Digitale Mediers Historie

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Lysbilder fra en forelesning på Kunsthøskolen i Oslo, bachelor i design.

Lysbilder fra en forelesning på Kunsthøskolen i Oslo, bachelor i design.

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  • 1. Digitale medier før og nå Anders Fagerjord, Førsteamanuensis i medievitenskap, Universitetet i Oslo Kunsthøgskolen i Oslo, 4. januar 2010
  • 2. • Første generasjon:Vakumrør • 1944: Colossus (UK) Datamaskinens • • 1946: ENIAC (USA) historie 1949: CSIRAC (Australia, spilte musikk i 1951) • 1951: UNIVAC • 1952: IBM 701 • Andre generasjon: Transistorer • IBM 1401 (100 000 solgt 1960–61) • PDP-1 (Dataspillet Spacewar 1962) • Tredje generasjon: Minicomputer med mikrochip, fra 1963 (Apollo) • HP 2116 (1966) • Nova (1969, 50 000 solgt) • Fjerde generasjon: Mikrocomputer med mikroprosessor • 1973: Xerox Alto • 1975: Altair 8800 • 1977: Apple II, Commodore PET, TRS-80 • 1981: IBM PC • 1984: Apple Macintosh • 1985: Microsoft Windows
  • 3. 1945 Vannevar Bush: “memex” Text Vannevar Bush, “As We May Think” (Atlanic Monthly, 1945)
  • 4. foto: Joi Ito 1962: Spacewar
  • 5. 1963: Sketchpad
  • 6. 1965 Defininsjonen av hypertekst Sub-- Chronology Uncertain Chronoiogies r,e<: Lattice Var;ont. Car resE,t n,~er ,we Let me introduce the word "hypertext" to mean a body Catqgo,les t- . . . . . . , r- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . --~ Reading f ; ' ~ Notes I ;,. of written or pictorial material interconnected in such a Sourc9s 1 Sub!act 1 : I / Library index Demography I J Information "% I Table b__J complex way that it could not conveniently be Treaty Theoretical I IIl~Or~ 1 Igg ~ - ~ L.._. Arguments Professional Table presented or represented on paper. / / ..... / , . It may contain summaries, or maps of its contents and "~Outlin I ""- . ~',,~,nt, ~ Sublexls Source / Text Quotahons Bgblio( rephy / / Poin:ts -" 1 Footnotes F--:t-7"l 1o i their interrelations; it may contain annotations, Verbatim Check Sources I---/-- I t additions and footnotes from scholars who have examined it. (96) Sub-Outlines FIGURE 4 I E L F ' s capacity for total filing: hypothe- tical u s e by historian. Thin lines indicate l i n k s ; h e a v y rules indicate s o m e of s a m e entries. Theodore Holm Nelson: “A File Structure for The Complex, The Changing and the Indeterminate“. Proceedings of the 20th national conference Cleveland, Ohio, United States. New York: ACM, 1965. 84-100
  • 7. 1968 Doug Engelbart demonstrerer NLS Douglas C. Engelbart og William K. English: NLS Demonstration. Film. San Francisco, 8. desember 1968
  • 8. 1969 Hypertext Editing System (HES), Brown University foto: Greg Loyd
  • 9. foto: DigiBarn foto: Alan Kay 1973: Xerox Alto
  • 10. 1974 Theodore H. Nelson: Computer Lib/Dream Machines, 1974
  • 11. 1974 Theodore H. Nelson: Computer Lib/Dream Machines, 1974
  • 12. 1974 Theodore H. Nelson: Computer Lib/Dream Machines, 1974
  • 13. 1974 Theodore H. Nelson: Computer Lib/Dream Machines, 1974
  • 14. 1974 Theodore H. Nelson: Computer Lib/Dream Machines, 1974
  • 15. 1974 Theodore H. Nelson: Computer Lib/Dream Machines, 1974
  • 16. 1974 Theodore H. Nelson: Computer Lib/Dream Machines, 1974
  • 17. 1974 Theodore H. Nelson: Computer Lib/Dream Machines, 1974
  • 18. 1974 Theodore H. Nelson: Computer Lib/Dream Machines, 1974
  • 19. 1974 Theodore H. Nelson: Computer Lib/Dream Machines, 1974
  • 20. 1974 Theodore H. Nelson: Computer Lib/Dream Machines, 1974
  • 21. processing tasks. First,all idea processing is based on NoteCards is implemented within the Xerox embedded in their substance. As a rule, these were See a set of supporting facts for each argument. VanLehn's 1984 the reificationof ideas. Idea processing in NoteCards Lisp programming environment. or Unspecified links and were placed at the end of the card's text preceded by the word "See". There are also main goal was to compare the competing hypotheses progresses through the manipulation of tangible for each major issue by examining their underlying objects that represent or embody ideas and their 3.1 F o u r basic objects a few dozen Support, Argument, and Comment links arguments. interconnections. A notecard is an electronic generalization of the 3x5 between cards, although these links do not appear to NoteCards. Xerox PARC paper notecard. Each notecard contains an arbitrary function any differently than the See and Unspecified For his task, VanLehn invented the matrix Second, real-world idea processing tasks require summary card as shown in Figure 4. The summary manipulating moderately large amounts of amount of some editable "substance" such as a piece of links. text, a structured drawing, or a bitmap image. Each The author used this FileBox hierarchy card is a matrix of links providing an overview of the information. Support for idea processing presupposes card also has a title. Although the intent is that each primarily as a filing structure that insured easy access information relevant to the evaluation of a set of support for the task of managing this information. competing hypotheses. Each column in the matrix Thus, NoteCards provides storage and retrievalof idea card should contain about the same amount of to information as it was needed. The structure of the information as a typical 3x5 card, the system imposes paper he wrote only vaguely reflected the structure of represents a fact or feature about the world, e.g., the structures as well as tools to organize, maintain, and result of an experimental study. At the top of each exsmine the structure of the stored information. no constraints on the size of a notecard. On the screen, his FileBox hierarchy, suggesting that he organized cards are displayed using standard Xerox Lisp the paper outside the context of NoteCards. Although column is a link to a card describing the factor feature. Third, idea processing is an inherently variable Each row in the matrix represents one of the windows as shown in Figure 1. he created links between the non-FileBox cards, he did activity. Each specific idea processing task requires competing hypotheses. O n the right end the row is a specializedrepresentations and tools for manipulating Every notecard can be "edited", i.e., retrieved not appear to use these links while outlining and link to a card describing the hypothesis. and analyzing idea structures. Moreover as a user from the database and displayed on the screen in an writing the paper (Monty & Moran, 1986). editor window that provides the user with an In each cell of the matrix is a + (or -- or 0) link progresses through a given task, the character and to an argument card containing a short explanation of opportunity to modify the card's substance. There are 4.2 Using links in competitive a r g u m e n t a t i o n requirements of the task often change. Thus, how the fact represented by the cell's column supports NoteCards is a tailorable system that includes an various types of notecards, differentiated (in part) by The writing project described above involved relatively the nature of the substance (e.g., text or graphics) that little analysis of the information that was being (or rebuts, or is irrelevant to) the hypothesis extensive set of protocols and methods which can be represented by the cell's row. Using a matrix card, used to m a k e modifications to the system. they contain. In addition to a set of standard card organized using NoteCards. In contrast, Kurt ,_;apaDilil l e s o l N e w U ~ss~leo :~:~:~.,.~,~:!:..:.:~+..;:,:~.:,,.i!~ M a p : U iss i le R a n q e s :'.:il]:~i)iii: i::! i: .i:i :~ii.: .:: .~~:/:;:. ::.':'~ 6..~.="-'~#~%=~" ............. ~ ............... ~ ~l .:.:.~.~.:~:.:.;:.:.~:.:.:.:.:.:...............~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~..~.~.~.~.~.~.~.~.:~......~.....:.:...........:..:........:.:..:....:..~..~.:~................';i~/~/~/~/"~ i i ~ :=. .. ~:==::~ ...:.~ ,:....~...:~:.: .~ .~. ~..~.....~.....,.....~... ... :.:..~.~:....:.~.. '/ ! . { .... ..........{ ~ Even though the weapons in q u e s t i o n replace older weapons (the Pershing IA a n d t h e V u l c a n b o m b e r ) , b o t h a r e capable of more .destruction faster than their predecessors. T h i s is t h e l ~-~.N.O_F.r.~ Use Prnposi, ) { Cr|tidsms of' No First Use J result of new radar guidance . { ProoosAIs rer TNF Chanoe I ~ "r -- - - systems, wilh new levels of accuracy. ' " ~ ' -'-"-'~-{ Nucle4r Free Zone Propos41 { A l s o h a v e s u f f i c i e n t r a n g e t o rrJake vulnerable i n s t a l l a t i o n s a n d c i t i e s in / /{ Ortgies of NATO Doctrir~e { tE~e '~A/e:3tern US::3R, in t h e c a s e o f t h e P 2, w i t h i n a m a t t e r o f m i n u t e s . /I TNF Doctrine i ~ _ I~ . T ~ _ ~ _ . ~ ~ _ _ _ _ ~ ~ P~a~ f ~ C0 . . . . ~|onal Strengthenl~9 { (p, 371) See I G"k'"~" of Pershing ,,] ~.~ ~k ''~'~ '"~'~" ,.............. , ~" "~" ~ hmv "~[ Soviet TNE Ooctrioe { { Ori~es of Soviet Doctrine { '*The new American P e r s h i n g il missile, fitted with a radar-heming w a r h e a d , is d e s i g n e d t o b e e v e n more accurate. .As it f a l l s b a c k t o earth this compares a radar image o f t h e t a r g e t w i t h a n i m a g e s t o r e d in i!!i its c:on-lpuler m e m o r y . It : 3 h o u l l d Re~cticn to Deployment Decision in NAIO Countries t h e n b e a b l e t o s d j u s t its f l i g h t p a t h s o a s t o hit ils t a r g e t w i t h p i n - p o i n t accuracy a f t e r :9 j o u r n e y o f 1 , 6 0 0 kilometers." (p. 1 3 ) See ~1Federal Republic of Germany { .(_U~ecified) Tomahawk Characteristics I ~ Cd..CM character sties UIS TNF M{ss]ies ----'-'~ ' ' '-'-'--i Pershing li ch.raczerlszics ] Figure 1: Example notecards with embedded link icons. ~:!SiS!:!:::!:!~!;!:!:!:!:!:!:!~!;i~i:!:!~!~i:!~i:i:!:i:!:!:!:!:!:!:!~!:!:!:!:!:!:!*~!:i:!:!~!~!:i;i;i:i:i~!:!:!:!:!:!:!:i:!:!~:~!~!;i:!~i:!~i~!:!:i~i:~!:!:!:!~!:!:!:!:!:!:!~!:!~!:!:i:!:i:i~i~i:!:!~!~i:!~!:!:!~!:!:!:!:! Figure 3: Browser of the FileBox hierarchy from the public policy (Nato-missiles) NoteFiie. Theodore Holm Nelson: “A File Structure for The Complex, The Changing and the Randall H. Trigg og Peggy M. Irish. “Hypertext Habitats.” Proceedings ofconference Indeterminate“. Proceedings of the 20th national Hypertext Cleveland, Ohio, United States. New‘87. New York: ACM, 1987. York: ACM, 1965. 84-100
  • 22. 1985 Intermedia. Brown University Intermedia. Brown University Theodore Holm Nelson: “A File Structure for The Complex, The Changing and the Indeterminate“. Proceedings of the 20th national conference George P. Landow. Hypertext. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992. Cleveland, Ohio, United States. New York: ACM, 1965. 84-100
  • 23. which appear one at a time on the screen. 1986 The most important mechanism in Guide for exploring documents is the rqhcement-button. The replacement-button is a button within the document. It is an example of the ‘embedded menu’ described by Guide. Peter Brown, Kent University Koved and Schneiderman (1985), and implemented in their TlES system. When selected with the mouse, a Guide button is replaced in-line by the material linked with that button (as distinct from TIES, which causes a new frame to replace the current one). Typically the author will present a document initially in summary form, with replacement-buttons to allow the user to expand the parts of the document that interest him. For readers of this paper who are unfamiliar with Guide, Figure 1 shows how a document may initially be presented. The replacement-buttons are shown in a bold font - the same font as the menu. In Figure 1 all the replacement- buttons have the label More, though the author could, if he chose, have given them different labels. Figure 2 shows the result of selecting the More replacement-button below ‘Malaysia’s MMC Metals in Figure 1 (a close look at Figure 1 will show the cursor pointing at this). r & File Edit Search Display format font Size Hake New York shares -’ routd 27.52 polna m L rtroti 1431 .BB cbrc. .;i Mart :,,$ LLoyd’s of London :;:’ chitrtrccmivt,hn~~Ymrtir,ur nrigntlf. x1:;. Won .:l. Malaysia’s MMC Metals ‘jii: :j_i: .::: I” Figure 2: outcomefrom Figure 1 when the thirdMore is selected Figure I: an initial view of a document Typically the replacement of a button itself contains further buttons. A reader explores a sively expanding buttons, until he reaches the level of detail he wants. He thus tailors Peter screen to his reading needs. Into Products“. Proceedings of Hypertext ‘87 Brown: “Turning Ideas November1987 Hypertext‘87 Papers 35 Sometimes the reader will wish to go back to a lesser level of detail. He can at any time ‘ of any button previously selected, thus folding the replacement back under its 33–40 but New York: ACM, 1987. original space and generally makes the document more manageable and understandable. As the u mechanism is particularly simple: if anything you seeis at too great a level of detail you ju
  • 24. Hvorfor digitalisere?
  • 25. Hvorfor digitalisere? • Behandle
  • 26. Hvorfor digitalisere? • Behandle • Fotorealisme/high fidelity
  • 27. Hvorfor digitalisere? • Behandle • Fotorealisme/high fidelity • Distribuere i nett
  • 28. Hvorfor digitalisere? • Behandle • Fotorealisme/high fidelity • Distribuere i nett • Flytte mellom plattformer
  • 29. Lev Manovich: «New Media» • Numerisk representasjon • Modularitet • Automatisering • Variabilitet • Transkoding
  • 30. Teknologi Økonomi Medium § Bruk En mediemodell
  • 31. Trender nå • Data overalt (fortsatt): • Ubicomp (ubiquitous computing) • Wearable computing • Smart buildings • Enhanced Reality • Locative media • Web-applikasjoner, tjenester (f.eks. sosiale medier) (fortsatt) • Nye, mobile dingser (fortsatt) • Multiplattform (fortsatt)
  • 32. Noen kjappe designregler
  • 33. Noen kjappe designregler • Design toasters, not posters
  • 34. Noen kjappe designregler • Design toasters, not posters • Test early, test often
  • 35. Noen kjappe designregler • Design toasters, not posters • Test early, test often • Mobile dingser er best når de gjør én ting
  • 36. Noen kjappe designregler • Design toasters, not posters • Test early, test often • Mobile dingser er best når de gjør én ting • Ha en plan for oppdatering!
  • 37. Manovich, Lev. The Language of New Media. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2001. Wardrip-Fruin, Noah, and Nick Montfort, eds. The New Media Reader. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2003. Ars Electronica, utstilling i Linz
  • 38. anders@fagerjord.no http://fagerjord.no