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EUNAWE UK Presentation



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  • 1. EUNAWE at Armagh ObservatoryBringing “Heaven” Down to Earth Mark E. Bailey Armagh Observatory
  • 2. Location of Armagh ObservatoryEUNAWE - Leiden 2011 April 1
  • 3. Why Astronomy?!Three main strands of interest • the broadly cosmological, “quasi-religious” strand, going back thousands of years ! the quest to understand our “Origins”, Man’s place in the Universe • the “practical” strand, the commercial, military, and economic “spin-off” from astronomy, including education and the arts ! e.g. the Calendar; Navigation; Celestial Mechanics; Earth Observation; Image Processing; the “Inspiration” of Astronomy • the strand of pure science or “Astrophysics” ! the project, no less, to understand the nature, contents and interactions of all the objects in the entire Universe…We live in a Golden Age, where the three strands have come together in a rare conjunction of activity • hence unprecedented advances in both observation and theory (the former almost always leading the latter) EUNAWE - Leiden 2011 April 1
  • 4. Examples of Early “Astronomy” Cup-and-ring marks on stones at Knockmany, Co. Tyrone (Ulster Museum); Cometary rock-carving from Midlothian, Scotland (National Museum Antiquities, Edinburgh); Midwinter sunset at Stonehenge,EUNAWE - Leiden 2009 2011 April 1
  • 5. Astronomy Research at ArmaghAround 30 astronomers actively study the Solar System; the Sun; Stars; and Sun-Earth Interrelationships including Climate EUNAWE - Leiden Images courtesy NASA, ESA, Jorick Vink et al. 2011 April 1
  • 6. Recent Discoveries: MeteorsMeteors — from Comets • dust released from comet ! spreads around orbit and so collides with Earth every year • => annual meteor showers • but also rare “meteor storms”New understanding • very fine dust “trails” laid down at every revolution of comet • sometimes they cross Earth’s path, sometimes not ! => can predict exact crossing points in space ! can work out if and when a “meteor storm” may occur to five-minute accuracy EUNAWE - Leiden Images: Comet Donati (1858); Great Leonid Meteor 2011 April 1 Storm (1833); Times of Meteor Storms (David Asher)
  • 7. Recent Discoveries: Solar PhysicsHow to Explain theSun’s Non-Thermal“Magnetic” Activity?•space observations ofexplosions and high-speed outflows (jets andcoronal mass-ejections)from solar surface;•use observations andtheory to determineplasma properties andmagnetic field strengths;•gain new understandingof the Sun’s dynamicouter atmosphere andcorona EUNAWE - Leiden Images courtesy SoHO and Hinode space projects 2011 April 1 (ESA, NASA, Japan)
  • 8. Recent Discoveries: Stellar PhysicsSingle Stars • evolve to red giants, white dwarfs and dieBinary Stars: !50% of All Stars • very complex evolution • can interact with each other • can coalesce ! => a testing ground for current theories ! and a test of modern theories of gravity (General Relativity) Images: Origin of helium star V652 Her (Simon Jeffery); EUNAWE - Leiden Ultra-compact white-dwarf binary, radiating gravitational 2011 April 1 waves (Gavin Ramsay)
  • 9. “Spin-Off” from AstronomyNumerous examples, illustrated by two cases specific to the Armagh Observatory:!Meteorology: the unique long-term climate series • a daily climate series extending back more than 200 years; see"Science in the Community: a multi-strand programme to engage people — young and old — in science • e.g. school work-experience and summer programme; schools outreach programme (OASES); open days; public lectures; scientific conferences; Faulkes telescope projects; scientific conferences; Universe Awareness (UNAWE); development of Observatory Grounds and Astropark; creation of Human Orrery etc.=> Economic and social benefits to community EUNAWE - Leiden 2011 April 1
  • 10. Climate Change at ArmaghDaily met readings since 1795 • longest daily meteorological series from a single site anywhere in the UK and Ireland ! Temperature 1795–present ! Pressure 1795–present ! Rainfall 1838–present ! Sunshine hours 1882–present ! Wind speed 1845–1960 ! Clouds 1884–present • temperature changes closely track UK averages ! data show correlation between solar cycle length and mean temperature John Butler: Sun-Earth correlation EUNAWE - Leiden 2011 April 1
  • 11. Science in the Community - IExhibitions; Public Lectures;Guided Tours; Public Open Days • library, archives and rare books • public lectures, school and undergraduate work experience • developing Observatory Grounds, Astropark, and Human Orrery EUNAWE - Leiden 2011 April 1
  • 12. Science in the Community - IISchools Lectures; Public Art; FETTU Posters; “Universe Awareness” EUNAWE - Leiden 2011 April 1
  • 13. Observatory Grounds and Astropark EUNAWE - Leiden 2011 April 1
  • 14. Overview of Human OrreryEUNAWE - Leiden 2011 April 1
  • 15. The Human OrreryAn orrery is a dynamic solar system model • designed to illustrate the heliocentric world- viewIn a Human Orrery people become the planets • the whole of solar system astronomy can be investigated in a fun way “on the ground”The simplest Human Orreries are not to scale • e.g. planets on circular orbits; no accurate link to the planets’ true positions in space versus time ! => only a limited range of activities possibleThey become more interesting when laidout with greater care • e.g. the Dynic Astropark Human Orrery (Japan)The Human Orrery is as versatile as a sundial • the Armagh model has an accurate scale of 1:150 billion, and a fixed time-step of 16 days ! it shows the 6 classical planets,1 asteroid and 2 comets at any time ! it includes the 13 ecliptic constellations, as well Dynic Astropark Human as directions to more distant objects in the Orrery (c.1997) Universe EUNAWE - Leiden 2011 April 1
  • 16. Why “Orrery”?Invented around 1704 by GeorgeGraham (c.1674–1751) • he gave a copy (or its design) to John Rowley, a celebrated London instrument makerRowley made a copy for Prince Eugéneof Savoy • he then made another for his patron, Charles Boyle, the fourth Earl of OrreryCharles Boyle (1674–1731) • author, soldier and statesman • grandson of Roger Boyle (1621–1679), the first Earl of Orrery ! a son of Richard Boyle, the first (or Great) Earl of Cork (1566–1643) ! in his day, “one of the richest men on the planet”The name “orrery” for such a model waspopularized by the Irish essayist Sir Images © Science MuseumRichard Steele (1672–1729) and National Portrait Gallery EUNAWE - Leiden 2011 April 1
  • 17. Ground-Based Astronomy for All…Each orbital tile shows variousastronomical data • the name; tile number; date; distance from Sun; ecliptic longitude; and true anomalyWith a simple “key” shown onthe central Sun-tile EUNAWE - Leiden 2011 April 1
  • 18. Principal FeaturesThe Armagh Human Orrery shows: • the elliptical orbits and changing positions of various solar system objects versus time ! provides an accurate “map” of the solar system, giving users a better “feel” for the Earth’s position in space ! enables all of Kepler’s laws to be discovered by direct measurement; the times of meteor showers from the two comets; and more… • the relative orbital periods and positions of the different orbital objects • the thirteen ecliptic constellations through which the Sun passes in a year ! which ones are visible at different times of year ! and that the First Point of Aries is in Pisces! • the directions to more distant objects in the Universe ! facilitating discussion of the variety of different “animals” in the astronomical “zoo”Most important, it is fun to use! EUNAWE - Leiden 2011 April 1
  • 19. Some Human Orrery Activities“Walking the Orrery” and “Running the Orrery”(and how fast can you go…) • investigating Kepler’s third lawFinding the planets “tonight” (or at any other date) • and discovering which can be seen after dark at night, or as morning or evening stars • investigating conjunctions, oppositions and alignments; and the visibility of distant starsMeasuring angles and distances between objects • working out distances and speeds in space • investigating Kepler’s laws by direct measurement • investigating the mathematics of orbital motion and of ellipses (areas, circumferences etc.) • using a “map” with a scale of 1:150,000,000,000Learning new mathematical and calendricalconcepts • counting (more than 200 tiles!) • modular arithmetic (e.g. 14 tiles for Venus etc.) • ratios of planetary orbital periods (e.g 8/13 V/E) • “leap steps”, “leap stops” and Leap Years EUNAWE - Leiden 2011 April 1
  • 20. Human Orrery SummaryThe Armagh Human Orrery ( • a dynamic solar system model where people become the moving objects • the first outdoor exhibit to show with precision the orbits and positions of the main solar system bodies • engages people in maths, space science and astronomy ! introduces key concepts of astronomy, as well as pointers to more distant objects in the Universe, in a fun and entertaining way • brings “heaven down to Earth”; provides an improved understanding of Earth’s changing position in space ! encourages people to observe the sky, and to compare what they see from “Earth” — on the ground — with what they see from Earth — in the sky • facilitates a wide range of interdisciplinary activities ! e.g. ranging from history, astrology and the development of astronomy, to dance, physical exercise and design • easy to make and use, and as versatile as a sundialEUNAWE - Leiden 2011 April 1
  • 21. Earth: The Blue PlanetEUNAWE - Leiden Images Courtesy NASA 2011 April 1
  • 22. A Small Asteroid Image of asteroid (25143) Itokawa.EUNAWE - Leiden 2011 April 1 d ! 500m. Image courtesy JAXA.
  • 23. Artists’ Images of Two Bright CometsEUNAWE - Leiden Drawings of the Comet of 1577 2011 April 1 and Comet Hale-Bopp (1997)
  • 24. Great Comet of January 2007EUNAWE - Leiden Image of Comet 2006 P1 McNaught. 2011 April 1 Image courtesy R. McNaught
  • 25. Cartoon of Halley’s Comet (c.1910)EUNAWE - Leiden Halley’s Comet Cartoon c.1910 2011 April 1
  • 26. Models for Structure of Oort Cloud Where Comets Come From:EUNAWE - Leiden 2011 April 1 Structure of the Oort Cloud
  • 27. The Solar System’s Gas Giants Pairs of Gas Giants in Solar System:EUNAWE - Leiden 2011 April 1 Jupiter and Saturn; Uranus and Neptune
  • 28. Terrestrial Planets and PlutoEUNAWE - Leiden Relative Sizes of Terrestrial Planets 2011 April 1 (University of California, Irvine)
  • 29. Gas Giants Compared with EarthEUNAWE - Leiden Relative Sizes of Outer Planets 2011 April 1 (University of California, Irvine)
  • 30. The Sun and PlanetsEUNAWE - Leiden Relative Sizes of Sun and Planets 2011 April 1 (University of California, Irvine)
  • 31. The Sun and Nearby StarsEUNAWE - Leiden Relative Sizes of Nearby Stars 2011 April 1 (University of California, Irvine)
  • 32. Some of the Brightest Nearby StarsEUNAWE - Leiden Relative Sizes of Brightest Stars 2011 April 1 (University of California, Irvine)
  • 33. Betelgeuse: Size and Place in SpaceEUNAWE - Leiden Betelgeuse: One of the Nearest, 2011 April 1 Brightest Stars
  • 34. The Andromeda NebulaEUNAWE - LeidenM31, The Andromeda Nebula: Nearest Galaxy to 2011 April 1 our Milky Way (!2.5 million light years)
  • 35. As Far as the Eye Can See…EUNAWE - Leiden The Hubble Deep Field and the Hubble 2011 April 1 Ultra Deep Field (NASA/ESA)
  • 36. Summary and ConclusionsArmagh Observatory a unique scientific institution • combines frontline astronomical research with a vibrant programme of Science in the Community and a rich scientific heritage • e.g contains a specialist library and archive; a national-level museum collection of historic clocks, telescopes and scientific instrumentsCurrent research focuses on Solar System Astronomy; the Sun; Stars and Galactic Astronomy; and Climate Change • advances especially in cometary and meteor astronomy, are beginning to provide a framework for understanding mankind’s apparent early “obsession” with the skyThe Observatory’s programmes of Science in the Community make major contributions to education • especially by developing the Grounds, Astropark, Human Orrery and Phenology Garden • helps people to understand science, and especially astronomy, by ‘Bringing “Heaven” Down to Earth’ EUNAWE - Leiden 2011 April 1
  • 37. AcknowledgementsAstronomy at Armagh Observatory is funded by the Northern Ireland Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure