Trends in Sustainable Development – Small Island Developing States :: 2010-2011

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Issued in support of the five-year review of the Mauritius Strategy of Implementation for the sustainable development of SIDS, the report highlights the vulnerabilities of SIDS and recent trends in their sustainable development.

The key areas covered by the report are:

climate change
disaster management
trade and finance
tourism
energy
natural resources
social development

It also provides a visual summary of progress made by SIDS in attaining the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), based on analysis performed by UNDP and ESCAP.

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Trends in Sustainable Development – Small Island Developing States :: 2010-2011

  1. 1. TRENDS IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES (SIDS) 2010
  2. 2. Department of Economic and Social AffairsDivision for Sustainable DevelopmentTRENDSIN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTSmall Island Developing States (SIDS)United NationsNew York, 2010
  3. 3. DESAThe Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat is a vital interface between global policies inthe economic, social and environmental spheres and national action. The Department works in three main interlinked areas: (i) itcompiles, generates and analyses a wide range of economic, social and environmental data and information on which MemberStates of the United Nations draw to review common problems and to take stock of policy options; (ii) it facilitates the negotia-tions of Member States in many intergovernmental bodies on joint courses of action to address ongoing or emerging globalchallenges; and (iii) it advises interested Governments on the ways and means of translating policy frameworks developed inUnited Nations conferences and summits into programmes at the country level and, through technical assistance, helps buildnational capacities. Note The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opin- ion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country or territory or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitations of its frontiers. The term “country” as used in the text of the present report also refers, as appropriate, to territories or areas. The designations of country groups in the text and the tables are intended solely for statistical or analytical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgment about the stage reached by a par- ticular country or area in the development process. Mention of the names of firms and commercial products does not imply the endorsement of the United Nations. United Nations publication Sales No. E.10.II.A.12 ISBN 978-92-1-104610-6 Copyright © United Nations, 2010 All rights reserved Printed at the United Nations, New York
  4. 4. FOREWORDSmall Island Developing States (SIDS) face unique and special challenges. The special case of SIDS within the context of sustainabledevelopment was first formally recognized by the international community at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Devel-opment (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. Chapter 17, paragraph 124 of Agenda 21 states, “Small island developing States, andislands supporting small communities are a special case both for environment and development. They are ecologically fragile and vul-nerable. Their small size, limited resources, geographic dispersion and isolation from markets, place them at a disadvantage economi-cally and prevent economies of scale.” Since UNCED, a number of international frameworks were established that shed light on thelimitations faced by SIDS in achieving sustainable development. Agenda 21 highlights that there are special challenges to planning forand implementing sustainable development in SIDS, and that SIDS will be constrained in meeting these challenges without the coop-eration and assistance of the international community. In 1994, the Barbados Programme of Action (BPOA) translated Agenda 21 intospecific actions and measures to enable SIDS to achieve sustainable development. In 2005, the Mauritius Strategy (MSI) for the furtherImplementation of the BPOA was adopted with a view to addressing the implementation gap that still confronted SIDS. In 2010, a highlevel meeting will be convened during the sixty-fifth session of the United Nations General Assembly to carry out a five-year review ofthe progress made in addressing the vulnerabilities of SIDS through the MSI.In support of the five-year review of the MSI, this report highlights key developments and recent trends for SIDS in a number of areas.Notwithstanding the importance of all the issues contained in the MSI, this publication will present those themes for which sufficientstatistical data has been found to be available, comparable among all three SIDS regions (i.e., Caribbean, Pacific and AIMS), and reflec-tive of clear trends that illustrate the uniqueness of SIDS. Based on these three criteria, the report will focus on climate change, disastermanagement, trade and finance, tourism, energy, natural resources, and social development.In summary, the report notes progress in a number of areas while, at the same time, acknowledging that significant further efforts will beneeded to advance implementation of the intergovernmentally agreed goals outlined in the MSI, as well as those set forth in the Millen-nium Development Goals (MDGs).Tariq BanuriDepartment of Economic and Social AffairsDivision for Sustainable DevelopmentJune 2010 Foreword << iii >>
  5. 5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTSDESA is very appreciative of the support received in preparing this publication, and wishes to acknowledge the kind assistance pro-vided by the: Sub-regional Headquarters for the Caribbean of the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and theCaribbean (ECLAC-POS); Pacific Operations Centre (EPOC) of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and thePacific (ESCAP); United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD); United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP);United Nations Development Programme (UNDP); United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); UnitedNations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT); United Nations Office of the High Representative for the Least DevelopedCountries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States (OHRLLS); Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO);World Tourism Organization (WTO); Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (SCBD); International TelecommunicationUnion (ITU); Caribbean Community (CARICOM) Secretariat; Commonwealth Secretariat (COMSEC); Indian Ocean Commission (IOC);Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat (PIFS); South Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP); International Union for Conservationof Nature (IUCN); Global Island Partnership (GLISPA); and Sea Level Rise Foundation. Acknowledgements << iv >>
  6. 6. CONTENTS PAgE FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii INTRODUcTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 DEMOGRAphiC TRENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 CLiMATE ChANGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 NATuRAL DiSASTER MANAGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 TRADE AND FiNANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 TOuRiSM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 ENERGy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 NATuRAL RESOuRCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 SOCiAL DEvELOpMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 SuMMARy OF pROGRESS ON MiLLENNiuM DEvELOpMENT GOALS . . . . . . . . . . 33 REFERENcES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
  7. 7. iNTRODuCTiONSince the international meeting in Mauritius in 2005, substantial progresshas been achieved in SIDS1 in a number of areas. The Millennium ESCAP economic crisis vulnerability index for 24 SIDSDevelopment Goals Report 2009 noted this progress, but also highlighted compared with the average for all LDCs (SIDS and non-SIDS)4the importance of renewed and sustained action, especially in light of 1.0the high vulnerability of the natural, economic and social systems of SIDS LDC SIDS Non-LDC Economic crisis vulnerabilitySIDS. This vulnerability is largely due to intrinsic characteristics of SIDS, 0.8 LDCincluding: small size; remoteness; vulnerability to external (demand average 0.6and supply-side) shocks; narrow resource base; and exposure to globalenvironmental challenges.2 0.4The risk is that these and other related vulnerabilities could jeopardize 0.2the progress achieved thus far. In some cases, improved economic andgovernance capacity in SIDS has been offset by reduced resilience to 0.0 Fiji Verde Co Sol os Sao n Isla Ma tu Sam Sey Ton lles Gre Bel Do Jam ica Sai Sai G An Vince adin Do ua an and Sai Sur Kitts Ca Bar Pap os Ma New Trin ius Vanexternal shocks.3 the ucia pe tig mo nt L nt ren nt min min d B om ldiv ize urit ina bad che nad ua ga ua ida aic oa Tom nds r me nd N o ica es da a a ea n R rbud nd a nt es nd Gu epu a Tob a Prin ine blic evi ago a cip s e Source: ESCAP and DESA, based on ESCAP research and methodologies in the ESCAP/ ADB/UNDP (2010) Asia-Pacific Regional Report 2009/10. The continuing global economic and financial crisis has had dire conse- quences for the economies of SIDS, while the global food and energy crises, coupled with the uneven pace of insertion into global trade and development processes, and the negative impacts of climate change, have exacerbated the structural vulnerabilities of these countries. The vulnerabilities of SIDS include exposure to global environmental challenges, such as climate change (sea level rise, destruction of coral reefs critical to food security and tourism), biodiversity loss, waste pollu- tion and acidification of the oceans.Photo Credit: Shahee SiDS Trends Report introduction << 1 >>
  8. 8. Environmental vulnerability index for 33 SIDS compared with the average for all LDCs5 500 SIDS LDC SIDS Non-LDC Environmental vulnerability 400 LDC average 300 200 100 0 An ada Rep Co atu land Ca gua a Gu ame Ha lu Sa i So oa Ba u Jam ad Tu dives Se Vinc Gr inic Gu oros Kir Pa shall Ba Su St. aica d To Be e Ve d Ba Ba a N Va mon To Tri a Ma helle t and Cu Ma ati Sa ea-B Ma itts a Na ome au Fij Sai Pa Do ain m lo yc rba va lau p rin as o T is s ti nu hr it en an ham ew i m ng lize rde rb yan nid ib pu ba in ur nt Photo Credit: UNDP r l uri m K do tiu d Ne a s s an Is la Is n s en n an ENDNOTES nd Gu dP s s ine ub ba v is r in the ud go lic a c ip 1 For the purposes of this publication, the term SIDS refers to the following countries and regional groupings: Carib- a Gr e bean: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, ena Jamaica, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago; AIMS: Cape din Verde, Comoros, Guinea-Bissau, Maldives, Mauritius, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Singapore; Pacific: Cook es Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa,Source: DESA calculations based on United Nations Environment Programme/SOPAC methodology. Solomon Islands, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu. 2 UN ECOSOC (2010). 3 UN ESCAP (2010).Through its 19 themes and seven means of implementation, the MSI offers 4 The economic crisis vulnerability index is defined as the normalized difference between an exposure index and a cop- ing capacity index. Five indicators are used to measure the exposure to the economic crisis: (a) EXPY (index of exporta platform for addressing the challenges faced by SIDS in achieving sustain- sophistication) per GDP per capita; (b) foreign direct investment (as a percentage of GDP); (c) official development assistance (as a percentage of GDP); (d) workers’ remittances (as a percentage of GDP), and (e) inbound tourism (as aable development. Over the past five years, some of the major constraints percentage of GDP). The capacity to mitigate the crisis is assessed using five different indicators: (a) external public debt stocks to GDP ratio; (b) total reserves in months of imports; (c) gross savings to GDP ratio; (d) government effectiveness:in the implementation of the MSI have included: declining levels of official World Bank Worldwide Governance Indicators, and (e) Human Development Index.development assistance; lack of technical expertise; and financial, technical 5 The Environmental Vulnerability Index is based on 50 indicators covering natural/anthropogenic risks, resilience and ecosystem integrity, and covers issues related to climate change, biodiversity, water, agriculture and fisheries, humanand institutional challenges in terms of monitoring and evaluation. health, desertification, and exposure to natural disasters.Although SIDS are confronted with increasing challenges, the growing inter-national consensus surrounding the need to support SIDS offers an unprec-edented opportunity to advance their sustainable development efforts.SiDS Trends Report introduction << 2 >>
  9. 9. DEMOGRAphiC TRENDSThe SIDS are a diverse group of countries with respect to est among the SIDS, with 2010 median population ages of 17.4  yearspopulation size, GDP and the median age of their populations. and 18.7 years, respectively. SIDS also demonstrate an overall correla-On average, Pacific and AIMS SIDS (excluding Singapore and Mauritius) tion between GDP and median population age. Several of the Caribbeanhave relatively young populations. This is due in part to lower life expect- SIDS have relatively older populations and higher GDP overall. Singa-ancy, higher fertility rates, and high rates of emigration of the working age pore, with a 2010 median population age of 40.6, GDP of US$39,423, andpopulation in some SIDS. Timor-Leste and Guinea-Bissau are the young- a population size of 4.8 million is a clear outlier among the SIDS. Median population age in relation to population size and GDP (2008 US$) 25,000 Bahamas 20,000 Trinidad and Tobago 15,000 Barbados GDP (2008 US$) 10,000 Grenada Dominican Republic Papua New Guinea Mauritius Cape Verde Saint Lucia Vanuatu Belize Sao Tome SVG 5,000 Samoa Maldives and Principe Suriname Jamaica Cuba Tonga Fiji Timor-Leste FSM Comoros Guyana 0 15 20 Haiti 25 30 35 40 Guinea-Bissau Solomon Islands -5,000 Population age (years)Source: UN DESA, 2010; World Bank, World Development Indicators, 2010.Note: Size of circles represents relative population size.SiDS Trends Report Demographic Trends << 3 >>
  10. 10. Changes in population structure: SIDS average Annual population growth (urban vs. rural): 2008 Proportion of population under 15 years old (percentage) Less than 15 60 and older 45 40 6 15-59 Proportion of youth 41.6 40 Annual percentage growth 35 4 Population (millions) 35.2 35 30 30 2 25.3 25 25 20 0 20 17.2 16.9 15 Sa inc Ca 14.8 To D ep M Be Pa Se Ti Fi Su Ha 15 -2 om u o ip m Pr al ji pe ng la yc liz rin it i R di 11.3 To e or u he in blic e a am Ve ve 10 -L m ic lle 10 es s e rd an e -4 s te an e 5.8 d 5 3.4 5 -6 0 0 1990 2010 2030 Rural population growth (annual %) Urban population growth (annual %)Source: UN DESA, 2010. Source: World Bank, World Development Indicatiors, 2010.The population will continue to age, due to decreasing fertility share the common trend of increasing urbanization. The percentage ofrates and longer life expectancy. the population living in urban areas across all SIDS has increased 11 perFrom 43.5 million in 1990, population is expected to reach 70.1 million by cent, from 49.5 per cent in 1990 to 55 per cent in 2008. Increasing urban2030. The share of people under 15 in the total population is expected to population density is also an important concern for SIDS, the populationsdecline, from 34 per cent in 1990 to 24 per cent in 2030. Population aged of which are often concentrated on a few small islands. While densities15 to 59 is expected to grow from 25 million in 1990 to 42 million in 2030. in excess of 5,000-10,000 people/square kilometre are usually associatedPopulation aged 60 and above is expected to grow even more rapidly, with urban poverty in Africa and Asia, the capital of the Maldives, Malé,nearly doubling from 2010 to 2030. is home to nearly a third of the country’s population and has a density of over 17,000/km². Ebeye in the Marshall Islands had a population density of 38,600/km² in 2007.1 Migration of people to urban settlements, most oftenUrbanization is widespread and increasing among the SIDS. located along the coastline, puts increasing pressure on coastal ecosys-While the SIDS vary widely with respect to the share of population liv- tems and on the settlements themselves, which must be properly planneding in cities and towns, ranging from Singapore, standing at 100 per cent, and responsibly developed to ensure the provision of social services andto Papua New Guinea and Trinidad and Tobago with 13 per cent, they prevent environmental degradation. ENDNOTES 1 Haberkorn (2008).SiDS Trends Report Demographic Trends << 4 >>
  11. 11. CLiMATE ChANGESIDS are especially vulnerable to climate change due totheir small size, narrow resource base, high susceptibility to Countries with largest population sharesnatural hazards, low economic resilience, and limited human in the Low Elevation Coastal Zone (LECZ)and technological capacity for mitigating and adapting to the 100effects of climate change.1 The very existence of low-lying atoll 90 Percent of population in LECZnations, such as Kiribati, Maldives, Marshall Islands, and Tuvalu, 80is threatened by climate change-induced sea-level rise. 70 60 50Sea-level rise is a key concern for SIDS. 40A large proportion of the population of many SIDS lives in the low ele- 30 20vation coastal zone (LECZ), defined as the contiguous area along the 10coast that is less than 10 metres above sea level.2 These settlements are 0extremely vulnerable to sea-level rise, storm surges, floods and other Ne Ba Su Ba M Vi D G Ba M ng th al jib et rin uy ha ac hr erclimate change-induced hazards. In 2007, the IPCC estimated that by di lad na ou an am m lan ai ao ve es m as n a ti ds e s h2100, global warming will lead to a sea-level rise of 180 to 590 mm,while more recent research suggests that these estimates are likely to Source: McGranahan, 2006.be at least twice as large, up to about two meters.3 Nations such as Kiri- Note: Countries with less than 100,000 people living in the LECZ are excluded in the methodologybati, Maldives, Marshall Islands and Tuvalu will become uninhabitable used in the source report. Fifteen small island states that are excluded have population shares greater than 39 per cent in the LECZ. in this scenario, while a large share of the population of many other SIDS will be displaced or otherwise adversely impacted. SIDS contribute little to the problem of climate change, but greenhouse gas emissions are on the rise. The combined annual carbon dioxide (CO2) output of SIDS accounts for less than one per cent of global emissions.4 However, like other coun- tries, SIDS face serious challenges in reducing emissions and moving to clean energy. From 1990 to 2006, CO2 emissions of SIDS increased at an average annual rate of 2.3 per cent. Emissions ranged from as lowSiDS Trends Report Climate Change << 5 >>
  12. 12. as 0.16 tons of CO2 per capita in Timor-Leste to as high as 25 tons in Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions: 1990-2006 Trinidad and Tobago in 2006. Other SIDS Mauritius Trinidad and Tobago Jamaica Climate change adaptation is a top priority for SIDS. 200 Suriname Dominican Republic In 2001, the UNFCCC decided that the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) Singapore Cuba 180 “should be assisted in preparing National Adaptation Programs of Action Papua New Guinea Bahamas 160 (NAPAs) to address urgent and immediate needs and concerns related to adaptation to the adverse effects of climate change.” Assisted by the Glo- Metric tons (millions) 140 120 bal Environment Facility (GEF) and funded by the LDC Fund, NAPAs were 100 developed for 11 of the 12 SIDS which are also LDCs. Overall, SIDS have 80 made major efforts to carry out climate change adaptation measures, but 60 progress thus far has seemed to focus on public awareness, research and 40 policy development rather than on implementation, largely due to finan- 20 cial and technological constraints.6 The extent to which different thematic 0 areas vulnerable to climate change are addressed in adaptation plans var- ies among the SIDS. Areas of greatest concern are water resources, agri- 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 culture and food security, and the protection of coastal zones, found inSource: UN MDG Indicators Database, 2010 (CDIAC data). over 85 per cent of adaptation plans.Note: Other SIDS does not include the Federated States of Micronesia or Tuvalu.Data excludes emissions from bunker fuels and land use-related emissions. Climate change adaptation focus areas across SIDS 100 Percentage of adaptation communications 90 addressing each thematic area 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 W Ag Pr He Fo Fi Hu Bi Co Pr To En W at ric ot alt re sh m od ra ot u er a er ul ec h s try er ie an ive lr ec ris m gy ste re tu tio s se rs ee tio m sou re n ity fs n an of ttl of ag rc an em e s d co en in em fo as fra en od ta ts st t se lz ru cu on ct es ur rit es yPhoto Credit: Reuters Source: SIDS Unit, based on NAPAs and UNFCCC National Communications.SiDS Trends Report Climate Change << 6 >>
  13. 13. Addressing climate change in the Maldives The small size and extremely low elevation of the coral islands that make up the Maldives place the residents and their livelihoods under threat from climate change, particularly sea-level rise. The highest land point is a mere 2.4 metres above sea level, and over 80 per cent of the total land area is less than 1m above sea level. At present, 42 per cent of the population and 47 per cent of all housing structures are within 100m of coastline, placing them under severe threat of inundation.5 Over the last 6 years, more than 90 inhabited islands have been flooded at least once and 37 islands have been flooded regularly or at least once a year. During the 2004 tsunami, many of the islands were completely submerged, illustrating their critical vulnerability. Given the severity of anticipated sea-level rise, population reloca- tion is viewed as inevitable. The government has planned to begin diverting a portion of the country’s annual tourism revenue for the establishment of an investment fund, with a view to purchasing ‘dry land’ to ensure a safe haven for future evacuation. Maldives’ planned evacuations in anticipation of loss of land will inevitably impact sovereignty and national identity. Although Maldives contributes very little to the problem of climate change, the government has pledged to make the country carbon- neutral within a decade. Toward this goal, clean electricity would power not only homes and businesses, but also vehicles. As an added benefit, Maldives would no longer need to import expensive fossil fuels. In addition to relocation and mitigation options, Maldives has focused on reducing vulnerability to sea-level rise through adapta- ENDNOTES tion measures, including undertaking detailed technical and engi- 1 Nurse (2000). neering studies to identify coastal protection options; re-forestation 2 McGranahan (2007). to prevent beach erosion; cleaning litter and debris from the coral 3 Estimates are based on a conservative climate sensitivity parameter. The non-linear nature of climate sensitivity implies an increasing probability of much higher sea-level rise. reefs – a natural barrier against tidal surges; teaching environmen- 4 UN-OHRLLS (2009). tal science in school; and imposing rigorous environmental impact 5 Government of the Republic of Maldives (2010). assessment on all new resorts. 6 UN ECOSOC (2010).SiDS Trends Report Climate Change << 7 >>
  14. 14. NATuRAL DiSASTERMANAGEMENTNatural disasters in many SIDS have undone the developmentachievements of years, even decades. Climate change induced Total number of disasters affecting SIDSnatural disasters, such as cyclones, floods and droughts have by type of disaster: 1990 - 2009increased in frequency and intensity over the past few decades, Extreme Temperaturefurther hampering SIDS’ ability to recover between extreme Wildfire 0%events. Resources continue to flow primarily to post-disaster 1% Epidemic Earthquake 7%activities rather than towards disaster risk reduction and the Drought 10% 5%improvement of coping capacity.1 Mass movement 3% V olcano 4% Storm 45% Flood 25% Source: EMDAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database, 2010. Natural disasters, particularly storms and floods, have been increasing in frequency and intensity Hydro-meteorological disasters, including cyclones, tropical storms and other windstorm related events, are the most common, accounting for an estimated 45 per cent of all natural disasters in SIDS, but the share of the damage impact is even larger. Significant flooding is one of the after- effects of cyclones, estimated to cause 25 per cent of the disasters. Worldwide, ten of the fifteen most extreme events reported over the past half century have occurred in the last fifteen years. In addition to being increasingly vulnerable in terms of exposure to natural disasters, SIDS also face a number of threats which further weaken their coping capacity, including urbanisation and environmental degradation. Increased urban-Photo Credit: NASASiDS Trends Report Natural Disaster Management << 8 >>
  15. 15. Number of SIDS affected by natural disasters 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1970 1973 1976 1979 1982 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006 2009Source: EMDAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database, 2010.Note: Including extreme temperatures, earthquakes, storms, floods, volcanoes,mass movements and droughts. isation and coastal development concentrate risk, while environmental Estimated damages from natural disasters and degradation in the form of deforestation, coral bleaching and loss of total population affected in SIDS mangroves removes natural protective barriers. 6000 7,000,000 The social and economic impacts of natural disasters are 5000 6,000,000 especially pronounced in SIDSEstimated damage (millions $) Population affected 4000 5,000,000 SIDS, due to their small size, large share of the population living in haz- 4,000,000 ard-prone coastal areas, and limited capacity for disaster risk reduction, 3000 are particularly vulnerable. The increase in the frequency and intensity of 3,000,000 natural disasters translates into larger numbers of people affected and 2000 2,000,000 greater economic damages. The increasing cost of disaster insurance 1000 1,000,000 due to the higher frequency of extreme events has significant implica- tions for resilience. 0 0 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Estimated Damage (US$) Total population affectedSource: EMDAT: The OFDA/CRED International Disaster Database, 2010. SiDS Trends Report Natural Disaster Management << 9 >>
  16. 16. Capital accumulation in Samoa, Saint Lucia and Progress in implementing Grenada from 1970 to 2006, in relative terms. the Hyogo Framework of Action, 2009 Actual Time trend Index of achievement (averaged per priority), 5 1,200 3,000 2,500 1,000 Samoa 2,500 Saint Lucia Grenada 4.5 2,000 2,000 4 800 1,500 3.5 600 1,500 1,000 scale of 0 to 5 400 3 500 200 1,000 2.5 0 0 -500 2 500 -200 -1,500 1.5 -400 0 1 1970 1980 1990 2000 1970 1980 1990 2000 1970 1980 1990 2000 0.5 0 Making disaster Risk assessment Education, Reducing Preparedness forSource: Baritto, 2008. risk reduction a and early warning information and underlying effective response policy priority, systems public awareness riskNote: Capital accumulation is described in relative terms for trend comparison purposes. institutional factors strengtheningSIDS economies have suffered long term consequencesfrom natural disasters Source: PreventionWeb, 2010.Samoa, Saint Lucia, Grenada, Vanuatu, Tonga and Maldives lead the list of Note: Data based on SIDS that reported in 2009: Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Maldives, Mauritius, Saint Lucia, Singapore, Vanuatu.180 countries with the highest economic losses on capital stock in relativeterms due to natural disasters from 1970 to 2006.2 In the case of Samoa, Disaster risk reduction initiatives are lagging in many SIDSdue to the relatively small size of its economy, the damages from a tropicalstorm and a forest fire in 1983 as well as three tropical storms in a row from The Hyogo Framework of Action (HFA) for disaster risk reduction aims to1989 to 1990, may have set its capital stock back more than 35 years. substantially reduce disaster losses by 2015 — in lives, and in the social, economic, and environmental assets of countries — by offering guiding principles, priorities for action, and practical means for achieving disas- ter resilience for vulnerable communities. Of the SIDS that adopted the framework at the World Conference on Disaster Reduction (2005), only four currently have national platforms for disaster reduction. Six SIDS sub- mitted reports on progress in the implementation of the HFA in 2007, and seven in 2009.3 While disaster risk reduction continues to be a policy prior- ity across SIDS, capacity constraints and limited financing hinder imple- mentation, as well as evaluation and reporting.SiDS Trends Report Natural Disaster Management << 10 >>

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