “unbearable” or “bad,” an unacceptably high number. But those who say conditions are “bearable” or “fairly good” increased to more than 55% 5
  6. 6. WHAT ARE THE MAJOR PROBLEMS? 40% 44% 41% Unemployment 32% 29% 35% 15% say corruption is 9% 15% Corruption 7% 12% the biggest problem in 8% 11% Serbia. In a country 14% 23% Poverty 21% 23% preoccupied with 21% 23% personal & household 5%7% 5% 9% hardship, corruption is Lack of opportunities for young people 8% 7% the only societal 6% 9% Low salaries 7% 10% problem which 7%9% 2012 dec increased in awareness 1%3% Feeble and inefficient institutions 2% 2% over the last six 3% 2% 2012 jun 3% months. 3% 4% Crime and security 4% 7% 2011 nov 9% 2% The percentage of Relations with Europe and the EU 1% 1%3% 2010 oct citizens who recognise 1%3% 2% 2010 mar corruption as the key 1%3% Poor education system 2% 1% problem has never been 2% 2009 oct 2% this high. 2% 1% Health care 2% 2% 2% 1% Awareness can lead to 1% 1% Kosovo and Metohija 1% intolerance & 1% 1% 1%3% intolerance leads to Pensions 2%4% change. 3% 3% 6
  7. 7. THE INCIDENCE OF CORRUPTIONWHO PAID, HOW MUCH, TO WHOM AND WHY?
  8. 8. THE INCIDENCE OF CORRUPTION:BIG MOVES IN THE RIGHT DIRECTION 38% 39% 34% 35% 33% 20% 15% 16% 13% 14% 11% 8% 2009 2010 2010 2011 2012 2012 2009 2010 2010 2011 2012 2012 oct mar oct nov jun dec oct mar oct nov jun dec Indirect experience Direct experienceDirect and indirect experience fell by nearly a half, after three years with little movement.Fewer people paid a bribe in the last half of 2012 than ever before in the survey’s history.Why the positive change?? In part, because widespread media coverage of corruption cases raisesawareness and stokes intolerance. 8
  9. 9. WHO GOT PAID?? Doctors, Police and municipal clerks remain at the top of the list -- but remember -- these are who citizens come in contact with most. 9
  10. 10. WHY DID PEOPLE PAY BRIBES?TO GET WHAT THEY’RE ENTITLED TO!!! 64% 56% 22% 22% 23% 13% I was directly I offered to pay I offered bribe I was directly I offered to pay I offered bribeasked to pay 22 in order to to obtain asked to pay 22 in order to to obtain avoid certain avoid certain problems with services problems with services relevant relevant individuals individuals Indirect experience Direct experienceNearly two-thirds paid a bride to get a service that they’re entitled do - like medical care, a license ora permit.A much smaller number paid a bribe to avoid a problem - like a traffic ticket.Note: Bribes were often not solicited. So what’s going? Who is at fault?The average bribe: 168 in December, much more than 103 in June. 10
  11. 11. PERCEPTIONS ARE CHANGING IN A BIG WAY FORTHE BETTER 2012 dec 10% 8% 12% 45% 24% 1% doesn’t know/no answer 2012 jun 9% 24% 24% 35% 8% 0% grew significantly 2011 nov 7% 23% 25% 35% 10% 0% grew a little 0% remained the same 2010 oct 8% 10% 23% 47% 12% decreased a little 2010 mar 9% 25% 20% 38% 7% 1% decreased a lot 2009 oct 8% 19% 22% 40% 11% 0% Major move to the upside at the end of 2012: 25% say corruption decreased. More than ever before. Many say there was no change, but optimism trumps pessimism 11
  12. 12. WHERE IS CORRUPTION HEADEDIN THE NEXT 12 MONTHS??MANY SAY “DOWN!” 2012 dec 13% 4% 9% 33% 34% 7% doesn’t know/no answer 2012 jun 9% 19% 21% 36% 12% 3% will grow significantly 2011 nov 11% 16% 21% 38% 13% 1% will grow a little 1% will remain the same 2010 oct 14% 8% 17% 43% 17% will decrease a little 2010 mar 10% 14% 19% 45% 12% 0% will decrease a lot 2009 oct 9% 14% 18% 41% 16% 1% 41% say corruption will decrease in the next 12 months - powerful expression of confidence Only 13% think corruption will increase. If confidence continues to build, then efforts to combat corruption will gain traction. 12
  13. 13. WHAT CONSTITUTES CORRUPTION?INTERVIEWEES HAVE A GOOD HANDLE ON THEDEFINITIONS. Financing of someone’s 77% 60% campaign, expecting certain 61% 62% 66% benefits in case of victory 56% 70% Re-directing of state budget to 55% 59% one’s electoral units 60% 62% Citizens know 53% what corruption is! Conflict of interest, promotion 66% 54% of political parties/business 56% 58% groups by using the status… 53% 61% 2012 dec … and they want 55% 64% 2012 jun something to be Giving gifts or money to professors or medical staff 56% 58% 2011 nov done about it. 58% 55% 2010 oct 64% Use of public position for 53% 2010 mar 54% obtaining of gifts and money 56% 2009 oct 62% 48% 60% Use of public position for 52% provision of support to friends 56% 58% 58% and family 51% 52% Distribution of gifts in electoral 44% 46% campaign 44% 46% 38% 13
  14. 14. HOW TO FIGHT CORRUPTION:PUNISH THE PERPETRATORS !!! Doesn’t I partially I partially I Corruption in general know/no I agree agree disagree disagree answerThere’s no will in Serbia for real and efficient 6% 40% 20% 15% 19%uprooting of corruptionCorruption can be uprooted only by severe 3% 71% 15% 5% 6%punishment of perpetratorsCorruption can be uprooted only by removal of its 3% 66% 18% 8% 5%causesEvery institution should equally be responsible forprevention of and battle against corruption among its 4% 71% 16% 6% 3%ranksSpecialised institutions (police, judiciary, Agency) 4% 68% 18% 6% 4%should be the leaders in battle against corruptionThere is no cooperation and coordination between 17% 46% 22% 9% 6%specific institutions in the battle against corruption 14
  15. 15. WHERE DOES CORRUPTION LURK?? Political parties 76% 80% 74% 76% 77% 72% Health care 78% 70% 73% 74% 74% 69% Judges 70% 70% 68% 67% 69% 64% Prosecutors 65% 66% 67% 64% 67% 63% Attorneys/lawyers 66% 68% 67% 63% 62% 60% Police 65% 65% 57% 63% 64% 56% Customs 72% 62% 63% 63% 66% 52%City/administration 55% 55% 52% 55% 64% 51% 2009 Oct 2010 March 2010 Oct 2011 Nov 2012 Jun 2012 DecPolitical parties top the list of institutions perceived to be the most corrupt.Unsurprising in an election year.Health Care shows up second on the list, which tracks with incidence. 15
  16. 16. WHERE IS CORRUPTION PERCEIVED TO HAVEBEEN REDUCED? Government 61% 66% 63% 67% 69% 47% Parliament/legislation 62% 65% 60% 63% 65% 44% President of State 43% 44% 36% 45% 47% 24% Army 23% 23% 27% 25% 32% 13% 2009 Oct 2010 March 2010 Oct 2011 Nov 2012 Jun 2012 Dec Big gains were registered across the spectrum of institutions: Government, parliament and the army are percieved to have substantially reduced corrutpion within their ranks. Gains realized in the second half of 2012 reverse a three-year slide in confidence and trust. 16
  17. 17. WHERE DOES INFORMATION ON CORRUPTION COME FROM? 66% 35% 34% 13% 2% Media Friends, relatives I hear about it Personal Other sources experienceMedia is the principal source of information on corruption according totwo thirds of interviewees. Within media, TV dominates. 17
  18. 18. WAGING BATTLEAGAINST CORRUPTION
  19. 19. IN ORDER TO COMBAT CORRUPTION …WE NEED TO KNOW WHERE & WHY IT OCCURS 42% Inadequate control of state 53% 47% services 38% 49% 45% Almost all of the numbers Widespread corruption in 34% 35% improved in the second 32% bodies that implement the law 40% 40% half of 2012 - The state is 38% taking greater control and Established practice to solve 30% 37% it is exhibiting will. problems by using 31% 38% 39% connections and by-passing… 37% 2012 dec 27% Yet, more needs to be done. Imperfect legislation and mild 25% 2012 jun 29% Laws need to be punishment for corruption 25% 25% 26% 2011 nov strengthened, and 27% 2010 oct implementing bodies need Lack of will among political 33% 25% 32% to reinforce integrity leaders to control corruption 30% 2010 mar 27% 20% 2009 oct Citizens also need to 21% Citizens’ passivity 20% 20% 20% shoulder responsibility and 23% engage. Lack of knowledge among 14% 18% citizens or inadequate 17% 14% 13% familiarity with their rights 16% Inadequate number of outlets 7% 7% where corruption can be 11% 3% 9% reported 8% 19
  20. 20. WAGING BATTLE MEANS STOKING INTOLERANCEAND TAKING A STAND!! 40% 33% I’d not pay 33% 33% 33% 37% Empowerment is I’d look for someone to help me, 26% 34% increasing!!! 29% without paying the bribe 30% 37% 30% 40% said that they would 24% I’d report the case to bodies that 11% 13% 2012 dec not pay -- up strongly implement the law 13% 15% 16% 2012 jun from all prior periods. 18% 17% 2011 nov I’d pay if I had the money 15% 18% More would seek help 20% 24% 2010 oct and more would report. 14% 2010 mar 11% I’d report it to administration 10% 10% Signals that intolerance 11% 2009 oct 14% is growing, and that 9% Wouldn’t do a thing, would wait 11% 10% confidence and trust in for situation to change 8% 8% 9% state institutions is on 4% 7% the rise. I’d report it to media 8% 6% 5% 9% 20
  21. 21. WHO SHOULD LEAD THE BATTLE AGAINSTCORRUPTION? Police 49% 47% Government 41% 46% 37% Police and Government Judiciary 24% top the list among those Anti-Corruption Agency 13% 26% that should lead the 18% battle against corruption. Citizens (associations of… 11% 9% Major gains were President 4% dec.12 registered by the 6% Parliament 3% Judiciary and the ACA -- State audit institution 5% encouraging signals 3% jun.12 about public trust, and Special elite forces 5% 7% about awareness. Ombudsman 2% 2% Commissioner for… 1% 1% NGOs 1% 1% 21
  22. 22. HOW CAN WE BEST COMBAT CORRUTPION? 79% 71% Harsh legal sanctions 66% 58% 70% 75% 69%Improved legislation (new anti-corruption 44% 49% law, international conventions) 42%49% 54% 61%Strengthening of state control over public 47% 48% 2012 dec administration 45%52% 54% 2012 jun 60% 2011 nov Raising the level of awareness on 47% 46% corruption 40% 50% 52% 2010 oct 51% 2010 mar Enforced control of civil sector (NGOs) 43% 41% over public administration 36% 41% 45% 2009 oct 45% Transparency in administrative decision 40% 38% making 32%37% 35% 33% Raised salaries for public administration 21% 30% employees 21%25% 22% Interviewees overwhelmingly want criminals to be punished. 79% say they want to see hash legal sanctions. When courts begin to convict, then confidence and trust in the judiciary will rise further! 22
  23. 23. HOW IS THE GOVERNMENT DOING? ….better 49% 35% 32% 22% 23% 11% 8% 9% 9% 2% Doesn’t know/NA Very efficient Little efficient Mostly inefficient Not efficient at all 2012 decembar 2012 junThe government gets much higher marks for its efforts to fight corruption.Sentiments are improving!! 23
  24. 24. PERCEPTIONS OF THE ANTI- CORRUPTION AGENCY
  25. 25. ANTI-CORRUPTION AGENCY: NAME RECOGNITION IS INCREASING 75% 77% 65% 63% 60% 2010 mar 2010 oct 2011 nov 2012 jun 2012 dec77% of interviewees say that they are familiar with the ACA and its work. 25
  26. 26. PERCEPTIONS: THE ANTI-CORRUPTION AGENCYIS IT MAKING A DIFFERENCE?? 26% 20%Doesn’t know/NA 27% 28% 33% 5% 3% Significant 2% 3% 2% 2012 dec 24% 2012 jun 19% Partial 22% 2011 nov 24% 15% 2010 oct 35% 2010 mar 38% A little 36% 32% 29% 10% 20% None 13% 14% 20% At year-end 2012 64% said the ACA was making a difference - a significant increase from prior periods. Confidence and credibility of this institution still need to build. 26
  27. 27. RECOGNITION AND CONFIDENCE IN THE ACA MAYBE GROWING, BUT CAN IT TACKLE POLITICALPARTY FINANCE??? 39% 32% 27% 24% 19% 19% 17% 16% 4% 3% Do not know / NA Not at all Very little Partially Completely 2012 jun 2012 dec Political Parties are the institution that is most corrupt in Serbia according to interviewees, but they are dubious that the ACA can make a difference. 27
  28. 28. THANK YOU

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