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The Wonderful Century: Astronomy For Development

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Presentation by Prof. George Miley during the Symposium: Astronomy, Radio Sources and Society in Leiden, NL June 2013

Presentation by Prof. George Miley during the Symposium: Astronomy, Radio Sources and Society in Leiden, NL June 2013
www.strw.leidenuniv.nl/symposium/

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The Wonderful Century: Astronomy For Development The Wonderful Century: Astronomy For Development Presentation Transcript

  • THE  WONDERFUL  CENTURY  ASTRONOMY  FOR  DEVELOPMENT    •  1.  Astronomy  and  space  as  a  tool  for  PUBLIC  OUTREACH    •  2.  Astronomy  and  space  as  tool  for  DEVELOPMENT  –  Technological  and  human  capacity  building  • Builds  on  astronomy  for  public  outreach  –  MoLvaLon  of  South  Africa      •  3.  EffecLveness  of  astronomy  as  tool  for  EARLY  EDUCATION  –  “Give  me  a  child  unLl  they  are  7  and  I  have  them  for  life”!  
  • TWO  PROPOSITIONS  •  1.  ASTRONOMY  IS  A  UNIQUE  TOOL  FOR  FURTHERING  GLOBAL  DEVELOPMENT  •  2.  USING  ASTRONOMY  TO  MOTIVATE  YOUNG  CHILDREN  IS  ONE  OF  THE  MOST  EFFECTIVE  WAYS  OF  BUILDING  CAPACITY                        SEVERAL  SUPPORTING  WITNESSES    
  • H.G.  WELLS  -­‐  SCIENTIFIC  AND  SOCIAL  VISIONARY  “WAR OF THE WORLDS” •  First  published  in  1897!  –  Serialised  in  Pearson’s  monthly  magazine  –  Every  issue  eagerly  awaited  and  sold  out    •  SLll  gripping  story  –  MarLans  use  laser  “death  ray”  appear  to  be  victorious  –  Eventually  wiped  out  by  terrestrial  bacteria  to              which  humans  are  immune  –  Includes  real  astronomers  and  phenomena                reported  in  Nature  •  Got  me  hooked  on  astronomy  at  age  7  •  Demonstrates  that  even  in  1890s  •  ASTRONOMY  AND  SPACE    EXCITED  WIDE  PUBLIC    •  PERSPECTIVE  OF  ASTRONOMY  CAN  STIMULATE  SENSE  OF  INTERNATIONALISM  •  Listen  to  epilogue    
  • Excerpts from War of the Worlds - H.G. Wells - 1898
  • JODRELL  BANK  IN  1950S  CRADLE  OF  ASTRONOMY  OUTREACH  TO  WIDE  PUBLIC    •  GM  PhD  1963  -­‐  1968  •  Largest  radio  telescope  then  built  (1957)  –  250  e    diameter  x3  larger  than  Dwingeloo  radio  telescope  –  Huge  majesLc  structure  -­‐  dominated  Cheshire  countryside  •  InsLgated  and  developed  very  long-­‐baseline  interferometry  –  Played  crucial  role  in  discovery  of  quasars  
  • BUT  SIR  BERNARD  LOVELL  HAD  ENORMOUS    PROBLEMS    •  HUGE  FINANCIAL  OVERRUN  BY  FACTOR  OF  x3    •  ALMOST  WENT  TO  JAIL      
  • SAVED  BY  LAUNCH  OF  SPUTNIK  1  –  4  OCTOBER  1957  AND  PUBLIC  OUTREACH  Children strainingto see Sputnik
  • FIRST  WITNESS                      SIR  BERNARD  LOVELL      •  Will  demonstrate  that  –  1.  PR,  MOBILISING  PRESS  +  PUBLIC/  LOBBYING  POLITICIANS            CRUCIAL  IN    OBTAINING  FUNDING  FOR  ASTRONOMY  • [LOFAR  in  Netherlands  2002  –  2004  – Lobbying  was  crucial  – Funded  not  to  do  astronomy  but  to  reinforce  technological  capacity  in  North  Netherlands]  –  2.  ASTRONOMY  AND  SPACE  CAN  INSPIRE  CHILDREN      
  • SIR BERNARD LOVELL AT 96
  • PROFESSIONALISATION  OF  ASTRONOMY  OUTREACH      •  NASA  from  1960s    –  Developed  during  moon  race  –  Extended  to  all  NASA  missions    •  (e.g.  Hubble  Telescope  –  GM  at  STSCI  1984  -­‐  88)  •  10%  of  research  spending  for  outreach  and  educaLon  –  Now  commonplace  at  astronomical  insLtutes  •  Ideal  vehicle  for  modern  media  tools    •  CulminaLon  with  IAU-­‐UNESCO  INTERNATIONAL  YEAR  OF  ASTRONOMY  2009  –  Demonstrated  global  power  of  astronomy  outreach  –  Largest  science  outreach  event  ever  •  Reached  several  hundred  million  people  •   146  NaLonal  Nodes  •  RaLfied  by  UN    
  • ASTRONOMY  FOR  DEVELOPMENT  BUILDS  ON  SUCCESS  OF  ASTRONOMY  OUTREACH    
  • ASTRONOMYTECHNOLOGYAND SKILLSSCIENCE ANDRESEARCHCULTURE ANDSOCIETYPILLARS OF DEVELOPMENT
  • ASTRONOMYOPTICSHigh-precisionadaptiveopticsCOMPUTERSFastesthardwareComplexsoftwareELECTRONICSMost sensitivedetectorsFastest clocksSPACESatellitesMiniaturizationPrecisionTECHNOLOGY    AND  SKILLS  Sensitive antennasCharge coupled devices (cameras)Low-noise amplifiersSupercomputersWireless InternetMost accurate clocksGPS navigationMedical imagingSOME TECHNOLOGYDRIVEN BY ASTRONOMYWHY ASTRONOMY FOR DEVELOPMENT?Flexible adaptive mirrors
  • CUTTING-EDGE TECHNOLOGYSALT – South AfricaSUBARU – Japan/ HawaiiHUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPEUS - EuropeVERY LARGE TELESCOPEEurope - ChileActive optics mirrorWide-fieldimaging spectrograph
  • LOW FREQUENCY ARRAY (LOFAR)Netherlands/EuropeGIANT METREWAVE RADIO TELESCOPEPUNE, INDIAATACAMA MILLIMETER ARRAYEurope, US, Japan, Taiwan, ChileRECEIVER INTEGRATION UNITSIn Asia (Taiwan), Europe (UK)and US
  • ASTRONOMYOPTICSHigh-precisionadaptive optics COMPUTERSFastesthardwareComplexsoftwareELECTRONICSMost sensitivedetectorsFastest clocksSPACESatellitesMiniaturizationPrecisionPHYSICSLaboratory ofextremesMaking heavyelementsCHEMISTRYProducingorganicmoleculesBIOLOGYBuildingblocks of lifeMATHEM-ATICSAbstractthoughtTECHNOLOGY    AND  SKILLS  SCIENCE  AND    RESEARCH  WHY ASTRONOMY FOR DEVELOPMENT?
  • ASTRONOMY  AS  SCIENCE  •  Inexpensive  laboratories  for  studying  laws  of  physics                under  extreme  condiLons:  –  Largest  energies  (~  1061  erg).    –  Largest  densiLes  1018  kg/m3.    –  Most  tenuous  vacuum    –  Largest  sizes  >  10  million  light  years  •  FronLer  science  do-­‐able  from  anywhere  in  world  (archives)  
  • THE CLOSEST WONDERFUL RADIO GALAXYCENTAURUS AFeain et al 2011Australia TelescopeDistance~ 10 million light yearsPhysical Size ~ 3.4 Mpc10 MILLION LIGHT YEARS ACROSSAngular size ~ 9 deg.~ X20 LARGER THAN MOON !!!Optically visible galaxyFeain et al 2011Australia TelescopePurple is picture ofRadio emission
  • ASTRONOMYOPTICSHigh-precisionadaptive optics COMPUTERSFastesthardwareComplexsoftwareELECTRONICSMost sensitivedetectorsFastest clocksSPACESatellitesMiniaturizationPrecisionPHYSICSLaboratory ofextremesMaking heavyelementsCHEMISTRYProducingorganicmoleculesBIOLOGYBuilding blocksof lifeMATHEM-ATICSApplication ofsophisticatedformalismsINSPIRATIONCareer inscience andtechnologyANTHRO-POLOGYAncientcivilizationsOur rootsHISTORYEvolution ofUniverseOur rootsPERSPECTIVEIMMENSITYOF UNIVERSETolerance andglobalcitizenshipTECHNOLOGY    AND  SKILLS  SCIENCE  AND    RESEARCH  CULTURE    AND  SOCIETY  WHY ASTRONOMY FOR DEVELOPMENT?
  • HISTORY  OF  THE  UNIVERSE  Everything came out of the Big Bang!!
  • ASTRONOMYOPTICSHigh-precisionadaptive optics COMPUTERSFastesthardwareComplexsoftwareELECTRONICSMost sensitivedetectorsFastest clocksSPACESatellitesMiniaturizationPrecisionPHYSICSLaboratory ofextremesMaking heavyelementsCHEMISTRYProducingorganicmoleculesBIOLOGYBuilding blocksof lifeMATHEM-ATICSApplication ofsophisticatedformalismsINSPIRATIONCareer inscience andtechnologyANTHRO-POLOGYAncientcivilizationsOur rootsHISTORYEvolution ofUniverseOur rootsPERSPECTIVEIMMENSITYOF UNIVERSETolerance andglobalcitizenshipTECHNOLOGY    AND  SKILLS  SCIENCE  AND    RESEARCH  CULTURE    AND  SOCIETY  WHY ASTRONOMY FOR DEVELOPMENT?
  • TOOLS  OF  ASTRONOMY  FOR  HUMAN  CAPACITY  BUILDING  “from  the  cradle  to  the  grave”  ASTRONOMYPrimaryEducationSecondaryEducationTertiaryEducationResearchSciencePublicOutreachStimulates imaginationIntroduces scienceGateway to sciencesand engineeringAnalytic skillsInternational teamsCareers in technologyManagementEntry to world-class researchand cutting-edge technologyMost approachable scienceWide interest
  •    Elements  –  Long-­‐term  Vision  –  Goals  for  2010  –  2020    –  Strategy  includes  –  Integrated  strategic  phased  approach  –  Driven  by  regional  demand    –  Emphasis  Sub-­‐Saharan  Africa  –  Mobilize  volunteers  –  Professional  +  amateur  astronomers    –  Teachers    –  Science  outreach  experts  –  Exploit  new  possibiliLes  –  e.g.  Astrobuses,  roboLc  networks      –  ImplementaLon  Roadmap    –  Create  IAU  “Office  of  Astronomy  for  Development”  –  Kevin  Govender,  Director    IAU  STRATEGIC  PLAN    “ASTRONOMY  FOR  DEVELOPMENT”  
  • •  1996  DACST  white  paper  on  role  of  pure  science  within  the  new  democracy:    –  “It  is  important  to  maintain  a  basic  competence  in  ‘flagship’  sciences  such  as  physics  and  astronomy  for  cultural  reasons.Not  to  offer  them  would  be  to  take  a  negaLve  view  of  our  future  –  the  view  that  we  are  a  second-­‐class  naLon,  chained  forever  to  the  treadmill  of  feeding  and  clothing  ourselves”RATIONALE  OF  SOUTH  AFRICA  FOR  ASTRONOMY  ScienceCultureTechnologyINSPIRATION
  • SOUTHERN AFRICAN LARGE TELESCOPE, SALTLargest single optical telescopein southern hemisphere
  • Most sensitive cmtelescope in south64 antennas by 2015Exciting scientific programmeplannnedKAT7 MEERKAT
  • SQUARE  KILOMETER  ARRAY  (SKA)  NEXT-­‐GENERATION  RADIO  TELESCOPE        •  Cost  >  2  billion  Euro  –  Partnership  of  >10  countries  in  5  conLnents  •  RevoluLonary  design  drives  ICT  &  communicaLons  technologies    •  Dual  sites  –  South  Africa  –  Africa  –  Australia  –  New  Zealand        •  ICONIC  DEVELOPMENT  PROJECT  FOR  AFRICA    –  South  Africa  +  –  Botswana,  Ghana,  Kenya,  Madagascar,  MauriLus,  Mozambique,  Namibia  and  Zambia      WILL BE POWERFUL ENGINE FOR GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT
  • ASTRONOMY  CAN  STIMULATE  PRIDE  AND  SELF-­‐CONFIDENCE  THE  “WORLD  CUP”  EFFECT  e.g. Mercury, Durban, 6 Feb 2013
  • WITNESS  –  PROMINENT  AFRICAN  STATESWOMAN  NALEDI PANDORSOUTH AFRICA MINISTER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 2009 - 2012
  • EXTRA  WITNESS  –  PRESIDENT  OF  CHINA          –  “Astronomy  is  a  crucial  field  of  basic  research.  We  will  make  larger  and  larger  investments  in  such  a  field….  that  will  benefit  humankind.”  –  “Public  outreach  should  be  given  equal  emphasis  as  scienLfic  research……  to  inspire  the  creaLvity  for  science  and  technological  innovaLon  among  the  public.”  •  President  Xi  Jinping,  21  August  2012    
  • SUPPORT  FROM  EUROPEAN  PARLIAMENT      •  Wri{en  DeclaraLon  45/2011  of  European  Parliament  15  March  2012  (signed  by  394  MEPs)    –  RECOGNISING  THAT  further  European  involvement  in  African  radio  astronomy  can  become  a  powerful  driver  of  socioeconomic  growth  in  Africa    –  SUPPORTS  the  development  of  science  capacity  in  Africa  through  greater  investment  in  research  infrastructures,  with  par4cular  focus  on  radio  astronomy  
  • SUPPORT  FROM  AFRICAN  UNION      •  African  Union  DeclaraLon  (AU  Assembly  18th  ordinary  session  29  -­‐30  Jan  2012)  –  STRESSES  the  significant  poten4al  of  investment  in  African  Radio  Astronomy  ini4a4ves,  such  as  the  planned  African  Very  Long  Baseline  Interferometry  (VLBI)  Network,  to  rapidly  enhance  Africa’s  science  and  technology  capaci;es,  and  therefore;  –  PROPOSES  the  inclusion  of  Radio  Astronomy  as  a  priority  focus  area  for  Africa’s  interna;onal  science  and  technology  partnerships  
  • PROPOSITION  1    ASTRONOMY  IS  UNIQUE  TOOL  FOR  FURTHERING  GLOBAL  DEVELOPMENT    
  • HUMAN  CAPACITY  BUILDING        START YOUNG!!!
  •                        UNIVERSE  AWARENESS  (UNAWE)  Astronomy-­‐based  program  with  social  goals    •  Use  INSPIRATION  and  FUN  of  astronomy  to  –  Introduce  excitement  of  science  • Demonstrate  power  of  raLonal  thought  • MoLvate  development  of  language  and  numeric  skills  •  Use  PERSPECTIVE  of  astronomy  to  –  Broaden  children’s  minds  • SLmulate  sense  of  internaLonalism,  tolerance,  respect  at  formaLve  age  Exposes DISADVANTAGED young children (4 – 10) toINSPIRATIONAL aspects of astronomy
  • 56 UNAWE Countries(6 of them EU-UNAWE)UNAWE  NOW  IN  56  COUNTRIES  500+ Educators/Teachers/AstronomersFantastic work by UNAWE International Project ManagersCarolina Ödman 2005 – 2010Pedro Russo 2010 – 2013More about UNAWE later
  • HIGH  PRIESTS  OF  MODERN  SOCIETY  THE  ECONOMISTS    UNPOPULAR  QUOTATION  WITHIN  THE  CHURCH  OF  ECONOMISTS  BY  SUPER-­‐HIGH  PRIESTS    –  “The  only  funcLon  of  economic  forecasLng  is  to  make  astrology  look  respectable”  • John  Kenneth  Galbraith  (1988)  – Ezra  Solomon  (1984)  
  • WITNESS  -­‐    AN  ECONOMIST    HIGH  PRIEST       PROF. JAMES HECKMAN, ECONOMICS NOBEL PRIZE 2000
  • WITNESS  -­‐  A  POLITICAL  HIGH  PRIEST  PRESIDENT  OBAMA  –  2013  STATE  OF  THE  UNION  
  • EARTH FROM SATURN (CASSINI)MUCH  MORE  THAN  JUST  ECONOMIC  EFFECTIVENESS    AWARENESS  OF  UNIVERSE  GIVES  PERSPECTIVE  CAN  HELP  COMBAT  FANATICISM        "Fana;c  ethnic,  religious  or  na;onal  iden;fica;ons  are  difficult  to  support  when  we  see  our  planet  as  a  fragile,  blue  crescent  fading  to  become  an  inconspicuous  point  of  light  against  the  basLon  and  citadel  of  the  stars.  “                CARL  SAGAN            Remember  War  of  the  Worlds  epilogue                      
  • EARTH FROM SATURN (CASSINI)EARTH FROM SATURN (CASSINI)
  • CultureINSPIRATIONTechnologyScience•  1.  ASTRONOMY  IS  A  UNIQUE  TOOL  FOR  FURTHERING  GLOBAL  DEVELOPMENT  •  2.  USING  ASTRONOMY  TO  MOTIVATE  YOUNG  CHILDREN  IS  ONE  OF  THE  MOST  EFFECTIVE  WAYS  OF  BUILDING  CAPACITY      PROPOSITIONS  DEMONSTRATED  
  • CARL  SAGAN  -­‐  SCIENTIFIC  AND  SOCIAL  VISIONARY COSMOS TV SERIES 1980UPDATED WITH SOME NEW RADIO IMAGES BY GMTRANSITION TOWONDERFULRADIOGALAXIES
  • CARL  SAGAN  -­‐  SCIENTIFIC  AND  SOCIAL  VISIONARY COSMOS TV SERIES 1980UPDATED BY GM WITH SOME NEW VLA RADIO IMAGES
  • THANKS TO EVERYONE FOR COMINGPARTICULARLYTHE ORGANISERS AND SPEAKERS