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Capacity building in a pluralist and uncertain world

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Capacity Building in a Pluralist World: …

Capacity Building in a Pluralist World:
A Transgovernance View presentation conducted by Louis Meuleman 16 October 2012, The Capacity Development Labs 15-17 October 2012, Bratislava, Slovakia

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  • 1. Capacity Building in a Pluralist World: A Transgovernance View Louis Meuleman 16 October 2012 The Capacity Development Labs 15-17 October 2012, Bratislava, Slovakia
  • 2. Content1.The context of sustainable development2.Capacity building in a pluralist and uncertain world Louis Meuleman 16.10.2012 2
  • 3. Why capacity builing? -> To help initiate and support (local)development projects in a context of sustainable development20 Years after Rio 1992, our Existing arrangementssocieties are still unsustainable for collective decisions (climate change, resource fail to produce inefficiency, hunger, draughts, floods, sustainable policies social inequality, economic instability) Louis Meuleman 16.10.2012 3
  • 4. Why is governance so important? -> It is about how ideas canbe realised: Governance = a collection of normative insights on the organisation of influence, steering, power, and checks and balances in human societies Governance includes different styles of governing, characterised by hierarchical, network or market sets of values and norms Hierarchical governance Network governance Market governance Louis Meuleman 16.10.2012 4
  • 5. The context of sustainable development (1)State - Non-state relations:Classical view UN CSO National Govts. Media Sci. (Subnational Bus. Authorities) CSO Media Local Authorities Sci. CSO Bus. Bus. CSO Media Bus. CSO Sci. Louis Meuleman 16.10.2012 5
  • 6. The context of sustainable development State - Non-state relations: Classical view -Top down -Command and control -Rules and regulations -Subordinates -> hierarchical governance Louis Meuleman 16.10.2012 6
  • 7. The context of sustainable developmentState - Non-state relations: CSOMore realistic view Bus. Media CSO Bus. UN Sci. Sci. National Govts. (Subnational Media Authorities)Our societies are-Complex Local Authorities Sci.-Pluralist CSO Bus. MediaRio+20: LA + CSO + BUS become the key ‘change agents’ Louis Meuleman 16.10.2012 7
  • 8. The context of sustainable developmentState - Non-state relations Conclusion: •There are massive differences in how state & non-state actors relate to each other •History, culture and traditions play an important role in shaping the differences -> ‘Best practices’ are rare, ‘good practices’ can be used as inspiration Louis Meuleman 16.10.2012 8
  • 9. The context of sustainable developmentDifferent problem types require different tools: “If you only have a hammer, you tend to see every problem as a nail” Abraham Maslow Louis Meuleman 16.10.2012 9
  • 10. The context of sustainable developmentDifferent problem types require different tools: Crises, disasters Hierarchical governance Network governance Market governance Complex, unstructured, Routine issues, ‘Wicked’, multi-actor issues Non-sensitive issues Louis Meuleman 16.10.2012 10
  • 11. The context of sustainable developmentDifferent problem types require different tools:Many sustainable development challenges are ‘wicked problems’ (Rittel/Webber 1973They share a resistance to resolutionExamples: Poverty islinked with education,nutrition with poverty,the economy withnutrition, and so on.Some problems are even ’super wicked problems’ (Levin et al. 2010)(e.g.climate change), because:• Time is running out.• No central authority.• Those seeking to solve the problem are also causing it.• Policies discount the future irrationally. Louis Meuleman 16.10.2012 11
  • 12. The context of sustainable developmentDifferent problem types require different tools:Roberts (2000) identified the following strategies to cope with wicked problems:• Authoritative (hierarchical governance)‘Tame’ wicked problems making a few people responsible: reduces problem complexity, as many competing points of view are eliminated at the start. Disadvantage: no appreciation of all the perspectives needed to tackle the problem.• Competitive (market governance)Put opposing view against each other. Advantage: different solutions can be weighed up against each other and the best one chosen. Disadvantage: creating a confrontational environment in which knowledge sharing is discouraged. -> no incentive to come up with the best possible solution.• Collaborative (network governance)Engage all stakeholders in order to find the best possible solution for all stakeholders. -> meetings & agreed common, approach. Time-consuming. Louis Meuleman 16.10.2012 12
  • 13. The context of sustainable developmentThe cultural dimension• Sustainable development = a vague and normative concept• This leaves room for cultural diversity: SD can mean something different in different cultures and traditions -> compatibiity, not assimilation• Cultural diversity should be both an objective (like biodiversity) and a means to achieve sustainable development• Rio”is CBDR cultural diversity or protectionism?More: Cultural diversity and sustainability governancehttp://www.springerlink.com/content/n11um6819580144h/ Louis Meuleman 16.10.2012 13
  • 14. Capacity building in a pluralist & uncertain world• Metagovernance = to design and manage suitable combinations of the three styles of governance: making them synergetic instead of undermining Christopoulos et al 2012: •Metagovernance is essential for sustainable development because of its coordination potential and its help to restructuring dysfunctional Meta- governance practices; governance •UNDP can become a strong initiator for metagovernance (e.g. providing venue & space) Louis Meuleman 16.10.2012 14
  • 15. Capacity building in a pluralist & uncertain world• Metagovernance requires a specic capacity: The metagovernor’s qualifications: ambition/drive to reflect on what is the situational best style mixture; Willingness learning attitude, reflexivity. Discretion using the discretionary space up to its limits (Lipsky 1980) Capability capable of taking multiple perspectives; bird’s eye view: ‘yellow’ in Graves 1965 - ‘S-5’ in Laske 2006 Louis Meuleman 16.10.2012 15
  • 16. Capacity building in a pluralist & uncertain world• Metagovernance requires to understand how our societies function• Therefore we need to introduce knowledge from various social sciences• Transgovernance is a ‘basket’ of 6 combined concepts/theories: Louis Meuleman 16.10.2012 16
  • 17. Capacity building in a pluralist & uncertain worldTransgovernance implies, among others, that we are conscious:a. Of the growing tensions between top-down and participatory forms of democracy, science and media (knowledge democracy)b. That social systems (and ecosystems) are reflexive: as soon as you ‘touch’ them they change…c. That a pluralist world requires ‘and’ , not ‘or’ decisions (second modernity theory): add, not replaced. That change does not come from the centers but from borders, where people are multiple included in networks (configurations)e. That we need no one-size-fits-all governance, but metagovernancef. That ‘great transformations’ start from the bottom, mostly not from the top (‘niches/regimes/landscapes’) Louis Meuleman 16.10.2012 17
  • 18. What kind of training needed?1. Training in the use of tools for analysing the policy environment e.g. understanding governance styles and their normative assumptions, stakeholder analysis, strength analysis, argumentation analysis, interests analysis, network analysis2. Training in the Mutual Gains negotiation method: type of collaboration - Look beyond the standpoints to find the real interests - Don’t simplify too soon – broadening the issue may result in better win- win package deals See e.g. training by Sustainability Challenge Foundation http://www.scfoundation.org/3. Training in meta/transgovernance perspectives; invite also speakerswith a seldom-heard view (historians, cultural anthropologists,organisational psychologists, behavioural economists (‘nudges’!) etc.) Louis Meuleman 16.10.2012 18
  • 19. Recommendations• Sustainable development is a must-do for the environment, for innovative business and for fair social conditions• There is no contradition between SD and Development policy (or MDGs/SDGs• Both should work on pluralist, tailor-made solutions; SD practitioners can learn from Development practitioners that the social dimension (neglected in SD/GE) is key to finding real solutions.• Capacity building for SD is about learning to deal with complexity (but not everything is complex -> filtering out the simple solutions; transitions start small but also need a stimulating environment)• Monit.&evaluation: from numbers+text to narratives+nummbers (annex) Louis Meuleman 16.10.2012 19
  • 20. More informationLouis Meuleman (Ed.)(2012) Transgovernance: Advancing SustainabilityGovernanceOpen Access book, free downloadable at the publishers website:http://www.springer.com/social+sciences/political+science/book/978-3-642-28008-5See also the TransGov final report: Roeland J. in t Veld(2011) Transgovernance: The Quest for Governance of SustainableDevelopmentFreed download at http://www.iass-potsdam.de/sites/default/files/transgovernance_-_the_quest_-_nov_2011.pdfMore publications: www.ps4sd.eu Louis Meuleman 16.10.2012 20
  • 21. Thank you for your attention!Capacity Building Louis Meulemanin a Pluralist World: 16 October 2012A Transgovernance View The Capacity Development Labs 15-17 October 2012, Bratislava, Slovakia