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Corruption Benchmarking in Serbia

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Report prepared for UNDP, June 2012

Report prepared for UNDP, June 2012

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  • 1. Corruption Benchmarking in SerbiaPerception of corruption at the household level5th round - June, 2012TNS Medium GallupReport prepared for UNDP Serbia
  • 2. Introduction Serbia Corruption Benchmarking Survey, 5th round, June, 2012 The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is supporting the Government of Serbia and civil society efforts to promote governance, accountability and transparency, and to combat Corruption corruption by monitoring the perception and incidence of benchmarking in corruption from the point of view of ordinary and average citizens. Serbia Perception of TNS Medium Gallup conducted an initial Corruption Benchmarking corruption at the Survey in October 2009, the second round in March 2010, the third household level in October 2010 and the fourth in November 2011. This report 5th round - June, 2012 presents the results of the fifth round, conducted in June 2012. TNS Medium Gallup Report prepared for UNDP Serbia The main goal of the survey is to explore Serbian citizens` perceptions of the level of corruption in Serbia, as well as their experience with corruption. 2
  • 3. Serbia Corruption Benchmarking Survey,Contents 5th round, June, 2012 Slide General context 5 Corruption benchmarking in Experience with corruption 9 Serbia Perception and understanding of Perception of 12 corruption at the corruption household level 5th round - June, 2012 Anti-corruption measures 20 TNS Medium Gallup Report prepared for UNDP Serbia Anti-Corruption Agency 26 Elections and corruption 28 3
  • 4. Methodology Serbia Corruption Benchmarking Survey, 5th round, June, 2012SURVEY TYPE Ad hoc quantitative field surveyTECHNIQUE Direct, face to face interview, Paper & Pencil data collection Multi-phase random sampling Nationally representative for voting population of Serbia (18+)SAMPLE Total sample N = 600 Belgrade sub-sample N = 132TERRITORY Serbia, urban and rural Structured questionnaire, up to 30 minutes, standard questions inQUESTIONNAIRE all rounds, plus a few specific questions each roundDATA WEIGHT By education and ageFIELDWORK PERIOD June 15th – 25th, 2012 Initial survey 2nd round 3rd round 4rd round 5rd round October 2009 March 2010 October 2010 November 2011 June 2012 N= 1014 N= 601 N= 600 N= 604 N= 600 TOTAL SAMPLE respondents respondents respondents respondents respondents 4
  • 5. General contextBenchmarking corruption at the household level 5th round - June, 2012 5
  • 6. Serbia – wrong or right direction Serbia Corruption Benchmarking Survey, 5th round, June, 2012Negative impressions prevail The general impression of Serbian citizens regarding developments in their country is rather pessimistic, especially in last two rounds of the Benchmarking Survey. More than 70% feel that Serbia is heading in the wrong direction, while only 16% think that Serbia is heading in a positive direction. 6
  • 7. Financial situation Serbia Corruption Benchmarking Survey, 5th round, June, 2012June 2012 - Grimmest picture so far In June 2012, almost 60% of citizens described their financial situation as bad or unbearable. The smallest number of people report living exceptionally well or well since the first Benchmarking Survey was conducted. 7
  • 8. Most important social problems Serbia Corruption Benchmarking Survey, 5th round, June, 2012Unemployment, Poverty and Corruption Unemployment is mentioned most frequently in all rounds of the survey – especially the last two rounds, indicating the economy as the main problem. Corruption is again ranked third. 8
  • 9. Experience with corruption Benchmarking corruption at the household level 5th round - June, 2012 9
  • 10. Recent experience with corruption Serbia Corruption Benchmarking Survey, 5th round, June, 2012Indirect experience (through others) always morefrequent In June 2012, 35% of respondents said that Direct involvement in corruption is at a similar someone within their closest social circle level as in previous surveys (14% on (relatives or close friends) gave a bribe during average). In June 2012, 14% of citizens the previous three months. reported that they had paid a bribe (gifts or money) and among them the majority (74%) did so once, while others had done so several times over the past three months. 10
  • 11. To whom are bribes given Serbia Corruption Benchmarking Survey, 5th round, June, 2012Distribution always similar, doctors more frequentlymentioned in June 2012 All data in % A bribe was most often given to doctors (61%), then to police officers (18%) and civil servants (9%). Doctors are now more frequently mentioned than they were in November 2011, and the trend of corruption among doctors is growing, though it declined among police officers and civil servants. The average sum of money paid as a bribe is €103 - lower than that paid in all previous rounds, which may also indicate more severe financial circumstances and limitations. Those who paid bribes most commonly offered it themselves to avoid problems with the authorities or to receive a service (73%), while 33% of respondents say that the bribe was requested. 11
  • 12. Perception andunderstanding of corruption Benchmarking corruption at the household level 5th round - June, 2012 12
  • 13. Level of corruption Serbia Corruption Benchmarking Survey, 5th round, June, 2012Negative perceptions prevail 13
  • 14. Understanding and presence of corruption Serbia Corruption Benchmarking Survey, 5th round, June, 2012Strongest attribution to election campaigns, schools and healthcare 14
  • 15. Attitudes and beliefs about corruption Serbia Corruption Benchmarking Survey, 5th round, June, 2012It is common at all levels Citizens are basically accustomed to corruption, which is contrary to a policy of zero tolerance – 90% agree that corruption is commonplace in Serbia. Compared to previous rounds, expectations (and acceptance) that corruption is and will always be present to a certain level are now higher. 15
  • 16. Attitudes and beliefs about corruption Serbia Corruption Benchmarking Survey, 5th round, June, 2012Very negative perception of politicians and judicial system 16
  • 17. Attitudes and beliefs about corruption Serbia Corruption Benchmarking Survey, 5th round, June, 2012(Contradictory) beliefs are getting stronger The percentage of those who believe that paying bribes is the only way to overcome extensive bureaucracy (62%) has increased. The prevailing opinion is still that severe penalties are the best measure for reducing corruption in public administration (82%). There is some level of “understanding” for corruption among public sector employees - 41% of respondents believe that bribery is the only way for them to survive, due to their low salaries. 17
  • 18. Attitudes and beliefs about corruption Serbia Corruption Benchmarking Survey, 5th round, June, 2012Large companies benefit The prevailing opinion is that large companies represent an important link in the corruption chain. More than 70% of citizens believe that it is in the interests of major enterprises to have a corrupt government, to be able to realize their own interests. Small and medium-sized businesses are perceived as a sector negatively affected by corruption, although not as frequently. 18
  • 19. Perception of corruption by sectors Serbia Corruption Benchmarking Survey, 5th round, June, 2012Political parties and healthcare always top two affected;Government, city, education, banks and president increasing 19
  • 20. Anti-corruption measures Benchmarking corruption at the household level 5th round - June, 2012 20
  • 21. Anti-corruption leaders Serbia Corruption Benchmarking Survey, 5th round, June, 2012Police and government are the two most importantfactors According to Serbian citizens, the police (47%) and the government (46%) should be leading the fight against corruption. Judiciary organizations are mentioned third and the Anti-corruption Agency fourth by 13% of citizens. Anticorruption agency, Ombudsman, State Audit Institution and Commissioner for Information of Public Importance and Personal Data Protection as responses from June, 2012. 21
  • 22. Obstacles in the fight against corruption Serbia Corruption Benchmarking Survey,Inadequate control of public services perceived as 5th round, June, 2012the strongest obstacle Insufficient control over public services is perceived as the major factor hindering the fight against corruption (in all rounds, and especially in June 2012). The common practice of solving problems through connections and the presence of corruption within bodies responsible for monitoring corruption are also frequently mentioned. 22
  • 23. If requested Serbia Corruption Benchmarking Survey, 5th round, June, 2012Majority would not pay a bribe, but reporting bribesolicitation is rare One out of three respondents said he/she would not pay a bribe if it was solicited. For 17% lack of money would be the only barrier to paying a bribe – they would pay the bribe if they could. About 11% would remain passive and wait for something in the situation to change. Actions such as reporting bribe solicitation are less frequent: 11% of respondents would report it to law enforcement bodies, 11% to management and 7% state that they would report it to the press. 23
  • 24. Measures against corruption Serbia Corruption Benchmarking Survey, 5th round, June, 2012Punitive measures considered as the most effective Belief in the strong effectiveness of punitive measures aimed at preventing corruption has increased compared to the previous survey (66% in November 2011 to 71% in June 2012). Respondents more frequently believe that building public awareness and strengthening state control over public administration would reduce corruption levels (both 47%). 24
  • 25. Informing about corruption Serbia Corruption Benchmarking Survey, 5th round, June, 2012Media, friends and family the most common source ofinformation on corruption 25
  • 26. Anti-Corruption Agency Benchmarking corruption at the household level 5th round - June, 2012 26
  • 27. Anti-corruption Agency Serbia Corruption Benchmarking Survey, 5th round, June, 2012Awareness has increased, perception ofcontribution remains similar Awareness of the Anti-Corruption Agency, ACA, is at its highest level of all rounds – 75% of citizens have heard of the ACA. There is an increase in the percentage of people who believe that the ACA does not contribute at all or contributes to a small extent to curbing corruption in comparison to the previous wave, while there is a smaller percentage of indecisive opinions. 27
  • 28. Elections and corruption Benchmarking corruption at the household level 5th round - June, 2012 28
  • 29. Elections and offering bribes Serbia Corruption Benchmarking Survey, 5th round, June, 2012One out of five has been offered a bribe for a vote One out of five (18%) citizens says that he/she has been offered a bribe for a vote and 22% know that a relative or close friend was offered the same during the parliamentary, presidential and local elections in Serbia in May 2012. 29
  • 30. Capacity to control financing of political Serbia Corruption Benchmarking Survey, 5th round, June, 2012parties during elections A majority of citizens believe that almost all kinds of corruption were moderately or largely present during the elections in May, 2012. ACA’s controlling capacity in the area of financing political parties and election campaigns is most frequently perceived as small or moderate. 30
  • 31. Thank you!TNS Medium Gallupwww.tnsmediumgallup.co.rsoffice@tnsmediumgallup.co.rs+381 11 3613 220+381 11 3613 230Serbia, Belgrade, Savski Trg 9 TNS Medium Gallup Part of TNS, WPP/Kantar Group and WIN/GIA

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