Addressing the rights of persons with special abilities, including women
Addressing the rights of persons with special abilities, including women Monjurul Kabir, Komila Rakhimova, Louise Sperl 23 May, 2012 Bratislava
Persons with Special Abilities…The world’s largest disadvantaged group….• 650 million in the world (10% of the population)• 80% live in developing countries• 20% of the poor are persons with disabilities• Several times higher poverty & unemployment rates• Segregated and incomplete education• Increased risk of abuse, especially among women 2
Persons with Special Abilities face Marginalization…Due to….• Attitudinal barriers/prejudices• Barriers in the physical environment• Inaccessibility of information• Institutional and systemic barriers• Invisibility 3
Overall Challenges of Persons with Special Abilities in ECISChallenges related to:• Education• Employment• Lack of Engagement Danijela Jovanovic at the peak of Mt. Elbrus (Photo: UNDP) & Inclusion• Violence• Access to justice
Women with Special Abilities in ECIS• Reproductive rights• Vulnerability to violence and sexual exploitation• Access to education• Employment opportunities Social exclusion focus group discussion with women with disabilities in Uzbekistan. (Photo: UNDP Uzbekistan)
The CRPD Convention• Adoption by the United Nations General Assembly - 13 December 2006• Opened for signature - 30 March 2007• Entry into force – 3 May 2008• First session of the Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities – 23-27 February 2008• 112 ratifications worldwide• 14 ratifications in countries covered by RBEC
The CRPD Convention• Response to an overlooked development challenge• Potential to promote & protect rights of PWD through other human rights conventions was not being tapped. CRPD does not create new rights!• Promotes, protects and ensures full & equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms of all persons with disabilities, and promotes respect for their inherent dignity.
The CRPD Convention• Convention marks a ‘paradigm shift’ in attitudes and approaches to persons with disabilities.• Persons with disabilities - not viewed as objects" of charity; - but as "subjects" with rights - essence of the Natalya Plotnikova, head of self-starter women’s DPO in Uzbekistan (photo: HRBA UNDP Uzbekistan
The CRPD Convention• The Convention does not explicitly define disability – Disability as an evolving concept – Results from the interaction between a non-inclusive society and individuals.• Article 1 of the Convention states: – ‘Persons with disabilities include those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which in interaction with various barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others’.
Rights in the Convention The Rights in the CRPD• Equality before the law without • Freedom of expression and discrimination (article 5) opinion (article 21)• Right to life, liberty and security • Respect for privacy (article 22) of the person (articles 10 & 14)• Equal recognition before the law • Respect for home and the family and legal capacity (article 12) (article 23)• Freedom from torture (article 15) • Right to education (article 24)• Freedom from exploitation, • Right to health (article 25) violence and abuse (article 16) • Right to work (article 27)• Right to respect physical and • Right to adequate standard of mental integrity (article 17) living (article 28)• Freedom of movement and nationality (article 18) • Right to participate in political• Right to live in the community and public life (article 29) (article 19) • Right to participation in cultural life (article 30)
The Rights of Women with Special Abilities in the CRPD• The CRPD recognizes that women and girls with disabilities are subject to multiple forms of discrimination.• Art. 6: State parties obliged to take measures to ensure full and equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by all women and girls with special abilities.• General principles (Art. 3) of - Non-discrimination - Equality between men and women
CRPD Convention & Other UN Mechanism• Conference of States Parties• Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities• Other Treaty Bodies• UPR – recommendations specific to disability• Special Procedures Media campaign on rights of PwD (Photo: UNDP Uzbekistan
Mainstreaming Disability in Existing Processes• Article 4.1.(c): ‘States Parties undertake to take into account the protection and promotion of the human rights of persons with disabilities in all policies and programmes’• Mainstreaming of disability issues according to the int standards in: – Work of existing human rights treaty bodies – Human Rights Council-UPR – Millennium Development Goals (MDG) - national and international strategies – Common Country Assessment (CCA)/United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) – Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) – The development activities of international donors and NGOs – Census data: disaggregated – Sectoral and cross-sectoral policies – Programmes and policies for women (article 6) and children (article 7) – and others...
National Monitoring and Implementation National Monitoring and Implementation• National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs) play important role• National focal points & coordination mechanisms within governments – Multi-sectoral involvement of all government ministries – Outreach to other national stakeholders (civil society organizations, academic/scientific institutions, private sector• All activities must include participation of persons with special abilities: ‘Nothing about us without us.’
UNDP Responses - Addressing Rights of Persons with Special Abilities in ECIS• Currently at least 21 active projects in RBEC with nexus to persons with special abilities• Projects in 14 countries in the region & 3 regional projects Training for architects on physical accessibility standards (Photo: UNDP Uzbekistan)
UNDP Responses - Addressing Rights of Persons with Special Abilities in ECIS UNDP Projects in ECIS – Main areas of intervention Source: http://europeandcis.undp.org/governance/hrj/show/20E0D735-F203-1EE9-B76FB09D3679E9EE
Country examples - Uzbekistan• 780,000 PwD (2-3% of total population), 5% of working age employed. In 2010, 18,555 quota jobs advertised to PwD, 7,559 people were employed. Number of PwD employed in factories/branches of DPO - 2,365 or 7% of all working PwD• Average monthly wage - 265,800 soums, half of nation’s average• Perception of population (2008) – Philanthropic approach - 80 % – Medical approach - 40 % – HRBA and inclusion - 25 %• Lack of disaggr.statistics and An employee in one of the social enterprises supported by UNDP (Photo: UNDP Uzbekistan) research on women’s issues, PwD perceived as homogenous group
Country example - Uzbekistan ACCESS project (2008-2011) Inclusive Employment and Social Partnership project (2011-2013) with Ministry of Labour&Social Protection: - Accessibility - Changing perceptions - Participatory decision-making - Employment - Social services Women’s empowerment component- disaggregated statistics collection for state employment programme- leadership and empowerment training for women DPOs Club for persons with disabilities looking for a job- catering training (UN caterers) (Photo: UNDP Uzbekistan)- sewing/design workshop (folders/gifts)- participation in UN events (sale/bazar)
Uzbekistan – lessons learned/recommendations• Avoiding paternalistic approach to DPOs (e.g. UNDP supported catering/sewing). Instead focus on capacity building & coaching• Walking the talk by ourselves – – mandatory accessible buildings, renovation & event venues, – braille business cards, – clear commitment in recruitment VAs, – passing mandatory courses.• Intervention niches/needs: – Continue current activities – Statistics disagr. by sex & Ramp to UNDP Uzbekistan canteen – the only accessible research on women’s issues meetings venue in office (Photo: UNDP Uzbekistan) – Reproductive health, right to family – Access to education
Regional examplesThe PHASE Project (2011-14) – National HRSystem, International HR Mechanisms, Access toJustice and Legal Empowerment-mainstreamingspecial ability• Ongoing work: Sub regional (CA) strategy for NHRIs –inclusive of elements for gender mainstreaming (egindicators, targets etc);• Regional Policy Study and Programming Guide;• A2J & Disability Study –challenges & Innovative Solutions• Forthcoming Regional CoP Meeting in Tashkent (2012);• Supporting Multi-donor Trust Fund on Disability: Global-Regional-Country synergy
Future areas of interventions?• Need for targeted training, capacity building of duty bearers, policy awareness raising, good practices collection and validation, knowledge management• Need to mainstream disability in all development activities and to give more attention to specific challenges faced by women• Need to include persons with disabilities in all stages of implementation, and build capacity of organizations of persons with disabilities to do so• Analyzing disaggregated statistics and research on women’s needs and institutionalizing with National Statistics Office• Access to education to women with disabilities, and reproductive health issues (currently not covered by UNDP)
Thank you!Alexandra Plotnikova, member of the “Lik” theater of persons withdisabilities (Photo: Tatyana Style)