BIODIVERSITY IN A CHANGING CLIMATE: ECOSYSTEM BASED ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION <br />Adriana Dinu, Regional Environment and...
Overview<br />Context:<br /><ul><li>Biodiversity and Climate Change – linkages
Climate Change Impacts on Biodiversity </li></ul>Role of Protected Areas in CC mitigation and Adaptation<br />Opportunitie...
Biodiversity and climate change are inter-connected<br />Climate Change Impacts on Biodiversity<br />Changes in Biodiversi...
Adapting to Climate Change
Provision of ecosystem services essential for human beings</li></ul>Ecosystem degradation:<br /><ul><li>Reduces the C stor...
Increasing GHG emissions
Reducing Biodiversity</li></li></ul><li>Climate Change as a key driver of biodiversity loss<br />
Current Impacts of CC on Biodiversity<br /><ul><li>Changes in ecosystem structure and function: Aquatic freshwater habitat...
Bogs, mires and fens - most vulnerable - 50 % affected (concern as they are important carbon stores);
Snow, ice and frozen ground:  increased number of glacial lakes; increased ground instability in permafrost;
19 % of habitats and 12 % of species of European interest are threatened by CC over their European range (2008, reports on...
Approx. 10% of species at high risk of extinction for every 1°C rise in global mean temperature;</li></ul>- Amphibians  - ...
Role of selected European ecosystems in the carbon balance <br />Source: Adapted from Trumperet al., 2009. <br />
Ecosystem conversion – second largest source of GHG and first cause of species extinction <br />Protected Areas <br />the ...
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Biodiversity in a changing climate: Ecosystem based adaptation and mitigation (UNDP presentation)

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  • Europe has experienced an increase in temperature by more than 1.2 °C so far (IPCC, 2007), with a further increase of 1.0–5.5 °C expected by the end of the 21st century (Christensen et al., 2007). Already southern Europe has experienced extremely dry weather conditions, with rainfall decreasing by up to 20 % during the 20th century. In northern European countries, meanwhile, precipitation increased by 10–40 %. The frequency of extreme weather conditions is expected to increase (EEA‑JRC‑WHO, 2008). Europe&apos;s snow cover has decreased by 1.3 % per decade during the past 40 years. And the average duration of ice cover on lakes and rivers in the northern hemisphere has been decreasing at a rate of 12 days per hundred years (EEA‑JRC‑WHO, 2008).An indicator based on observed populations of 122 common bird species across 18 European countries alongside climatic envelopes shows that rapid climate change in Europe in the past 20 years has strongly impacted these bird populations. Three‑quarters of the populations declined as a result of climate change,
  • Biodiversity in a changing climate: Ecosystem based adaptation and mitigation (UNDP presentation)

    1. 1. BIODIVERSITY IN A CHANGING CLIMATE: ECOSYSTEM BASED ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION <br />Adriana Dinu, Regional Environment and Energy Practice Leader, Europe and CIS <br />Putoransky, Taimyr<br />© 2010 UNDP. All Rights Reserved Worldwide.<br />Proprietary and Confidential. Not For Distribution Without Prior Written Permission.<br />
    2. 2. Overview<br />Context:<br /><ul><li>Biodiversity and Climate Change – linkages
    3. 3. Climate Change Impacts on Biodiversity </li></ul>Role of Protected Areas in CC mitigation and Adaptation<br />Opportunities<br />Nalichevo Park, Kamchatka<br />
    4. 4. Biodiversity and climate change are inter-connected<br />Climate Change Impacts on Biodiversity<br />Changes in Biodiversity affect Climate <br />Change<br />Ecosystems play a key role in:<br /><ul><li>Global Carbon Cycle;
    5. 5. Adapting to Climate Change
    6. 6. Provision of ecosystem services essential for human beings</li></ul>Ecosystem degradation:<br /><ul><li>Reduces the C storage and sequestration capacity
    7. 7. Increasing GHG emissions
    8. 8. Reducing Biodiversity</li></li></ul><li>Climate Change as a key driver of biodiversity loss<br />
    9. 9. Current Impacts of CC on Biodiversity<br /><ul><li>Changes in ecosystem structure and function: Aquatic freshwater habitats, wetlands, Arctic and alpine ecosystems;
    10. 10. Bogs, mires and fens - most vulnerable - 50 % affected (concern as they are important carbon stores);
    11. 11. Snow, ice and frozen ground: increased number of glacial lakes; increased ground instability in permafrost;
    12. 12. 19 % of habitats and 12 % of species of European interest are threatened by CC over their European range (2008, reports on Habitat Directives);
    13. 13. Approx. 10% of species at high risk of extinction for every 1°C rise in global mean temperature;</li></ul>- Amphibians - 45 % of species negatively affected<br />
    14. 14. Role of selected European ecosystems in the carbon balance <br />Source: Adapted from Trumperet al., 2009. <br />
    15. 15. Ecosystem conversion – second largest source of GHG and first cause of species extinction <br />Protected Areas <br />the most sensible response to conversion.<br />
    16. 16. Terrestrial carbon stock in the protected area network<br />85% Carbon outside protected areas<br />13.7% of world’s terrestrial area is protected, but contains 15.2% of C stock<br />
    17. 17. PAs are essential part of the global response to CC<br />MITIGATION<br />STORE: 312 Gt of terrestrial C: If lost - equivalent to 23 times the total global C emissions for 2004<br />CAPTURE: further sequestration of CO2 - increasing the size of carbon pools (afforestation, reforestation and restoration)<br />Mitigation dividend: existing and potential forest PAs are richest carbon pools.<br />ADAPTATION<br />PROTECT: maintains ecosystem integrity; reduces vulnerability to Climate Change<br />PROVIDE : ecosystem services<br />
    18. 18. Protected Areas<br />Contribute to strategies to reduce GHG emissions;<br />Complement infrastructure investments to reduce vulnerability to climate change: nest the PA agenda into the development agenda<br />Are an effective means of safeguarding ecosystem services, vital to adaptation, carbon storage and sequestration.<br />Are a cost effective means of providing these services, relative to the costs of other land governance systems.<br />Convenient Solutions<br />to an Inconvenient Truth:<br />Ecosystem-based<br />Approaches<br />to Climate Change<br />June 2009<br />Environment Department,<br />The World Bank<br />
    19. 19. Opportunities: National and sub-national governments<br />Increasing the Roles of Protected Areas in National and sub-national CC Strategies <br />Incorporate CC into ecological gap assessments<br />Increase coverage, level of protection and management effectiveness;<br />Landscape approaches, connectivity - critical to promoting resilience across large landscapes<br />Strengthening PA network in areas of high deforestation pressure and high carbon could be one strategy to reduce emissions.<br />Altai Sayan<br />
    20. 20. Peatland restoration in Belarus: mitigation benefits<br />28,000 ha rewetted. <br />Reduced annual emission of CO2 by 280,000 tons<br />
    21. 21. Peatland restoration in Belarus: biodiversity benefits<br /><ul><li>Presence of wetland plant associations up by 58-96%
    22. 22. Water-bird species numbers up by 20-48% from pre-restoration figures</li></li></ul><li>Peatland restoration in Belarus: economic benefits<br />
    23. 23. THANK YOU!<br />

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