Trends in Sustainable Development – Small Island Developing States :: 2010-2011
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Trends in Sustainable Development – Small Island Developing States :: 2010-2011



Issued in support of the five-year review of the Mauritius Strategy of Implementation for the sustainable development of SIDS, the report highlights the vulnerabilities of SIDS and recent trends in ...

Issued in support of the five-year review of the Mauritius Strategy of Implementation for the sustainable development of SIDS, the report highlights the vulnerabilities of SIDS and recent trends in their sustainable development.

The key areas covered by the report are:

climate change
disaster management
trade and finance
natural resources
social development

It also provides a visual summary of progress made by SIDS in attaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), based on analysis performed by UNDP and ESCAP.



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Trends in Sustainable Development – Small Island Developing States :: 2010-2011 Trends in Sustainable Development – Small Island Developing States :: 2010-2011 Presentation Transcript

  • Department of Economic and Social AffairsDivision for Sustainable DevelopmentTRENDSIN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTSmall Island Developing States (SIDS)United NationsNew York, 2010
  • DESAThe Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat is a vital interface between global policies inthe economic, social and environmental spheres and national action. The Department works in three main interlinked areas: (i) itcompiles, generates and analyses a wide range of economic, social and environmental data and information on which MemberStates of the United Nations draw to review common problems and to take stock of policy options; (ii) it facilitates the negotia-tions of Member States in many intergovernmental bodies on joint courses of action to address ongoing or emerging globalchallenges; and (iii) it advises interested Governments on the ways and means of translating policy frameworks developed inUnited Nations conferences and summits into programmes at the country level and, through technical assistance, helps buildnational capacities. Note The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opin- ion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitations of its frontiers. The term “country” as used in the text of the present report also refers, as appropriate, to territories or areas. The designations of country groups in the text and the tables are intended solely for statistical or analytical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgment about the stage reached by a par- ticular country or area in the development process. Mention of the names of firms and commercial products does not imply the endorsement of the United Nations. United Nations publication Sales No. E.10.II.A.12 ISBN 978-92-1-104610-6 Copyright © United Nations, 2010 All rights reserved Printed at the United Nations, New York
  • FOREWORDSmall Island Developing States (SIDS) face unique and special challenges. The special case of SIDS within the context of sustainabledevelopment was first formally recognized by the international community at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Devel-opment (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. Chapter 17, paragraph 124 of Agenda 21 states, “Small island developing States, andislands supporting small communities are a special case both for environment and development. They are ecologically fragile and vul-nerable. Their small size, limited resources, geographic dispersion and isolation from markets, place them at a disadvantage economi-cally and prevent economies of scale.” Since UNCED, a number of international frameworks were established that shed light on thelimitations faced by SIDS in achieving sustainable development. Agenda 21 highlights that there are special challenges to planning forand implementing sustainable development in SIDS, and that SIDS will be constrained in meeting these challenges without the coop-eration and assistance of the international community. In 1994, the Barbados Programme of Action (BPOA) translated Agenda 21 intospecific actions and measures to enable SIDS to achieve sustainable development. In 2005, the Mauritius Strategy (MSI) for the furtherImplementation of the BPOA was adopted with a view to addressing the implementation gap that still confronted SIDS. In 2010, a highlevel meeting will be convened during the sixty-fifth session of the United Nations General Assembly to carry out a five-year review ofthe progress made in addressing the vulnerabilities of SIDS through the MSI.In support of the five-year review of the MSI, this report highlights key developments and recent trends for SIDS in a number of areas.Notwithstanding the importance of all the issues contained in the MSI, this publication will present those themes for which sufficientstatistical data has been found to be available, comparable among all three SIDS regions (i.e., Caribbean, Pacific and AIMS), and reflec-tive of clear trends that illustrate the uniqueness of SIDS. Based on these three criteria, the report will focus on climate change, disastermanagement, trade and finance, tourism, energy, natural resources, and social development.In summary, the report notes progress in a number of areas while, at the same time, acknowledging that significant further efforts will beneeded to advance implementation of the intergovernmentally agreed goals outlined in the MSI, as well as those set forth in the Millen-nium Development Goals (MDGs).Tariq BanuriDepartment of Economic and Social AffairsDivision for Sustainable DevelopmentJune 2010 Foreword << iii >>
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTSDESA is very appreciative of the support received in preparing this publication, and wishes to acknowledge the kind assistance pro-vided by the: Sub-regional Headquarters for the Caribbean of the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and theCaribbean (ECLAC-POS); Pacific Operations Centre (EPOC) of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and thePacific (ESCAP); United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD); United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP);United Nations Development Programme (UNDP); United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); UnitedNations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT); United Nations Office of the High Representative for the Least DevelopedCountries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States (OHRLLS); Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO);World Tourism Organization (WTO); Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (SCBD); International TelecommunicationUnion (ITU); Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Secretariat; Commonwealth Secretariat (COMSEC); Indian Ocean Commission (IOC);Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat (PIFS); South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP); International Union for Conservationof Nature (IUCN); Global Island Partnership (GLISPA); and Sea Level Rise Foundation. Acknowledgements << iv >>
  • CONTENTS PAgE FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii INTRODUcTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 DEMOGRAphiC TRENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 CLiMATE ChANGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 NATuRAL DiSASTER MANAGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 TRADE AND FiNANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 TOuRiSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 ENERGy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 NATuRAL RESOuRCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 SOCiAL DEvELOpMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 SuMMARy OF pROGRESS ON MiLLENNiuM DEvELOpMENT GOALS . . . . . . . . . . 33 REFERENcES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
  • iNTRODuCTiONSince the international meeting in Mauritius in 2005, substantial progresshas been achieved in SIDS1 in a number of areas. The Millennium ESCAP economic crisis vulnerability index for 24 SIDSDevelopment Goals Report 2009 noted this progress, but also highlighted compared with the average for all LDCs (SIDS and non-SIDS)4the importance of renewed and sustained action, especially in light of 1.0the high vulnerability of the natural, economic and social systems of SIDS LDC SIDS Non-LDC Economic crisis vulnerabilitySIDS. This vulnerability is largely due to intrinsic characteristics of SIDS, 0.8 LDCincluding: small size; remoteness; vulnerability to external (demand average 0.6and supply-side) shocks; narrow resource base; and exposure to globalenvironmental challenges.2 0.4The risk is that these and other related vulnerabilities could jeopardize 0.2the progress achieved thus far. In some cases, improved economic andgovernance capacity in SIDS has been offset by reduced resilience to 0.0 Fiji Verde Co Sol os Sao n Isla Ma tu Sam Sey Ton lles Gre Bel Do Jam ica Sai Sai G An Vince adin Do ua an and Sai Sur Kitts Ca Bar Pap os Ma New Trin ius Vanexternal shocks.3 the ucia pe tig mo nt L nt ren nt min min d B om ldiv ize urit ina bad che nad ua ga ua ida aic oa Tom nds r me nd N o ica es da a a ea n R rbud nd a nt es nd Gu epu a Tob a Prin ine blic evi ago a cip s e Source: ESCAP and DESA, based on ESCAP research and methodologies in the ESCAP/ ADB/UNDP (2010) Asia-Pacific Regional Report 2009/10. The continuing global economic and financial crisis has had dire conse- quences for the economies of SIDS, while the global food and energy crises, coupled with the uneven pace of insertion into global trade and development processes, and the negative impacts of climate change, have exacerbated the structural vulnerabilities of these countries. The vulnerabilities of SIDS include exposure to global environmental challenges, such as climate change (sea level rise, destruction of coral reefs critical to food security and tourism), biodiversity loss, waste pollu- tion and acidification of the oceans.Photo Credit: Shahee SiDS Trends Report introduction << 1 >>
  • Environmental vulnerability index for 33 SIDS compared with the average for all LDCs5 500 SIDS LDC SIDS Non-LDC Environmental vulnerability 400 LDC average 300 200 100 0 An ada Rep Co atu land Ca gua a Gu ame Ha lu Sa i So oa Ba u Jam ad Tu dives Se Vinc Gr inic Gu oros Kir Pa shall Ba Su St. aica d To Be e Ve d Ba Ba a N Va mon To Tri a Ma helle t and Cu Ma ati Sa ea-B Ma itts a Na ome au Fij Sai Pa Do ain m lo yc rba va lau p rin as o T is s ti nu hr it en an ham ew i m ng lize rde rb yan nid ib pu ba in ur nt Photo Credit: UNDP r l uri m K do tiu d Ne a s s an Is la Is n s en n an ENDNOTES nd Gu dP s s ine ub ba v is r in the ud go lic a c ip 1 For the purposes of this publication, the term SIDS refers to the following countries and regional groupings: Carib- a Gr e bean: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, ena Jamaica, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago; AIMS: Cape din Verde, Comoros, Guinea-Bissau, Maldives, Mauritius, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Singapore; Pacific: Cook es Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa,Source: DESA calculations based on United Nations Environment Programme/SOPAC methodology. Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu. 2 UN ECOSOC (2010). 3 UN ESCAP (2010).Through its 19 themes and seven means of implementation, the MSI offers 4 The economic crisis vulnerability index is defined as the normalized difference between an exposure index and a cop- ing capacity index. Five indicators are used to measure the exposure to the economic crisis: (a) EXPY (index of exporta platform for addressing the challenges faced by SIDS in achieving sustain- sophistication) per GDP per capita; (b) foreign direct investment (as a percentage of GDP); (c) official development assistance (as a percentage of GDP); (d) workers’ remittances (as a percentage of GDP), and (e) inbound tourism (as aable development. Over the past five years, some of the major constraints percentage of GDP). The capacity to mitigate the crisis is assessed using five different indicators: (a) external public debt stocks to GDP ratio; (b) total reserves in months of imports; (c) gross savings to GDP ratio; (d) government effectiveness:in the implementation of the MSI have included: declining levels of official World Bank Worldwide Governance Indicators, and (e) Human Development Index.development assistance; lack of technical expertise; and financial, technical 5 The Environmental Vulnerability Index is based on 50 indicators covering natural/anthropogenic risks, resilience and ecosystem integrity, and covers issues related to climate change, biodiversity, water, agriculture and fisheries, humanand institutional challenges in terms of monitoring and evaluation. health, desertification, and exposure to natural disasters.Although SIDS are confronted with increasing challenges, the growing inter-national consensus surrounding the need to support SIDS offers an unprec-edented opportunity to advance their sustainable development efforts.SiDS Trends Report introduction << 2 >>
  • DEMOGRAphiC TRENDSThe SIDS are a diverse group of countries with respect to est among the SIDS, with 2010 median population ages of 17.4  yearspopulation size, GDP and the median age of their populations. and 18.7 years, respectively. SIDS also demonstrate an overall correla-On average, Pacific and AIMS SIDS (excluding Singapore and Mauritius) tion between GDP and median population age. Several of the Caribbeanhave relatively young populations. This is due in part to lower life expect- SIDS have relatively older populations and higher GDP overall. Singa-ancy, higher fertility rates, and high rates of emigration of the working age pore, with a 2010 median population age of 40.6, GDP of US$39,423, andpopulation in some SIDS. Timor-Leste and Guinea-Bissau are the young- a population size of 4.8 million is a clear outlier among the SIDS. Median population age in relation to population size and GDP (2008 US$) 25,000 Bahamas 20,000 Trinidad and Tobago 15,000 Barbados GDP (2008 US$) 10,000 Grenada Dominican Republic Papua New Guinea Mauritius Cape Verde Saint Lucia Vanuatu Belize Sao Tome SVG 5,000 Samoa Maldives and Principe Suriname Jamaica Cuba Tonga Fiji Timor-Leste FSM Comoros Guyana 0 15 20 Haiti 25 30 35 40 Guinea-Bissau Solomon Islands -5,000 Population age (years)Source: UN DESA, 2010; World Bank, World Development Indicators, 2010.Note: Size of circles represents relative population size.SiDS Trends Report Demographic Trends << 3 >>
  • Changes in population structure: SIDS average Annual population growth (urban vs. rural): 2008 Proportion of population under 15 years old (percentage) Less than 15 60 and older 45 40 6 15-59 Proportion of youth 41.6 40 Annual percentage growth 35 4 Population (millions) 35.2 35 30 30 2 25.3 25 25 20 0 20 17.2 16.9 15 Sa inc Ca 14.8 To D ep M Be Pa Se Ti Fi Su Ha 15 -2 om u o ip m Pr al ji pe ng la yc liz rin it i R di 11.3 To e or u he in blic e a am Ve ve 10 -L m ic lle 10 es s e rd an e -4 s te an e 5.8 d 5 3.4 5 -6 0 0 1990 2010 2030 Rural population growth (annual %) Urban population growth (annual %)Source: UN DESA, 2010. Source: World Bank, World Development Indicatiors, 2010.The population will continue to age, due to decreasing fertility share the common trend of increasing urbanization. The percentage ofrates and longer life expectancy. the population living in urban areas across all SIDS has increased 11 perFrom 43.5 million in 1990, population is expected to reach 70.1 million by cent, from 49.5 per cent in 1990 to 55 per cent in 2008. Increasing urban2030. The share of people under 15 in the total population is expected to population density is also an important concern for SIDS, the populationsdecline, from 34 per cent in 1990 to 24 per cent in 2030. Population aged of which are often concentrated on a few small islands. While densities15 to 59 is expected to grow from 25 million in 1990 to 42 million in 2030. in excess of 5,000-10,000 people/square kilometre are usually associatedPopulation aged 60 and above is expected to grow even more rapidly, with urban poverty in Africa and Asia, the capital of the Maldives, Malé,nearly doubling from 2010 to 2030. is home to nearly a third of the country’s population and has a density of over 17,000/km². Ebeye in the Marshall Islands had a population density of 38,600/km² in 2007.1 Migration of people to urban settlements, most oftenUrbanization is widespread and increasing among the SIDS. located along the coastline, puts increasing pressure on coastal ecosys-While the SIDS vary widely with respect to the share of population liv- tems and on the settlements themselves, which must be properly planneding in cities and towns, ranging from Singapore, standing at 100 per cent, and responsibly developed to ensure the provision of social services andto Papua New Guinea and Trinidad and Tobago with 13 per cent, they prevent environmental degradation. ENDNOTES 1 Haberkorn (2008).SiDS Trends Report Demographic Trends << 4 >>
  • CLiMATE ChANGESIDS are especially vulnerable to climate change due totheir small size, narrow resource base, high susceptibility to Countries with largest population sharesnatural hazards, low economic resilience, and limited human in the Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ)and technological capacity for mitigating and adapting to the 100effects of climate change.1 The very existence of low-lying atoll 90 Percent of population in LECZnations, such as Kiribati, Maldives, Marshall Islands, and Tuvalu, 80is threatened by climate change-induced sea-level rise. 70 60 50Sea-level rise is a key concern for SIDS. 40A large proportion of the population of many SIDS lives in the low ele- 30 20vation coastal zone (LECZ), defined as the contiguous area along the 10coast that is less than 10 metres above sea level.2 These settlements are 0extremely vulnerable to sea-level rise, storm surges, floods and other Ne Ba Su Ba M Vi D G Ba M ng th al jib et rin uy ha ac hr erclimate change-induced hazards. In 2007, the IPCC estimated that by di lad na ou an am m lan ai ao ve es m as n a ti ds e s h2100, global warming will lead to a sea-level rise of 180 to 590 mm,while more recent research suggests that these estimates are likely to Source: McGranahan, at least twice as large, up to about two meters.3 Nations such as Kiri- Note: Countries with less than 100,000 people living in the LECZ are excluded in the methodologybati, Maldives, Marshall Islands and Tuvalu will become uninhabitable used in the source report. Fifteen small island states that are excluded have population shares greater than 39 per cent in the LECZ. in this scenario, while a large share of the population of many other SIDS will be displaced or otherwise adversely impacted. SIDS contribute little to the problem of climate change, but greenhouse gas emissions are on the rise. The combined annual carbon dioxide (CO2) output of SIDS accounts for less than one per cent of global emissions.4 However, like other coun- tries, SIDS face serious challenges in reducing emissions and moving to clean energy. From 1990 to 2006, CO2 emissions of SIDS increased at an average annual rate of 2.3 per cent. Emissions ranged from as lowSiDS Trends Report Climate Change << 5 >>
  • as 0.16 tons of CO2 per capita in Timor-Leste to as high as 25 tons in Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions: 1990-2006 Trinidad and Tobago in 2006. Other SIDS Mauritius Trinidad and Tobago Jamaica Climate change adaptation is a top priority for SIDS. 200 Suriname Dominican Republic In 2001, the UNFCCC decided that the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) Singapore Cuba 180 “should be assisted in preparing National Adaptation Programs of Action Papua New Guinea Bahamas 160 (NAPAs) to address urgent and immediate needs and concerns related to adaptation to the adverse effects of climate change.” Assisted by the Glo- Metric tons (millions) 140 120 bal Environment Facility (GEF) and funded by the LDC Fund, NAPAs were 100 developed for 11 of the 12 SIDS which are also LDCs. Overall, SIDS have 80 made major efforts to carry out climate change adaptation measures, but 60 progress thus far has seemed to focus on public awareness, research and 40 policy development rather than on implementation, largely due to finan- 20 cial and technological constraints.6 The extent to which different thematic 0 areas vulnerable to climate change are addressed in adaptation plans var- ies among the SIDS. Areas of greatest concern are water resources, agri- 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 culture and food security, and the protection of coastal zones, found inSource: UN MDG Indicators Database, 2010 (CDIAC data). over 85 per cent of adaptation plans.Note: Other SIDS does not include the Federated States of Micronesia or Tuvalu.Data excludes emissions from bunker fuels and land use-related emissions. Climate change adaptation focus areas across SIDS 100 Percentage of adaptation communications 90 addressing each thematic area 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 W Ag Pr He Fo Fi Hu Bi Co Pr To En W at ric ot alt re sh m od ra ot u er a er ul ec h s try er ie an ive lr ec ris m gy ste re tu tio s se rs ee tio m sou re n ity fs n an of ttl of ag rc an em e s d co en in em fo as fra en od ta ts st t se lz ru cu on ct es ur rit es yPhoto Credit: Reuters Source: SIDS Unit, based on NAPAs and UNFCCC National Communications.SiDS Trends Report Climate Change << 6 >>
  • Addressing climate change in the Maldives The small size and extremely low elevation of the coral islands that make up the Maldives place the residents and their livelihoods under threat from climate change, particularly sea-level rise. The highest land point is a mere 2.4 metres above sea level, and over 80 per cent of the total land area is less than 1m above sea level. At present, 42 per cent of the population and 47 per cent of all housing structures are within 100m of coastline, placing them under severe threat of inundation.5 Over the last 6 years, more than 90 inhabited islands have been flooded at least once and 37 islands have been flooded regularly or at least once a year. During the 2004 tsunami, many of the islands were completely submerged, illustrating their critical vulnerability. Given the severity of anticipated sea-level rise, population reloca- tion is viewed as inevitable. The government has planned to begin diverting a portion of the country’s annual tourism revenue for the establishment of an investment fund, with a view to purchasing ‘dry land’ to ensure a safe haven for future evacuation. Maldives’ planned evacuations in anticipation of loss of land will inevitably impact sovereignty and national identity. Although Maldives contributes very little to the problem of climate change, the government has pledged to make the country carbon- neutral within a decade. Toward this goal, clean electricity would power not only homes and businesses, but also vehicles. As an added benefit, Maldives would no longer need to import expensive fossil fuels. In addition to relocation and mitigation options, Maldives has focused on reducing vulnerability to sea-level rise through adapta- ENDNOTES tion measures, including undertaking detailed technical and engi- 1 Nurse (2000). neering studies to identify coastal protection options; re-forestation 2 McGranahan (2007). to prevent beach erosion; cleaning litter and debris from the coral 3 Estimates are based on a conservative climate sensitivity parameter. The non-linear nature of climate sensitivity implies an increasing probability of much higher sea-level rise. reefs – a natural barrier against tidal surges; teaching environmen- 4 UN-OHRLLS (2009). tal science in school; and imposing rigorous environmental impact 5 Government of the Republic of Maldives (2010). assessment on all new resorts. 6 UN ECOSOC (2010).SiDS Trends Report Climate Change << 7 >>
  • NATuRAL DiSASTERMANAGEMENTNatural disasters in many SIDS have undone the developmentachievements of years, even decades. Climate change induced Total number of disasters affecting SIDSnatural disasters, such as cyclones, floods and droughts have by type of disaster: 1990 - 2009increased in frequency and intensity over the past few decades, Extreme Temperaturefurther hampering SIDS’ ability to recover between extreme Wildfire 0%events. Resources continue to flow primarily to post-disaster 1% Epidemic Earthquake 7%activities rather than towards disaster risk reduction and the Drought 10% 5%improvement of coping capacity.1 Mass movement 3% V olcano 4% Storm 45% Flood 25% Source: EMDAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database, 2010. Natural disasters, particularly storms and floods, have been increasing in frequency and intensity Hydro-meteorological disasters, including cyclones, tropical storms and other windstorm related events, are the most common, accounting for an estimated 45 per cent of all natural disasters in SIDS, but the share of the damage impact is even larger. Significant flooding is one of the after- effects of cyclones, estimated to cause 25 per cent of the disasters. Worldwide, ten of the fifteen most extreme events reported over the past half century have occurred in the last fifteen years. In addition to being increasingly vulnerable in terms of exposure to natural disasters, SIDS also face a number of threats which further weaken their coping capacity, including urbanisation and environmental degradation. Increased urban-Photo Credit: NASASiDS Trends Report Natural Disaster Management << 8 >>
  • Number of SIDS affected by natural disasters 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1970 1973 1976 1979 1982 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 2009Source: EMDAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database, 2010.Note: Including extreme temperatures, earthquakes, storms, floods, volcanoes,mass movements and droughts. isation and coastal development concentrate risk, while environmental Estimated damages from natural disasters and degradation in the form of deforestation, coral bleaching and loss of total population affected in SIDS mangroves removes natural protective barriers. 6000 7,000,000 The social and economic impacts of natural disasters are 5000 6,000,000 especially pronounced in SIDSEstimated damage (millions $) Population affected 4000 5,000,000 SIDS, due to their small size, large share of the population living in haz- 4,000,000 ard-prone coastal areas, and limited capacity for disaster risk reduction, 3000 are particularly vulnerable. The increase in the frequency and intensity of 3,000,000 natural disasters translates into larger numbers of people affected and 2000 2,000,000 greater economic damages. The increasing cost of disaster insurance 1000 1,000,000 due to the higher frequency of extreme events has significant implica- tions for resilience. 0 0 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Estimated Damage (US$) Total population affectedSource: EMDAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database, 2010. SiDS Trends Report Natural Disaster Management << 9 >>
  • Capital accumulation in Samoa, Saint Lucia and Progress in implementing Grenada from 1970 to 2006, in relative terms. the Hyogo Framework of Action, 2009 Actual Time trend Index of achievement (averaged per priority), 5 1,200 3,000 2,500 1,000 Samoa 2,500 Saint Lucia Grenada 4.5 2,000 2,000 4 800 1,500 3.5 600 1,500 1,000 scale of 0 to 5 400 3 500 200 1,000 2.5 0 0 -500 2 500 -200 -1,500 1.5 -400 0 1 1970 1980 1990 2000 1970 1980 1990 2000 1970 1980 1990 2000 0.5 0 Making disaster Risk assessment Education, Reducing Preparedness forSource: Baritto, 2008. risk reduction a and early warning information and underlying effective response policy priority, systems public awareness riskNote: Capital accumulation is described in relative terms for trend comparison purposes. institutional factors strengtheningSIDS economies have suffered long term consequencesfrom natural disasters Source: PreventionWeb, 2010.Samoa, Saint Lucia, Grenada, Vanuatu, Tonga and Maldives lead the list of Note: Data based on SIDS that reported in 2009: Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Maldives, Mauritius, Saint Lucia, Singapore, Vanuatu.180 countries with the highest economic losses on capital stock in relativeterms due to natural disasters from 1970 to 2006.2 In the case of Samoa, Disaster risk reduction initiatives are lagging in many SIDSdue to the relatively small size of its economy, the damages from a tropicalstorm and a forest fire in 1983 as well as three tropical storms in a row from The Hyogo Framework of Action (HFA) for disaster risk reduction aims to1989 to 1990, may have set its capital stock back more than 35 years. substantially reduce disaster losses by 2015 — in lives, and in the social, economic, and environmental assets of countries — by offering guiding principles, priorities for action, and practical means for achieving disas- ter resilience for vulnerable communities. Of the SIDS that adopted the framework at the World Conference on Disaster Reduction (2005), only four currently have national platforms for disaster reduction. Six SIDS sub- mitted reports on progress in the implementation of the HFA in 2007, and seven in 2009.3 While disaster risk reduction continues to be a policy prior- ity across SIDS, capacity constraints and limited financing hinder imple- mentation, as well as evaluation and reporting.SiDS Trends Report Natural Disaster Management << 10 >>
  • Coping with natural disasters in Grenada In September 2004, Ivan, a category 3 hurricane, struck Grenada, battering and destroying 90 per cent of homes, causing damages estimated at US$900 million – more than twice the country’s GDP, and leaving at least 39 people dead. Crop damage was nearly 100 per cent for banana and sugar cane. Only two of the island’s 75 primary and secondary schools survived with minimal damage. Then, in April 2005, Hurricane Emily (category 1) struck, causing a further US$110  million of damage. In the aftermath of the hurricanes’ destruction, the government recognized that the country’s public debt was unsustainable and initiated a collaborative debt restructuring process. A home-grown comprehensive medium-term reform program was launched, with the key objectives of sustaining high economic growth, restoring fiscal and debt sustainability, reducing vulnerabilities, and alleviat- ing poverty. By December 2005, the tourism sector had recovered, as 96 per cent of all hotel rooms had been reopened with strengthened and upgraded facilities based on an improved building code. The country’s real GDP growth averaged 7 per cent per year during 2005-2006, while inflation fell markedly, from a high of 5.8 per cent ENDNOTES in late 2005, to only 2.2  per cent by April 2007. 1 UN ECOSOC (2010). 2 Baritto (2008). 3 PreventionWeb (2010).SiDS Trends Report Natural Disaster Management << 11 >>
  • TRADE AND FiNANCESIDS exhibit highly dissimilar levels of economic development,yet face relatively similar challenges in terms of trade and Net trade in goods and services in SIDSfinance. SIDS are inherently economically vulnerable dueto their remoteness and insularity, susceptibility to natural 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008disasters, fragile ecology, limited institutional capacity, limited -100ability to diversify, strong dependence on a narrow range of Current US$ (millions)exports, and high import content, particularly of strategic -200goods such as food and fuel, whose prices have exhibitedhigh volatility. In addition, in recent years many SIDS have -300experienced a rapid rise in their debt burden which, coupled -400with rising logistics costs and decreasing workers’ remittances,has exacerbated the negative impact that the financial crisis -500has had on their economies. -600Many SIDS economies are highly exposed to shocks resulting Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators, 2010from their heavy dependence on a few markets and the erosion Note: Data does not include all SIDS. Notably, Singapore is excluded.of trade preferences with these markets.1 (CSME) offers several opportunities to address some of the challengesOver the past ten years, many SIDS have experienced considerable being faced by the region. However, slow progress in achieving regionalincreases in trade deficits. SIDS are among the most trade-open econo- integration through the CSME has thus far limited some of the gains frommies in the world, and thus particularly vulnerable to external shocks. The collaboration in the region.3 In the Pacific, steps have been taken towardscontinuing global economic and financial crisis, coupled with the uneven establishing a regional free trade agreement through the Pacific Islandpace of insertion into global trade and development processes, have Countries Trade Agreement (PICTA), which entered into force in 2003. Theexacerbated the structural vulnerabilities of SIDS and have had dire conse- European Union has also initialed an interim agreement with Papua Newquences for their economies. Guinea and Fiji for improved market access to the EU. The agreement isThese challenges and opportunities are typified by some of the major open to all interested Pacific SIDS. During 2009, the implementation oftrade developments being faced by Caribbean and Pacific SIDS. In the regional trade agreements continued at a positive, but slow pace. TheCaribbean, challenges include the erosion of trade preferences and the capacity among Pacific SIDS to engage on a range of trade issues beenincrease of the global market share of the Caribbean’s trade competi- hampered by the ongoing challenges of developing national positions ontors2. The onging process of regional trade integration that is taking place various issues as well as translating regional commitment into supportingthrough the implementation of the Caribbean Single Market Economy national legislation.4SiDS Trends Report Trade and Finance << 12 >>
  • Logistics performance is significantly worse in SIDS than in other countries at similar levels of development. By exacerbating the disadvantage posed by geographical distance, lower trade and transport volumes have contributed to higher overall transport and logistics costs. Notwithstanding important success sto- ries, such as the halving of transport costs in Vanuatu between 2007 and 2008, the overall increase in transport costs has significantly weakened the competitiveness of SIDS vis-à-vis their main competitors, regionally and internationally. Based on the ranking of the World Bank’s 2010 Logistics Performance Index (LPI), which includes transport costs, quality of infrastructure (e.g., roads, ports, etc), tracking and tracing of consignments, and timeliness of delivery; eleven of the twelve SIDS for which the LPI is available are among the 100 worst performers in terms of logistics. Three SIDS are among the 10 worst performers in the world, performing at nearly one third of the level of top-ranked Germany.5 In part, this lower capacity isPhoto Credit: Calvin Teo due to the relatively low interest shown by the private sector in SIDS due to the small size of their economies. Cost to import (US$ per container) Logistics Performance Index (LPI) 1800 1600 120 1400 1 3 5 100 1200 80 LPI Score 1000 65 78 82 60 800 98 120 124 125 140 144 149 150 600 40 400 20 200 0 M Ge Lu Ba Ha Co Gu Pa a M Gu Gu Sw Do pub Fij Cu 0 au ald Re xe i pu ha it i m rm ine ya ine ba ed m lic 2006 2007 2008 2009 rit m or m ini aN ive na an en a-B ius bo as os ca y s ew is s ur Latin America n Caribbean g LPI ranking au Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators, 2010 Source: World Bank Logistics Performance Index, 2010. Note: Data does not include all SIDS. Notably, Singapore is excluded.SiDS Trends Report Trade and Finance << 13 >>
  • Net ODA received (% of imports of goods and services) 25 20 15 10 5 Photo Credit: Calvin Teo 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 SIDS LDCs Recent studies have shown that one of the difficulties in achieving debt reduction in some SIDS is achieving the correct balance between their fiscal stance, as measured by the external debt stock, and their exportSource: World Bank, World Development Indicators, 2010. performance, as measured by the current account balance, both in rela- tion to GDP.6Unpredictable external capital flows, such as OfficialDevelopment Assistance (ODA), Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)and International Private Funds (IPF), coupled with increasingdebt burdens, are a matter of concern in a number of SIDS. External debt stocks (% GNI) in SIDSDue to the lack of economies of scale, high transport costs, low tradecapacities and increasing trade deficits, SIDS typically have large exter- 100nal debt stocks that are often unsustainable unless financed through 90external capital flows, including ODA, FDI, IPF and workers’ remittances. 80However, unlike Least Developed Countries (LDCs) and certain other 70groups of countries, SIDS that are not LDCs do not qualify for debt relief 60assistance and are increasingly considered ineligible for development 50aid. 40 30The lack of reliable external capital flows has negatively impacted exter- 20nal debt levels, which have exceeded sustainability standards in many 10SIDS. During the past ten years, there has been no clear trend toward 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008reducing external debt levels. On the contrary, in 2008, 12 out of 21 SIDSfor which data was available showed external debt stocks that exceeded50 per cent of their Gross National Income (GNI). Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators, 2010SiDS Trends Report Trade and Finance << 14 >>
  • Workers’ remittances and compensation Remittances in Guyana of employees, received (% of GDP) 10 “Officially recorded remittances into Guyana rose to US$225.9 mil- lion at the end of 2006, from US$29.2 million at the end of 2000. The 8 growing importance of these funds as a source of foreign exchange is 6 reflected in the fact that they have outpaced foreign direct investment and official development assistance. 4 These figures, however, underestimate the true magnitude of remit- 2 tances, since they represent only official balance of payments statis- 0 tics and exclude remittances transferred through informal channels. 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Although a substantial proportion of remittances are used for con- SIDS LDCs World sumption purposes and smaller amounts dedicated to productive activities, collectively, these expenditures contribute to the achieve-Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators, 2010. ment of the development needs of the country.”8Note: Data is weighted by GDP.Workers’ remittances have a bigger impact on the economies ofSIDS than on those of any other group of countries in the world.Workers’ remittances as a portion of Gross Domestic Product (GDP)have dramatically fluctuated over time, and have done so at a faster ratein SIDS than anywhere else in the world. In 2005, six SIDS countries –Tonga, Haiti, Jamaica, the Dominican Republic, Cape Verde, Kiribati andGuinea-Bissau – were among the top 20 remittance receiving countries(as percentage of GDP) in the world. However, research suggests thatthese flows are more volatile in SIDS than in most other countries. More-over, given the close relationship observed between migrant transfersand economic conditions in the home country, recent studies highlightthat the impact of remittances on local economies may vary significantlyas economic activity in SIDS changes.7 SIDS LDCsENDNOTES1 Commonwealth Secretariat (2009). 5 World Bank Logistics Performance Index (2010).2 World Bank, Organization of American States (2009). 6 ECLAC (2007).3 ECLAC (2010). 7 Jackman, Craigwell and Moore (2009).4 ESCAP (2010). 8 ECLAC (2010). SiDS Trends Report Trade and Finance << 15 >>
  • TOuRiSMMany SIDS depend on the tourism sector as a key contributor International tourism receiptsto development and economic growth. However, dependence as percentage of total exports and GDP (2007)on tourism is a significant source of economic vulnerability forSIDS, particularly due to the high volatility of tourism revenue 100 Share of Exports Share of GDPgrowth. The development of the tourism sector also presents 90 80environmental and cultural challenges. The growing emphasis on 70tourism niche markets, such as eco-tourism, seeks to maintain the 60ecological balance necessary to ensure the sustainability of the 50 40tourism sector. 30 20 10Tourism receipts account for the majority of exports 0 Fi Ja helin many SIDS. Ha om Re Be itiu To ica Sa G St ive Va cia St ren s a Ba G ma e M oa Ba e V M ga Su ana Do inc dined N bud Ba ada Si d Se Ca atu Do e Tr am An ado Sa inic St gua ji ica d uy G itt nd re s .V a n ini e ng a .L s al m les au n m .K a nu liz s rin ha erd yc iti e a pu o an rb p ti s m ent s evi a m n d da a u r ap nd T in an or ToDue to limited resource endowments that have historically hindered the for- e ba nd bli thmation of a diversified economic base, among other factors, SIDS tend to be Pr c r e go in s ciprelatively more dependent on tourism than other states. On average, interna- etional tourism receipts accounted for 51 per cent of the total value of exports Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators, 2010.of SIDS in 2007, up from 42 per cent in 2000. This compares to less than 10 percent in other developing countries. In 2007, the share of international tourismreceipts was larger than 50 per cent of exports in twelve SIDS. In the Maldives, The tourism industry’s high level of foreign ownership and vertical inte-the tourism sector accounted for about 57 per cent of GDP in 2007. gration poses economic and social challenges, including possible impacts on traditional economic activities (such as fishing and farming) by alterna- tive land development, destabilized land prices and leakages (repatriated profits, imported raw materials and goods), which may dampen the overall positive multiplier effects which can be derived from the sector.1 While tourist arrivals have increased over the past two decades, tourism growth has been erratic. The last ten years have been characterised by a fairly irregular growth pat- tern in terms of tourist arrivals, worldwide as well as in SIDS, with five very strong years with above long-term average growth (2000, 2004-2007) and five years with little growth or decline (2001-2003, 2008-2009). The periodsSiDS Trends Report Tourism << 16 >>
  • Tourist arrivals and change in number of arrivals Tourist arrivals by region 25,000 18 14,000 Change in arrivals (SIDS average) 16 AIMS Total SIDS arrivals 12,000 14 Pacific 20,000 Caribbean 12 Change in arrivals (%) 10,000 Arrivals (thousands) Arrivals (thousands) 10 15,000 8 8,000 6 10,000 6,000 4 2 4,000 5,000 0 2,000 -2 0 -4 19 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0 90 991 992 993 994 995 996 997 998 999 000 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 * 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 * 09 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20Source: UNWTO, 2010. Source: UNWTO, 2010.Note: Data for 2009 incomplete. Note: Data for 2009 incomplete.of slowing down or decline in tourism arrivals may be partly attributed tosecurity concerns and the threat of terrorism, the dotcom bubble, pandem-ics, and the financial and fuel crises. Additionally, climate change and theresultant increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather eventsmay have also caused a decline in tourist arrivals in SIDS – an impact thatis expected to worsen. Tourist concern about the carbon footprint of longdistance travel, as well as climate change mitigation policies that impose atax on long haul flights may also negatively impact SIDS tourism growth.2The Caribbean and AIMS regions continue to account for the majorityof tourist arrivals among the SIDS. The tourism sector in Pacific SIDSgrew more slowly than the other regions from 1990 to 2009, however itappears to have continued its growth, at the same time as tourism in theother regions has slowed. Fiji remains the top destination in the Pacific,while the Cook Islands, Samoa, and Vanuatu are becoming increasinglypopular.3SiDS Trends Report Tourism << 17 >>
  • Cruise ship tourism continues to be important forCaribbean SIDS, and is growing in importance in other regions. Top tourism destinations relative to population (2007)The Caribbean is a major destination for cruise ships, with up to 18.2 mil-lion arrivals in 2008.4 This represents a 7.1 per cent decline in cruise visitors Barbadosfrom 2007, when approximately 19.5 million passengers visited the Carib-bean. The Bahamas is one of the main cruise destinations in the Carib- St. Kitts and Nevisbean, hosting some 2.9 million passengers in 2008. Antigua and Barbuda PalauThe growth of marine tourism, including yachting and cruise tourism, Bahamasrequires greater investment in port infrastructure to accommodate the Cook Islandsincreased size and number of vessels. Congestion and overcrowding are World Averagemajor concerns, especially in Caribbean ports, due to the resulting envi- One hundred ofronmental pressures and the perception of overcrowding by both resi- populationdents and tourists. 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Source: UNWTO, 2010. Cruise ship arrivals in Caribbean SIDS Limiting the potential negative social and environmental impacts of tourism on host countries requires continued attention to well- 7,200 planned development. 7,000 Several SIDS are on the list of the world’s top 25 tourism destinations rela- tive to population. The Cook Islands receive nearly seven tourists for every 6,800 local resident per year, whereas the world average is roughly one tourist for Arrivals (thousands) 6,600 every 10 local residents. Large inflows of tourists can put pressure on local cultures and social systems. Fragile ecosystems are at risk from large scale 6,400 development, particularly in coastal and marine areas. 6,200 SIDS have prioritized sustainable tourism development policies, working 6,000 to establish safeguards designed to minimize the environmental impacts of tourism. The expansion of low-density, sustainable hotels and eco- 5,800 2005 2006 2007 2008 lodges requires relatively modest levels of capital investment, which can be provided locally and regionally, with the benefits accruing directly toSource: Caribbean Tourism Organization, 2009. local investors and local society more broadly through reduced leakagesNote: Countries covered: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Dominica, Dominican and increased linkages (local labour, materials and products), rather thanRepublic, Jamaica, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. primarily to multinational interests, thus stimulating genuine development rather than simply growth.5SiDS Trends Report Tourism << 18 >>
  • Diversifying the Tourism Sector in Mauritius Mauritius has established itself as a recognized destination offering high levels of tourism products and services. The basis of its success has been the natural beauty of the island, which has been widely publicized to attract international visitors. In 2009, the Mauritius tourism sector accounted for 8.9  per cent of GDP, created 26,922 direct jobs and gener- ated US$1190 million as tourism receipts.6 In order to achieve its target of 2 million tourists by 2015, the government has taken a series of measures during the past five years, including gradually liberalizing air access; posi- tioning Mauritius as a cruising destination; taking measures to protect the environment (pollution control, sound environ- mental management, protection of natural resources, land- scaping, etc.); and promoting sustainable tourism through use of renewable energy and eco-friendly technologies. Mauritius has performed well in developing a distinctive form of relatively high-end tourism. However, the sector faces a number of challenges, including climate change induced loss of beaches and degradation of coastal ecosys- tems, damage to coastal infrastructure, potential decline in the appeal of Mauritius as a tourist destination due to con- cern over carbon dioxide emissions generated by long haul flights, fluctuating fuel prices and external economic shocks. To maintain a competitive edge as an up-market destination, Mauritius has sought to maintain its attractiveness through the diversification of its tourism product. Given the scarcity of beach frontage sites, emphasis is being laid on the devel- opment of nature based inland tourism, eco-tourism and cul- ENDNOTES tural tourism. Additionally, Mauritius is focusing on attract- 1 Bishop (2010). ing investment to position itself as a hub for medical tourism, 2 UNWTO (2010). UN ESCAP (2010). targeting clientele from continental Africa, who would other- 3 4 Caribbean Tourism Organization (2009). Including non-SIDS countries and territories. wise travel to Asia for specialized medical treatment. 5 Bishop (2010). 6 Government of Mauritius (2010).SiDS Trends Report Tourism << 19 >>
  • ENERGyHigh dependence on oil imports has placed a great strainon the economies of many SIDS, especially in the wake of the Fuel imports (per cent of merchandise imports)energy crisis. During recent years, the increasing cost of fueland transport to remote islands has exacerbated the costdisincentive to foreign investment, contributing to undermining 30 SIDS LDCscompetitiveness. Many SIDS have also been relatively slow to 25adopt energy efficiency practices and designs, mainly due to lack 20of appropriate policy, information, awareness and education, and 15a general reluctance by consumers and energy suppliers to make 10the initial investment required to achieve future savings. 5 0With few exceptions, most SIDS are 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008highly dependent on imported fossil fuels for energy.The vulnerability of SIDS in terms of energy resources is mostly character- Source: World Bank, World Development Indicators, 2009.ized by their dependence on imported oil and other fossil fuels for electric- Note: Data does not include all SIDS. Notably, Singapore is excluded.ity generation and transport. On average, more than 90 per cent of energyis sourced from oil imports, which account for the largest claim on foreign exchange earnings in SIDS. Fuel imports account for a greater percent- age of merchandise imports in SIDS than in LDCs. This percentage is also increasing at a faster rate in SIDS than in most other countries in the world. Given the multi-island nature of many SIDS, transport is the fastest growing consumer of oil, with fuel needs for transport to remote islands especially high. Consequently, SIDS are increasingly exposed to the volatility of oil prices, as demonstrated by the severe impacts that the global energy crisis has had on the balance of payments of many SIDS. In monetary terms, an increase of US$10 in the world crude oil price translates to a 1.5 per cent decrease in GDP in Pacific SIDS. In some cases, these economic stresses have also translated into social instability.SiDS Trends Report Energy << 20 >>
  • Total energy supply in Caribbean SIDS (2002) GRENADA JAMAICA Non-Sustainable Other Non- Coal 1.7% Non-Sustainable Other Non- Woodfuel Hydroenergy 0.8% Woodfuel Renewables Charcoal 1% Renewables 1% 0.8% 0.7% 1% Charcoal 1.3% Woodfuel Oil 89.4% Woodfuel Oil 91% Residential Residential Renewables 7% Renewables 7.4% 5% 2.2% Cane Products 3.1% Cane Products 1% GUYANA CUBA Non-Sustainable Woodfuel 2.8% Charcoal Natural Gas 4.2% Other Non-Renewables 0.5% Coal 0.2% Hydro- 0.2% energy 0.1% Woodfuel Woodfuel Residential Industry Oil 0.7% Woodfuel 20.2 % Oil 74.6% Renewables 20.5% Cane Industry 56.3% Renewables 40.9% Products 0.2% 18.6% Cane Woodfuel Products Residential 19.8% 1.6% TRINIDAD & TOBAGO BARBADOS Other Non-Renewables Natural Gas Other Non-Renewables 2% 6% 1% Oil 24% Cane Cane Renewables 1% Products Oil 86% Renewables 7% Products Natural Gas 1% 7% 73% HAITI DOMINICAN REPUBLIC Non-Sustainable Woodfuel 12.8% Hydro- Coal 1.1% Non-Sustainable Woodfuel 13.1% Other Non-Renewables 0.6% Hydro- energy Charcoal energy 2.7% Charcoal 1.2% 4% 15% Woodfuel Renewables Woodfuel 60.5% Industry Industry 3% Oil 79.7% Renewables 16.1% Woodfuel Woodfuel Woodfuel 1% Oil Residential Residential Residential 6.3% 26.1% 37.0% 37% Cane Products Cane 2.4% Products 3.6% Source: ECLAC, GTZ (2004), Renewable Energy Sources in Latin America and the Caribbean: situation and policy proposals. Note: Complete energy data sets were available only for the SIDS shown.SiDS Trends Report Energy << 21 >>
  • Although there are no comprehensive energy statistics for SIDS, in The Bulk Procurement of Petroleum Initiative most SIDS the increasing rate of fossil fuel consumption continues to outpace clean energy production. Oil is still by far the most impor- In 2008, the Cook Islands, Nauru and Tuvalu signed a memorandum tant commercial energy source for the vast majority of SIDS. This is of understanding (MOU) outlining the central tenets of how the Bulk partially due to the use of fossil fuels for transport, where viable alter- Procurement of Petroleum Initiative would be implemented. In 2009, native technologies are often not readily available. Other challenges Niue joined the initiative, while the Governments of both Tonga and faced by SIDS in moving to clean energy include lack of information, the Solomon Islands have indicated that they also intend to sign the limited local technical and institutional capacity for the implementa- MOU. tion of renewable energy technologies, the absence of policies to pro- The purpose of the bulk procurement of petroleum initiative is to mote their research and development, and, most significantly, inad- capture significant savings and benefits from more efficient import equate financing and investment opportunities for their development, management by aggregation of demand, and to provide opportuni- whether from private sources or through international support. ties for strategic cost reductions at various stages of the procure- Despite these challenges, the promotion of renewable energy technol- ment process such as coastal shipping, handling at ports and distri- bution. In addition, the initiative also strives to provide a strategic ogies is high on the agenda of many SIDS. In the Pacific, the national focus to the procurement of core energy needs, including security of energy policies of Fiji and Vanuatu promote the production of biofuels supplies, management of strategic petroleum storage, risk manage- through planting on degraded lands. The government of Vanuatu uses ment, and increased private sector participation in the downstream coconut oil (blended with diesel or kerosene) for its vehicle fleet, and petroleum distribution sector, as well as helping to achieve optimum in the Marshall Islands there are cars and boats running on coconut oil. resource allocation, avoiding duplication of efforts, and ensuring that Furthermore, in Fiji, Solomon Islands, Samoa and Vanuatu hydropower procurement planning reflects energy security goals and priorities as set out in the Regional Pacific Islands Energy Policy and National Energy Policies.More extensive use of renewable energy in SIDSwould significantly contribute towards reducingtheir vulnerability and building their resilience.Although renewable energy potentials vary greatly between SIDS, mostSIDS have adopted strategies for promoting renewable energy such assolar, wind, ocean, wave, geothermal, biomass and hydro power. However,despite a large number of initiatives, relatively little progress has beenachieved in replacing fossil fuels with low-carbon energy sources. A sig-nificant proportion of renewable energy still comes from non-commercialbiomass, such as the burning of fuel wood, particularly in Haiti, resulting inhigh emissions and contributing to deforestation. Photo Credit: Christopher HerwigSiDS Trends Report Energy << 22 >>
  • is being increasingly used for electricity production. In the Caribbean,government incentives in Barbados and Antigua and Barbuda haveencouraged the successful installation of 35,000 solar water heaters,while in Jamaica, Dominica and Haiti hydropower is being increas-ingly used for electricity production. More recently, commercial bio-mass has become an important source of renewable energy in manySIDS, mostly in the form of bagasse coming from the production ofsugarcane. For example, in Mauritius, approximately 15 per cent ofthe energy requirements of the island are being met from bagasse,and this proportion is expected to increase in the coming years. Fur-thermore, given the challenges of waste management and disposal,SIDS are increasing their attention to waste-to-energy solutions inorder to convert organic waste into fertilizers and energy.Notwithstanding these important steps forward, constraints still remainin mainstreaming modern renewable technologies that ensure lowemissions, that are scalable, and that can be integrated in power grids. Fiji’s National Energy Policy The development and approval in 2006 of Fiji’s National Energy Policy (NEP) has provided a common framework for both the public and pri- vate sector to work towards the optimum utilisation of energy resources for the overall growth and development of the economy. The policy focuses on four key strategic areas that include: national energy planning, energy security, the power sector, and renewable energy development. As a result of these efforts, around 66.8 per cent of the country’s electric- ity requirements are met from renewable energy sources, which include: 62.1 per cent hydro, 4.1 per cent biomass and 0.6 per cent wind and other renewable resources. Imported petroleum for diesel back-up gen- erators meets the remaining balance of 33.2 per cent. By 2012, the Fiji Electricity Authority (FEA) plans to invest up to US$350 million in parallel with some US$150 million of private investment in Independent Power Producers (IPP) and Public Private Partnership (PPP) arrangements. SiDS Trends Report Energy << 23 >>
  • NATuRAL RESOuRCESSIDS derive much of their economic, environmental and socialwell-being directly or indirectly from the rich natural resources Terrestrial and marine areas protected in SIDSin their immediate environment. While notable progress hasbeen achieved over the past decade in the management of 200natural resources, much remains to be done. The introduction 180of invasive and alien species, deforestation, overexploitation of Total 160 Square kilometres (thousands)land, pollution, natural disasters, coral reef deterioration and 140habitat degradation are just a few of the serious threats facing 120SIDS. The impact of these threats has been especially grave on Terrestrialisland biodiversity, which stands as a record of millions of years of 100evolution and has an inherent value to humankind. 80 Marine 60As a result of both national and international efforts, the average 40proportion of terrestrial and marine protected areas has been 20steadily increasing in SIDS. 0 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08The sound management of terrestrial and marine resources is of par-ticular importance for SIDS, given limited land resources and increasingpopulation pressures in coastal areas. Population pressure, deforestation, Source: UN MDG Indicators Database, degradation, erosion and unsustainable agricultural practices have Note: Not shown is the establishment, in 2008, of the Phoenix Islands Protected Area by Kiribati, the largest marine protected area in the world with 408,250 km2. This addition has increased totalincreased the vulnerabilities of many SIDS and led to intense competition marine protected areas in SIDS by a factor of six. among land-use options, exacerbated by a lack of integrated approaches to coastal and marine resource management. In recent years, coastal zone management plans have been developed by a number of SIDS to address degradation of marine and coastal environ- ments due to land-based activities and climate change and to optimize the contribution of coastal areas to development. A number of interna- tional conservation initiatives, including the Coral Triangle Initiative (2007), the Micronesia Challenge (2006) and the the Western Indian Ocean Chal- lenge, have also been developed. These ‘challenges’ are commitments to protect between 20 and 30 per cent of marine and coastal resources by the year 2020.Photo Credit: Angela Kepler SiDS Trends Report Natural Resources << 24 >>
  • Some countries, like Barbados, Cape Verde, Kiribati and Tuvalu, have Renewable internal freshwater resource chronically limited freshwater resources, low annual rainfall and shallow water tables. Even where rainfall is abundant, access to clean water has 4000 been restricted by the lack of adequate storage facilities and effective 3500 Year 2002 Stress Threshold delivery systems. In addition to salinization, long-term threats to water Year 2007 Scarcity Threshold 3000 quality include rapid population growth in urban areas, contamination ofm3per capita year 2500 freshwater sources by human and livestock waste, industry-related pollu- 2000 tion and, in some cases, pesticides and other agricultural chemicals. As a 1500 result, per capita renewable internal freshwater resources are decreasing. 1000 To address these challenges, some SIDS have been working to develop 500 and implement comprehensive water management strategies that include 0 Ba ha M ald Sing Barb aSt. K Cap BAnti Hait Com R Dom Mau T Trin Cub Ja ma technologies for improving irrigation, groundwater extraction and rainfall m ive ap a nd it e V arb gu i or ep ini ritiu ob idad a ica as s or dos Nets er ud a an os ub ca s ag a catchment. Water management programmes that promote capture and e vis de a d lic n o nd storage, conservation, and sustainable use, especially for agriculture, have been integral to meeting local water needs for both domestic and com-Source: The World Bank, World Development Indicators, 2009. mercial use.Note: Renewable freshwater resources of a country are conventionally defined as the sumof the mean annual surface runoff and groundwater recharge. This represents the amount ofwater that can be withdrawn on an annual basis without violating the concept of sustainability.2Non-renewable groundwater is not included. 1000 m3/p/y and 1700 m3/p/y are the critical valuesfor the water stress index (WSI)3. These values are important because the World Bank and otherinternational aid organizations use them to prioritize and to direct aid to developing nations.4Salt-water intrusion in the freshwater aquifers of manySIDS is an increasing phenomenon. As a result, per capitarenewable internal freshwater resources are decreasing.SIDS face major constraints in terms of the quantity and quality of freshwa-ter resources, given that they have scarce surface freshwater aquifers andoften rely on groundwater. These constraints are further exacerbated bysea-level rise and flooding, with consequent increased salt-water intrusioninto surface and groundwater sources.1 Photo Credit: Hansueli Krapf SiDS Trends Report Natural Resources << 25 >>
  • Species threatened Biodiversity in the Seychelles Fish species threatened Reptile species threatened Biodiversity depletion and transformation are not just conservation issues in the Seychelles. Through the provision of a support resource base biodiversity is at the very core of the Seychellois economy. Today, major threats to terrestrial and marine biodiversity include habitat destruction; introduction of invasive species; over-harvesting; coral bleaching; coastal reclamation; and siltation. To counteract these and other threats to its biodiversity, the Government of SIDS World Seychelles has been very proactive over the years. Protected natural areas in Seychelles constitute a total land area of 19,760 hectares (ha), i.e. about 43 Mammal species threatened Bird species threatened per cent of Seychelles’ total land area, as well as some additional 23,000 ha of surrounding reefs and marine areas. Consequently, Seychelles has one of the largest proportions of protected conservation areas in the world, both in terms of its surface area and per capita. A major step towards safeguarding national biodiversity was the introduction of the Seychelles’ first National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP). In addition, in 2005, the Government approved the national Policy for WetlandSource: IUCN (2007). IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Gland, Switzerland Conservation and Management, and also secured funding for a project enti- tled Mainstreaming Biodiversity in Production Landscapes and Sectors. Fur- thermore, in September 2007, the Sea-Level Rise Foundation was launched by the President of Seychelles, H.E. Mr. James Michel, at the First Global IslandSIDS make a contribution to global biodiversity that Partnership (GLISPA) Strategy Meeting.far outweighs their collective land area. In this sense,they can be thought of as biodiversity ‘hot spots’.SIDS boast a truly unique assemblage of life. Many island species areendemic – found nowhere else on Earth. Given the strong correla-tion between isolation, island size, topographic variety, and the numberand proportion of endemic species, SIDS host higher concentrations ofendemic species than most other countries. Examples include Mauritius,where aproximately 50 per cent of all higher plants, mammals, birds, rep-tiles and amphibians are endemic; Cuba, which is home to 18 endemicmammals, i.e., six times more than nearby Guatemala and Honduras; andthe Seychelles, which has the highest level of amphibian endemism in theworld. As a result, SIDS also host a disproportionately large percentage ofthe world’s threatened species.5The relatively small number of island species coupled with their stronginterdependency and co-evolution, which makes them highly reliant oneach other for survival, makes island species highly vulnerable to extinc-SiDS Trends Report Natural Resources << 26 >>
  • tion. The growing number of threatened and rare island spe-cies is highlighted by the disproportionate number of extinc- Fishery Production Totals (aquaculture and capture)tions compared to those of continental systems. Almost 50per cent of the 724 animal extinctions recorded during the Total Aquaculture Capturepast 400 years were island species. This percentage reaches SIDS Average Singapore90 per cent if we only consider bird species. 40000 16000 35000 14000 30000 12000 Metric tons Metric tons 25000 10000While overall fishery production levels are increasing, 20000 8000negative trends are visible in a number of countries. 15000 6000 10000 4000SIDS are highly dependent on their coastal and marine 5000 2000 0 0resources, particularly fish stocks, for their livelihoods. In the 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005Pacific, tuna fishery contributes more than 10 per cent of GDP Belize Cuba 70000 140000and over 50 per cent of exports in some SIDS; while subsist- 60000 120000 Metric tonsence fishing supplies 50 to 90 per cent of the animal protein Metric tons 50000 100000 40000diet of people in rural areas and remote islands. To protect 80000 30000 60000their valuable resources, SIDS have established vessel moni- 40000 20000toring systems, introduced national fishery plans and policies, 10000 20000and developed aquaculture to promote food security. As a 0 0 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005result, the overall fishery production levels are increasing in Fiji MauritiusSIDS. However, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing, 50000 18000 16000harmful fishing methods, and overfishing are severely dam- 40000 14000 Metric tons Metric tons 12000aging fish stocks in many SIDS.6 30000 10000 8000Furthermore, climate change and sea-level rise,7 as well as 20000 6000 4000the loss of coral reefs, and ocean warming and acidification, 10000 2000may negatively impact fisheries in SIDS. There is a widening 0 0 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005gap between the fish needed for food security and thefish available from coastal fisheries in many countries in Source: FAO (2007), Fisheries and Aquaculture Information and Statistics Service. 2007. Total productionthe Pacific region, exacerbated by population growth. The 1950-2005. FISHSTAT Plus.potential economic loss is cause for equal concern. Western Note: Aggregated data does not include Cook Islands or Tuvalu.and Central Pacific Ocean tuna fisheries have an estimatedannual market value of US$6-8 billion, about half of which is ENDNOTEStaken from the territorial waters of Pacific SIDS and Territories, 1 World Meteorological Organization (2005). 5 Convention on Biological Diversity (2010). 2 Yang, Reichert, Abbaspour and Zehnder (2003). 6 Commonwealth Secretariat (2010).providing revenues of about US$60-70 million in licensing fees 7 IPCC (2007). 3 Falkenmark and Widstrand (1992).from predominantly foreign fishing fleets to the region. 4 Pfannkuch (2003).SiDS Trends Report Natural Resources << 27 >>
  • SOCiALDEvELOpMENTSIDS have made considerable progress toward the attainmentof certain social development goals, including health, education,gender balance, and access to water and sanitation. However,while many SIDS experienced steady economic growth rates priorto the global financial crisis, systematic eradication of poverty hasremained a challenge for most countries. Limited human resourcecapacity is an ongoing issue, particularly due to the high levels ofemigration among the most educated population. Population with sustainable access to improved drinking water and sanitation Access to drinking water and sanitation SIDS (Drinking Water) SIDS (Sanitation) is improving in most SIDS. Pacific Pacific 100 Caribbean Caribbean There is significant disparity among the regions with regard to access AIMS AIMS to improved drinking water and sanitation facilities, with the Caribbean 90 region having achieved the highest levels among the SIDS, and the AIMS 80 region lagging behind, though improving more rapidly in recent years. Some countries, such as Comoros, Maldives and Samoa, show a reverse 70 trend for access to drinking water, while Haiti and the Federated States of Micronesia have seen a worsening of access to improved sanitation 60 facilities. 50 The fragile and sometimes over-burdened water distribution and sani- tation systems of many SIDS are further threatened by natural disasters. 40 1990 1995 2000 2006 Following hurricanes, there is often a heightened risk of contamination ofSource: UN MDG Indicators Database, 2010. these systems due to service interruption, with the increased probability ofNote: Data not weighted by population. water-borne disease outbreaks.SiDS Trends Report Social Development << 28 >>
  • SIDS have made substantial progress in reducing child mortality. Percentage of population that is undernourishedSignificant gains in reducing child mortality have been made by Maldives,which lowered its rate to 30 per 1,000 live births, less than one third of its 251990 rate of 111. Haiti and Comoros reduced their child mortality by half, SIDS Caribbean Pacific AIMSbut their respective rates remain high at 76 and 66. Guinea-Bissau (198), 20Sao Tome and Principe (99) and Timor-Leste (97) had the highest rates ofchild mortality among the SIDS in 2007. 15 Children under 5 mortality rate per 1,000 live births 10 100 90 5 80 70 0 60 AIMS 1990-1992 1995-1997 2000-2002 2004-2006 50 Pacific Source: FAO, 2010. 40 SIDS Note: Data not weighted by population. Pacific average reflects only Kiribati, Solomon Islands, 30 Caribbean Timor-Leste and Vanuatu due to data availability. 20 10 0 1990 1995 2000 2005 2007Source: UN MDG Indicators Database, 2010.Note: Data not weighted by population.The percentage of undernourished populationis declining overall, but adequate nutrition remains an issue.While the general trend shows a gradual decrease in the share of under-nourished population among the SIDS, several countries, including Anti-gua and Barbuda, Comoros, Grenada, Guinea-Bissau, and Timor-Lesteshow the opposite trend. Over 50 per cent of the populations of Comorosand Haiti were undernourished in 2004-2006. In addition to undernour-ishment, malnourishment is a public health problem in many SIDS. Thetrend towards urbanization and increased dependency on food importsand non-traditional, often processed, foods, which are nutritionally inferior,are leading to higher rates of obesity, heart disease and diabetes. VitaminSiDS Trends Report Social Development << 29 >>
  • and mineral deficiencies (VMDs), which can coexist in populations that areoverweight or undernourished, are an ongoing concern. Nutritional anae-mia is the most prevalent VMD disorder found in most Pacific SIDS. Anae-mia affects the cognitive development of children, reduces adult produc-tivity, increases the risk of pregnancy complications and maternal mortality,and impairs immune response.1Enrolment in primary education shows mixed progress amongthe SIDS, and there is concern about declining completion rates.Participation in primary education is relatively high among the SIDS, withnet enrolment rates varying from 63 to 99 per cent. However, in some SIDS(Bahamas, Cape Verde, Cook Islands, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Gre-nada, Trinidad and Tobago and Vanuatu), net enrolment ratios are declin-ing. There has also been mixed progress on increasing the number of chil-dren who complete school, with primary school completion rates decliningmost significantly in Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, the Dominican Republicand Fiji, but improving in Samoa, Tonga and Sao Tome and Principe. Net enrolment rate in primary education (SIDS Average) Percentage of school age children enroled in primary school 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1991 1999 2000 2003 2005 2007 Source: UN MDG Indicators Database, 2010SiDS Trends Report Social Development << 30 >>
  • Emigration rate of tertiary educated Internet users (per 100 people) (per cent of total tertiary educated population), 2000 60 40 World SIDS Average Pacific Caribbean LDCs Caribbean AIMS 35 50 30 40 Average 25 AIMS 30 20 20 15 Pacific 10 10 5 0 0 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008Source: The World Bank, World Development Indicators, 2009 Source: ITU, 2010.General literacy rates are high among the SIDS, but literacy is still not uni- Information and communication technologies (ICTs) continueversal, with Haiti, Papua New Guinea and Belize being of greatest concern. to play a major role in the development of SIDS in many areas. ICTs offer a singular means for SIDS to address their development con-The limited capacity of SIDS is further exacerbated straints of remoteness, lack of economies of scale, and limited humanby the emigration of their most educated residents. resources. SIDS governments, the private sector and end users are becoming increasingly connected to the internet, leading to opportuni-A university graduate from one of the SIDS is nearly four times more likely ties for greater economic diversification, improved institutional capac-to emigrate from his or her country than a university graduate from an ity, and innovative development. Many countries, particularly in the Car-LDC. When compared to the world as a whole, SIDS are eight times more ibbean and AIMS regions, have developed information-based servicelikely to experience ‘brain drain’ as manifested by the emigration of their industries, including data entry and manipulation, information manage-tertiary-educated populations. Since most SIDS do not have nationally- ment, call centers and financial services. E-government and e-learningbased universities, students relocate to attend education institutions in have increased substantially as countries seek to use ICT to connect theirregional centres or in developed countries, often staying on to work after citizens for education, commerce, health and cultural development. Thisthe completion of their studies. The growing proliferation of ICT, includ- has been facilitated by a number of steps taken in SIDS toward invest-ing increasing availability of distance learning and online degree pro- ment in infrastructure, adoption of comprehensive legislation and liber-grams is expected not only to allow a greater number of SIDS residents alisation of the communications access higher education, but may also help stem brain drain.SiDS Trends Report Social Development << 31 >>
  • Youth unemployment continues to be a concern for many countries, but the general trend is toward improvement. Improving Social Services in Samoa The integration of youth into society is challenged by the frequent lack In 2008 Samoa ranked 77 out of 177 countries in the Human Develop- of connectivity between the educational system and the labour market. ment Index due to strrong social indicators such as life expectancy, Youth unemployment is a priority issue, particularly in the Caribbean literacy and access to water, health and education services. SIDS such as Saint Lucia, where it reached 41% in 2004. Combined with relatively elevated school drop-out rates, youth unemployment can have The Samoan government maintains a strong commitment to educa- detrimental social effects, contributing to crime and teenage pregnancy. tion. Primary education is compulsory and free (as of January 2010). In order to incentivize enrolment in the wake of the recent global crises, the government introduced a School Fee Relief scheme, which also supports the achievement of the goal of universal primary education Youth unemployment rate, aged 15 – 24 (SIDS average) by 2015. The net enrolment in primary education is 98 per cent, with- out a marked gender difference. More children are staying in school 40 longer and the transition rate to secondary schooling is increasing. 35 Measures are being taken to resolve limited access to senior second- ary education and inequitable access to quality education, to improve 30 the quality of teaching staff and to provide adequate facilities for 25 learning. Since Samoa is not endowed with many natural resources, an educated and skilled labour force is considered the most valuable 20 resource for its development. 15 The government of Samoa has recognized that a healthy labour force 10 is a pre-requisite for effective and efficient management of the econ- omy. Currently Samoa has health indicators equivalent to those of 5 some developed countries. The under-5 mortality rate (per 1000 live 0 births) has declined from 42 in 1990 to 15 in 2008. Similarly, the infant 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 mortality rate (per 1000 live births) has decreased from 33 in 1990 to 9 in 2008. Health promotion and prevention remain key strategic Source: UN MDG Indicators Database, 2010. focus areas. Primary health care services are being improved through Note: Graph based on sparse data for 18 SIDS, predominantly in the Caribbean, resulting in a strengthening primary and secondary prevention and treatment pro- large margin of error. grams for non-communicable diseases (NCD). An integrated commu- nity health service has been established and mobile health clinics are in service to serve better rural communities. 2 ENDNOTES 1 UN ESCAP (2010). 2 The Government of Samoa (2010).SiDS Trends Report Social Development << 32 >>
  • SuMMARy OF pROGRESSON MiLLENNiuM DEvELOpMENT GOALSSIDS have progressed well in terms of the gender, health, and certain education and environment goals. However, the SIDS group hasprogressed less than most other groupings (or even regressed) in terms of economic growth and poverty reduction, as well as in terms ofdebt sustainability. SOURCE Antigua and Barbuda UNDP Barbados UNDP Belize UNDP Cape Verde UNDP Comoros UNDP Mixed Cook Islands * ϒ ϒ ϒ ϒ ϒ ∋ Cuba UNDP Dominica UNDP Dominican Republic UNDP Mixed Fiji * ϒ ϒ * ϒ Grenada UNDP Guinea-Bissau UNDP Guyana UNDP Haiti UNDP Kiribati ∋ ESCAP Icon Legend: Early Achiever On track Slow, possible to achieve if some changes are made Regressing/No progressSiDS Trends Report Summary of progress on MDGs << 33 >>
  • SOURCE Maldives UNDP Marshall Islands ESCAP ∋ Mauritius UNDP Micronesia, Federated ESCAP States of ∋ Nauru ESCAP ∋ Mixed Niue * * Palau ESCAP Papua New Guinea * * ϒ ∋ ∋ Mixed Samoa * ϒ ϒ ϒ ∋ Mixed Sao Tome and Principe UNDP Singapore UNDP Solomon Islands ∋ ESCAP ∋ Suriname UNDP Timor-Leste * ϒ ∋ ∋ Mixed Tonga ESCAP ∋ ∋ Tuvalu ESCAP Vanuatu ∋ ESCAP ∋ ∋Icon Legend: Early Achiever On track Slow, possible to achieve if some changes are made Regressing/No progressSource: UNDP MDG Monitor at, supplemented with data from ESCAP/ADB/UNDP (2009), The ENDNOTESmillennium development goals (MDGs) in the Pacific Island countries: taking stock, emerging issues and way forward. Where ∗ ESCAP Report data not available for this goal; UNDP MDG Monitorindicator progress data was not available from one source, the other source was used. Where data from the two sources showed data used.different levels of progress, the ESCAP/ADB/UNDP (2009) data was used as the most up to date information for the Pacific ϒSIDS. Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development is not included because data was not available for the majority of ESCAP Report data contradicts UNDP MDG Monitor data; reportcountries. No data was available from either source for the Bahamas, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent data used.and the Grenadines, Seychelles and Trinidad and Tobago. ∋ Estimate based on aggregation of indicators in ESCAP Report.SiDS Trends Report Summary of progress on MDGs << 34 >>
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  • READER’S NOTES Reader’s Notes << 37 >>
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  • USD 20 ISBN 978-92-1-104610-6Printed at the United Nations, New York10-43603—August 2010—2,200