2Editorial UNITED NATIONS ASSOCIATION OF SPAIN Honorary PresidentsC’MUN 2011. The School of Values Francesc Casares Potau Lluís Armet ComaPàg. 4 - C’MUN 2011: A Team Work Victory Marina Bru Purón C’MUN 2011, the Model United Nations of Barcelona President Eduard Sagarra i TriasPàg. 8 - Once Upon a Time… 1st Vice-president Training session Xavier Pons Ràfols 2nd Vice-president Lídia Santos i ArnauPàg. 9 - The Crisis of Myanmar Crisis sessions Secretary Joan Soler Martí TreasurerPàg. 10 - The Crisis of Myanmar and the Reform Antoni Sabaté Boza of the Security Council Vocals Security Council Ildefons Valls i Torné Rafael Jorba i CastellvíPàg. 14 - Right to Health versus Patents / Right to Free Pablo Pareja Alcaraz Flow of Information versus Copyrights Albert Barbany i Hurtado Human Rights Council Xavier Fernández Pons Director Àngels Mataró PauPàg. 18 - International Taxes to Fight Poverty and the Economic Crisisa Assistant to Direction Economic and Financial Committee Xavier Guerrero Fernández Staff Ariadna Quintero ValderramaPàg. 24 - Gender and Migration Raül Jiménez Jiménez The Ad Hoc Committee of the Alliance of Civilizations Teresa Visa Pérez Bernat Comes LloveraPàg. 26 - Traditions versus Animal Welfare Eirene Ramos Nuño UNESCO Pablo Rodríguez-AguileraPàg. 30 - Towards the End of Tobacco? World Health Organization C’MUN 2010 Magazine Design, layout andPàg. 33 - The North Pole’s Future coordination International Court of Justice Bernat Comes Raül JiménezPàg. 36 - The Importance of Journalism Eirene Ramos Press Team C’MUN 2010 Magazine Contributors Vera Ríos Madoka Shimura Lourdes Pistón Stela Zarija Laura Martínez Inés Valera Irene Cortés Caroline Bach Printed by Masanas Gràfiques c/ Moles, 31, baixos 08010 Barcelona Legal deposit B 32.843-92 The UNA Spain magazine’s editorial boardAll the photos of this magazine are by Pablo Rodríguez-Aguilera, except: does not necessarily agree with the opinions expressed by its collaborators.page 5, Carmen Méndez speech (ADDA), and Manuel Manonelles speech (Bernat Co-mes); page 6, visit to the Sagrada Família (Joan Soler); page 7, crisis meeting (Eirene The magazine’s editorial board reserves itsRamos); pages 8-9-10, training, and crisis at the Security Council (Caroline Bach); page right to alter the titles, highlights or texts ac-37, press team (Raül Jiménez); and pages 38-39, C’MUN 2011 staff (Bernat Comes). cording to its professional opinion
edito- 3EditorialC’MUN 2011. The School of Values Allow us to do an introduction focused, Dialogue: As every Model does, the debaterather than on praising the virtues of the is the central point of the activity, always insixth edition of C’MUN, on highlighting the search of consensus.necessity for activities such as this one, thatneeds to be guaranteed, because every- Work: The responsability of the delegate par-body is aware of the context of global crisis ticipating starts months in advance, with thein which this event has been held. A crisis necessary preparation of the country/actor tothat affects with cruelty an Association that represent, and then, it becomes an intense ac-will arrive to its 50th anniversary in 2012. tivity during the days of the simulation.Focused on defending one of the maincauses of UNA-Spain: the Model United Na- Empathy: C’MUN aims to make the partici-tions of Barcelona, C’MUN. pants put themselves in the delegates shoes. To be a good delegate, one has to understand Why do we say C’MUN is necessary? Be- the other. This element of the simulation iscause it goes beyond the practical useful- an unpayable value, which is not taught inness of the Model United Nations, in terms schools or textbooks and is more valuable ifof the exercise linked directly to learning it fits in the current context (if you follow theabout the international organisation and news, you know what we are talking about).its functioning. Because it also goes be-yond a highly recommended experience Convivence: Perhaps the other most pre-for anyone interested in international re- cious value, and forgive us the immodesty, islations, maybe even an impulse to guide that C’MUN is a vital experience that is hardtheir future careers to this field. Because to compare to another.C’MUN, as a simulation, is much more. It isa school of values. C’MUN is not only a useful activity intended to train future professionals, but an activi-Universality: The international will of ty that seeks to educate people. SomethingC’MUN comes from ANUE’s history, and it is much more important in times like the onesexpressed in the topics treated in each edi- we are living nowadays, where injustices,tion and its participation, always open to excesses of those in power, and social imbal-everyone. ances are more evident than ever.Plurality: 400 students from more than 90 Having defended our cause, we have onlydifferent universities, more than 50 natio- one question to resolve, how was the sixthnalities representing all the continents. A C’MUN? Well, said it in a nutshell, it was thetrue UN of the youth to simulate the real best edition of our model... so far. You will seeUnited Nations. it in these pages. ANUE and C’MUN staff at the Parliament of Catalonia.
4 C’MUN 2011, the Model United Nations of Barcelona C’MUN 2011: A Team Work Victory Raül Jiménez. Secretary-General of C’MUN 2011. The world situation –the world seems to portunity to the delegates with less experience be ready to impress us at any moment–, and to have a space to solve their doubts, and in a the state and local situation –crisis, budget peculiar and original way –we are the first ones cuts, football– that we are suffering causes in “transferring” the legend of Sant Jordi to the craziness and a downhearted spirit. This also United Nations– could see with a practice form happens at ANUE. But instead of that, from what they were going to find the following day. 6th to 9th of April we committed ourselves to offer more and more new features in or- In addition, we could divide the registry of der to create the best possible edition of our the delegates, carried out between Cosmo Model of United Nations. This is the chrono- Caixa and the head office of the ANUE. Later, logy, as an article, about those days. we went towards the Parliament of Catalonia, being the second new feature of this year, for April 6th. Simulating Sant Jordi and filling the C’MUN opening ceremony. up the Parliament There, we could confirm with satisfaction that The first big new feature occurred on definitely there were not volcanoes at first sight Wednesday morning, with the celebration –I couldn’t trust them anymore…– and that at Cosmo Caixa of the first training session of the room was too small for so many people. the C’MUN. At the opening ceremony the presidency table was formed by Núria de Gispert, President of The activity, one of the greatest wishes by the Parliament of Catalonia; Manel Vila, com- those who organized the model, gave the op- missioner of the City hall of Barcelona; ManelTwo pictures of the opening cere-mony of C’MUN at the Parliamentof Catalonia. From left to right,Eirene Ramos, Deputy Secretary-General of C’MUN; Manel Camós,Director of the European Commis-sion Office of Barcelona; EduardSagarra, President of UNA-Spain;Núria de Gispert, President ofthe Parliament of Catalonia; Ar-mando Peruga, director of the To-bacco Free Initiative; Manel Vila,Commissioner of the BarcelonaCity Council; and Raül Jiménez,Secretary-General of C’MUN.
edito- 5 C’MUN 2011 guest speakers: Juan Sebastián Mateos, Arman- do Peruga, Carmen Méndez, and Manuel Manonelles, during their speeches on the first day of sessions.Camós, director of the Office of the European a crisis, not an economic one –which wouldn’tCommission in Barcelona; Dr. Armando Peruga, have been a surprise–, but as the outbreak of adirector of the WHO Tobacco Free Initiative; conflict –fictitious– in Myanmar.Eduard Sagarra, president of the ANUE, andthe staff responsible for C’MUN and the presi- The emergency situation was prepared withdents of the commissions. There was time for the pretension of stimulating the delegates’reflections on social politics, to talk about val- capacity of reaction, their “reflexes” andues, to present the topics of debate, to listen to knowledge about the country that they re-the opening speech by Dr. Peruga, and also to presented. It was one of the most stimulatingsing “Happy birthday to you” to the president. new features of C’MUN 2011, and it affectedAnd after that the reception closed the first the sessions of the Security Council, the Hu-working day of C’MUN. man Rights Council and the Alliance of Civili- zations, who got together “with the utmostApril 7th. From the death of Aun San Suu urgency” due to the complexion that the con-Kyi to Hard Rock Cafe flict took after the death of the Nobel Peace Prize awarded and pro-human rights activist, The working day started in the morning of Aun San Suu Kyi among the uprising occurringthe 7th of April at CosmoCaixa, and they did in her country.it with another qualitative step forward: withfour guest speakers: Juan Sebastián Mateos, The crisis, in its conception and design, wasdesk officer for the Alliance of Civilizations of moving from Middle East to Asia, –sometimesthe Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Carmen truth is stranger than fiction–, and it had beenMéndez, president of the Association Defen- designed in the previous months by the C’MUNding Animal Rights; Manel Manonelles, director team, producing the necessary informationof UBUNTU, and the Doctor already mentioned and coordinating the tasks with the press teamArmando Peruga. Thanks to them, the commis- so that the outbreak and the escalation of thesion of the Alliance, the UNESCO, the Economic crisis could take place in a more realistic wayand Financial committee and the WHO listened within the simulation.to their opinions, showing the delegates thatwhat they were going to simulate was a reality For me, creating such an activity from theat the agenda of the United Nations. void, and having done it in the wonderful at- mosphere of the C’MUN team meetings, has The third new feature occurred without us been one of the most stimulating aspects inhaving to wait, and it happened in the way of these six editions of our simulation.
6C’MUN 2011 side events: threepictures of the UN Quiz, and oneof the visit to Sagrada Família. In the afternoon, once the working period ple, Japan at the Security Council to come up of the first day was over, with the crisis being with the topic of the organization reform.) about to be solved in the Security Council and in the Human Rights Council, with different After a short session in the afternoon, the approaches; and the rest of the commissions fourth new feature occurred. The delegates fully working, the day was closed at Hard Rock of C’MUN, organized in four groups depen- Café, where we celebrated the 3rd edition of ding on their election, went on cultural tours C’MUN Quiz. to the Pedrera, Sagrada Familia, MNAC and F.C.Barcelona museum. These institutions ge- Regarding the quiz, given the facilities and nerously collaborated with the ANUE enriching support offered by Hard Rock Staff, and also the experience of the delegates in Barcelona. taking into account that it is a centric place; we could finally have a proper quiz. Certainly the 9th. Skin Deep emotions winners of the event, after the tough series of questions regarding the International Organi- The last day was different to the past years zation, as well as the hundreds of participants editions, when we had to achieve the agree- who took part in this enjoyable and original ments in the last seconds under extreme ten- evening, thought it in the same way. sion. After six years being that way, when everything went so smoothly it was something April 8th. Cultural Friday out of schedule. The sessions resumed on Friday morning, If we sum up all I have previously said, plus and we could verify that the delegates were the hard and unfair moments that ANUE were confronting the debates with effective- and is suffering to be able to carry out the ness, so it seemed like reaching the eagerly C’MUN; and also trying our best to recognize awaited resolutions the following day was the previous months of hard daily work of the a close reality. Association and the great work of the C’MUN staff, who worked enthusiastically and hope- The relaxed atmosphere favored the greater fully. The result is a closing ceremony where personal implication at the debates, while I the emotions overcame the habitual protocol could have time to write for the Clarion, to get in this type of events. involved in the debates, or to prepare some incentives for the sake of progress of the de- But this only adds mythology to the “le- bates, introducing deciding actors. (For exam- gend” that tells that C’MUN is something spe-
edito- 7cial, and proves that people who are part ofthe ANUE are a cut above the rest. Formally concluded the simulation, therewere still time for the fifth and the final newfeature: the farewell party organized by theAssociation in the noble hall of the IndustrialSchool, thanks to the Council of Barcelona,closing definitely the fantastic C’MUN 6th Edi-tion four days.Special and sincere thanks The final paragraph of this article can justbe dedicated to the people who, as far as C’MUN feature went in the interest of thepossible, took part in the process of making model quality.C’MUN 2011 a great success. And, even more important, thanks to let Thanks to your motivation and interest, us enjoy ourselves with you during our staffwe, the responsible for the simulation, meetings, preparing sessions, working dayscould achieve new challenges, for example together… With pride we can say loud thatthe long-awaited crisis and training session, C’MUN 2011 had a real team, and it was theactivities that we had wished to include as best one. And thanks to that brilliant team weparts of C’MUN for a long time. This new can just have the best C’MUN ever. Thank you. On the top, the closing ceremony of C’MUN 2011 at CosmoCaixa. on the middle, some C’MUN staff members preparing the crisis at UNA-Spain Headquarters. And, fi- nally, staff, chairs and press team of C’MUN at the farewell party.
8 Training session Once Upon a Time… Eirene Ramos. Deputy Secretary-General of C’MUN 2011. When you participate in a MUN, you pro- bably would find the mechanism and rules of procedure a bit complicated to understand. This is especially true if you don’t have a lot of experience or if it is your first time. So, to start with the sixth edition of C’MUN with one of the several new features, we carried out a training session about the rules of procedure in the morning of the first day at Cosmo Caixa, the same day the registration was held, so that the participants who had no previous expe- rience could take the opportunity to see how everything works. We tried to make the trai- ning session more pleasant for the participants by combining the theoretical explanations to the committees the would participate in on with enjoyable and original practices. the following days, and through some argu- ments connected to the topics they would dis- We had the idea of the so-called Training cuss in the next sessions at C’MUN, they had to Session in mind since we started to plan this decide whether to kill the dragon or not. sixth edition. After we had a meeting with the great team who formed the organization of After ten minutes of unmoderated caucus, this year’s C’MUN, we decided to use the le- and under the direction of the person who gend of Sant Jordi (Saint George) and the dra- would fill the role of their chairs lately, each gon (which is very famous in Catalonia) as the commission chose a spokesperson to argue story where the delegates would decide their their decision regarding the monster. While position. This legend tells that a dragon be- the UNESCO came to the animal defense, sug- sieges a small village, ravaging the population gesting that it would be necessary to create a and domestic animals. To pacify the dragon, nature reserve where the dragon could live be- the king every day would send a person, who cause it was an animal in danger of extinction; was chosen randomly, to the monster, so that the World Health Organization was in favor the monster could eat him/her. And then, one of killing the dragon because the panicky and inauspicious day, the same fate befell the king’s uncertainty situation in the village was causing daughter. Fortunately, she could have a narrow big stress and mental health problems to the escape thanks to an armored knight who con- population. And so, each commission set out fronted the dragon and killed it. their arguments against or in favor. Further- more, suddenly and contrary to the delegations In our case, the knight was replaced by the expectations, the group of the dragons tried to delegates, who had to put the rules of proce- pressure into the decision of participates saying dure into practice after the theoretical explica- that this would end up in a war if they killed the tion. Delegates were divided in groups related dragon. But these threats didn’t achieve distress of the commissions, because the final result by simple majority pronounced judgment in favor of killing the dragon and keep the princess alive. The delegates supposed that this would be the hardest decision during those days. But what happened is that they did not know that what we had prepared a lot of surprises for them… But what it is certain is that finally, and like in all fairytales, all delegates “lived the ex-Two pictures of the training ses-sion of C’MUN 2011. perience happily ever after!”.
edito- 9Crisis sessionsThe Crisis of MyanmarMary Michele Connellan. Delegate of Myanmar at the Security Council in C’MUN 2011. Master of Citizen-ship and human rights, Universitat de Barcelona. In the spirit of representing a comple- the military government of Myanmar, myself,tely realistic UN Model, the C’MUN team Mary Michele Connellan to deliver a report tocreated what would be a “crisis” to take the Security Council, and the Alliance of Civi-place throughout the course of the UN lizations, and Renata Pumarol who defendedsimulation. Added to the already proposed the position of the military government intopics of debate, the delegates in each the Human Rights Council.committee were to deal with a “real lifecrisis” in Myanmar, former Burma. The crisis What we were to witness in the unfol-was so well constructed that most people ding of the crisis was an unfortunate lack ofbelieved it to be true, as they were given commitment to the protection of the rightsvideo footage and various articles regar- of the civilians in Myanmar by the Humanding the situation published in The Clarion, Rights Council. It seemed as though thethe official newspaper for the United Na- charismatic influence of the military repre-tions Model of Barcelona. sentative, Renata Pumarol had managed to persuade the delegates in the Human The crisis, which was constructed to repre- Rights Council that the situation did notsent a realistic situation that could possibly call for any international intervention. Onhappen during any UN conference gave the the other hand, while the Security Councildelegates the opportunity to not only re- members could also have taken a strongerspond to topics which they had prepared for, stance against the military government ofbut also to be able to respond instinctively in Myanmar, they were wisely influenced by athe moment of a significant global situation. report from the chair person of The AllianceThey were told that the military government of Civilizations, and they finally passed aof Myanmar had attacked innocent civilians resolution which did more to protect hu-during a protest, and later that the inspira- man rights in the region.tional activist and democratic voice of Myan-mar, Aung San Suu Kiy had been killed in the Overall, the outcome of the crisis was posi-clash with the military. tive, the delegates learnt how to tackle issues in an urgent manner, and then realised the This crisis affected mostly the Security consequences of their decisions. Although aCouncil and the Human Rights Council, as crisis may require quick and efficient strate-well as The Alliance of Civilizations. As part gies, the implications of any actions, or lackof the construction of the crisis, the C’MUN thereof need to be thought well throughstaff had prepped two delegates to represent before passing any resolutions. The Security Council receives the message of the Secretary- General of C’MUN informing about the death of Aung San Suu Kiy.
10 Security Council The Crisis of Myanmar and the Reform of the Security Council Guillermo Serra. Chair of the Security Council in C’MUN 2011. University of Essex.The Security Council during thefirst day of sessions. The sixth edition of C’MUN –my second During the debate and the unmoderated time participating in this model UN-, was caucus regarding the situation in Myanmar; full of surprises. The debate started in the Bosnia and Herzegovina, China and India Security Council just after nine o’clock on showed their leadership. Bosnia worked hard Thursday, and as an unanimous decision, we on the respect of human rights in this area and started debating the Security Council Re- urged the rest of the countries to take a more form. Since the first debate, Brazil and India clear-cut position on the humanitarian crisis. expressed their interest regarding the ex- India, on the other hand, worked on the pre- pansion of the committee and its candidacy vention of the migration flow, topic that also as permanents members of the Council. concerned China, as both countries are neigh- bours of Myanmar in Southeast Asia. The re- Afterwards, the delegates had to face up solution put forward by India and the United a humanitarian crisis in Myanmar. Keeping Kingdom was voted at midday on Friday, with in mind the statements from the Secretary the support of the majority of the committee. General and the Alliance of Civilisations, However, China, the Russian Federation and the delegates noticed the severity of the South Africa decided to abstain. case and the urgency of solving that crisis in an effective and rigid way. The delegates were immediately interested in reintroducing the debate regarding the Se- During the debate the delegate of Myan- curity Council reform, in spite of the insistent mar in the General Assembly was invited pressure exerted by the United States in order according to the Article 32 of the Charter to postpone the debate and/or close it, the of the United Nations, so that she could delegations took advantage of the speeches answer some questions and clear up the made by the democrat government of the situation in Myanmar regarding the death United States, specially its commitment with of Aung San Suu Kiy and the likely human India, and the representation of the African rights violation on a large scale. The de- continent. For the sake of the debate, the de- legate of Myanmar assured that the go- legation of Japan was invited as member of vernment had nothing to do with those the G4 and the second largest contributor to violations of human rights, that it was in- the peace-keeping missions of the United Na- surgence groups’ responsibility. tions. Japan intervention caused disagreement
edito- 11from China and India; China would not accept Council. Since its participation in the Middlethe permanent position of Japan, and India East Group (1946-1965), its representation inknew that the Council would not accept two the African or Asiatic block –a seat at randommembers from the same block. between these two blocks- (1966-2011), un- til its total loss of representation mandated In the last session, the delegations of Brazil, by this resolution. Bosnia and HerzegovinaSouth Africa and the United Kingdom made a neither succeded in achieving representationdocument where Brazil, India and South Africa in the Security Council for the East Europeanwere included as permanent members, apart Block. The delegate of Bosnia pointed out thatfrom increasing the non-permanent seats the number of seats were ten in 1966 and itin two. The selection of non-permanent se- expanded until 23 in 2011. Bosnia barely ma-ats also changed, holding eight seats for two naged to keep a seat for its block or a sharedyears of membership, and adding four seats randomly one with the group of Western Eu-of five years of membership. At the end of ropean countries and others.the meeting, twelve members of Council vo-ted in favor, Germany and the United States Despite the fact that the two resolutionsabstained, and Lebanon voted against the re- were presented in the weekend, from mysolution. The Delegation of Lebanon asked to point of view the delegates should have dee-explain his vote, and with this intervention the pened in the Security Council reform and notcommittee closed the sessions. only focused on article 23 concerning the num- ber of members and powers, leaving aside the This resolution was of vital importance for procedural reforms and laws concerning Arti-the African and Latinamerican and Caribbean cle 30 of the Charter. I also believe that duringblock. Apart from achieveing a permanent re- the crisis in Myanmar the potentially fraudu-presentation at the Council, they also expan- lent elections of 2010 and the light sentencesded their non- permanent seats. Germany, to cases of torture sponsored by the Union ofthat had aspirations to a permanent seat, the Republic of Myanmar should have beenhardly achieved preference in the upcoming se- highlighted.lection of non-permanent members. Japan, whoacted as a guest, could not keep the pressure on This edition of C’MUN has been one of thethe delegates of the Council, as it had to leave most intense experiences in my training inthe committee to the voting process. Model UN. It had a high level of debate and a rapid response to the crisis. I hope to work Lebanon was the most affected nation by again with this group of delegates, with thethis resolution as far as the current members of team at UNA-Spain, and the other committeethe Security Council is concerned, because Ara- chairmen. Hope to see you all in an upcomingbian countries lost their representation in the edition of C’MUN The delegates of the Security Council.
12 C’MUN, the Model United Nations of Barcelona S/RES/1/ 2011 Security Council Distr.: General 8 April 2011 The Situation of Human Rights in the Republic of the Union of Myanmar Adopted by the Security Council on 8 April 2011 The Security Council, Guided by the report of the Secretary General on the situation in the Republic of the Union of Myanmar, introduced on the 7th of April of the present year, Reafﬁrming that all Member States have an obligation to promote and protect human rights and fundamental freedoms and the duty to fulﬁll the obligations they have undertaken under the various international instru- ments in this ﬁeld, Taking into consideration the previous General Assembly’s resolutions on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, those of the Commission on Human Rights, and the resolutions of the Human Rights Council, Welcoming the report of the Secretary-General on the situation of human rights in Myanmar, Fully believing that the Government of Myanmar will cooperate with the international community in order to achieve concrete progress with regard to human rights and fundamental freedoms, 1. Strongly condemns any violations of human rights and fundamental freedoms of the people of Myanmar, namely the conditions in prisons and other detention facilities, and consistent reports of ill-treatment of priso- ners of conscience, including torture, and about the moving of prisoners of conscience to isolated prisons far from their families where they cannot receive food and medicine. We also condemn the displacement of large numbers of persons within Myanmar; 2. Urges the cease of violence from all involved parties; 3. Reafﬁrms the essential importance of a genuine process of dialogue and national reconciliation; 4. Encourages the Government of Myanmar to abide by international and national human rights law; 5. Expresses the hope for ensuring constructive dialogue between the sides of the conﬂict; 6. Further requests the Government of Myanmar to take into account the needs of the population and econo- mic prosperity; 7. Expresses its deep concern about the resumption of armed conﬂict in areas where violence is taking place, and is determined to protect civilians and civilian-populated areas. Likewise, calls for the rapid and the unim- peded passage of humanitarian assistance to ensure the safety of humanitarian personnel provided by UN agencies and the International Committee for the Red Cross; 8. Calls upon the Government of Myanmar to ﬁnd a solution to stop refugee ﬂows into neighboring countries; 9. Further requests the Government of Myanmar to provide, in cooperation with the Ofﬁce of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, adequate human rights and international humanitarian law training for its armed forces, police and prison personnel, to ensure their strict compliance with international human rights law and international humanitarian law and to hold them accountable for any violations thereof; 10. Calls upon the Government of Myanmar to engage in a dialogue with the Ofﬁce of the High Commissio- ner with a view to ensuring full respect for all human rights and fundamental freedoms; 11. Has resolved to: (a). Establish an international commission to investigate the violation of basic human right by all parties in- volved in tensions with a particular focus on the murder of Aung San Suu Kiy; (b). Provide medical aid and food, apart from basic supplies to be distributed on the territory by UN Agencies, in collaboration with Myanmar authorities; (c). Report to the General Assembly at its sixty-sixth session as well as to the Human Rights Council on the progress made in the implementation of the present resolution; 12. Requests the General Assembly as well as the bodies that act under the auspices of the UN to actively promote economic development and stability in the conﬂict area; and 13. Decides to remain seized on the matter.
edito- 13C’MUN, the Model United Nations of Barcelona S/RES/2/ 2011 Security Council Distr.: General 9 April 2011The reform of the Security CouncilAdopted by the Security Council on 9 April 2011The Security Council,Recognizing its fundamental responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security accordingto the Charter of the United Nations,Acknowledging the emergence of new world powers which contribute signiﬁcantly to the maintenance ofpeace and security,Aiming at equitable representation of geographical regions with particular attention to developing countriesto have their voice strongly heard,Noting that the effectiveness, legitimacy and transparency of the work of the Security Council are the un-derlying principles the Security Council bases on,Stressing the necessity of a closer cooperation between the Security Council and other UN bodies and agencies,1. Afﬁrms the current ﬁve permanent members: France, Russian Federation, the People`s Republic of China,the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America;2. Decides to extend the Security Council to three new permanent seats, which should be allocated as follows:(a) Brazil from the Latin America and the Caribbean bloc;(b) South Africa from the African bloc;(c) India from the Asian bloc;3. Approves the changes in the category of non-permanent seats and distinguishes two different terms of mandate:3.1. Eight two-year non-renewable mandate seats. These seats will be regionally redistributed as follows:(a) Two seats from the African bloc;(b) Two seats from the Asian bloc;(c) Two seats from the Latin American and Caribbean bloc;(d) One seat from the Eastern European bloc;(e) One seat from the Western European and Others bloc;3.2 Four ﬁve-year renewable mandate seats with the possibility of one reelection. These seats will be regio-nally redistributed as follows:(a) One seat from the Latin American and Caribbean bloc;(b) One seat from the Asian bloc;(c) One seat from the African bloc;(d) One seat to be chosen alternatively from the Western European and Others bloc, and the EasternEuropean bloc;4. Declares accordingly that the countries mentioned in sub Article 3.2. may be chosen on a rotating basiswithin their regional group according to the following criteria:(a) Population;(b) Economic development;(c) Agricultural potential and ﬁnancial contribution to regional development(d) Engagement in promoting human rights, international peace and security;5. Recommends Japan and Germany to be the ﬁrst representatives for the Asian, and Western European andOthers blocs, respectively, in the new category established in sub Article 3.2;6. Accepts a review conference after twenty years in order to reconsider already established solutions as wellas to conduct further reforms;7. Has resolved to improve the working methods of the Security Council in the following ways:(a) Consultations on a regular and more frequent basis between members and non-members of the SecurityCouncil;(b). Regular joint meetings of representatives of the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economicand Social Council and other UN organs if the topic requires it;(c). Guarantees to hold open brieﬁngs and public debates in order to achieve more transparent and democraticaccountability; and8. Decides to remain seized on the matter.
14 Human Rights Council Right to Health versus Patents / Right to Free Flow of Information versus Copyrights Till Weyers. Chair of the Human Rights Council in C´MUN 2011. Universitat Pompeu Fabra.The Human Rights Council du-ring the first day ofsessions. In the 6th edition of the Catalonian Model the C’MUN staff kept giving new informa- United Nations, the expectations of the Hu- tion to the delegates. Moreover, the Deputy man Rights Council (HRC) were high, with Secretary-General, Eirene Ramos, pronounced two actual controversial subjects: regarding an official communiqué in which she urged the medicines, the right of health versus patents; Committee to meet up with a solution. Nume- and with regards to the Internet, the free rous working papers were written down and flow of information versus copyrights. The also two resolutions. In the possible resolutions agenda focused on the first point, and so, the two groups objected: on one hand, fundamen- debate about the suitable balance between tal human rights activists, and on the other, the health rights and the patents started. The some countries like China, Saudi Arabia and delegates were very motivated and, despite Bahrain, who still defended the principle of no the problems that arose with rules of proce- intervention. With the intention of approving dure, –for a great majority of the participants a resolution which embraced the consensus of it was their first time at C’MUN–, the pace of all the Committee, the two blocks gathered the debate was fluid and fruitful. However, two resolutions changing the operative clause the delegates could not set out their points of No.1 which did not condemn the authorities of view for some time due to a crisis that affected Myanmar for “the violation against civil popu- C’MUN2011. First at the Security Council, and lation”. At the end of the day, the first resolu- afterwards at the Human Rights Council and tion was approved. However, the next day, it at the Ad hoc Council of the Alliance of Civili- arose tragic news: after break time, the news- zations at the General Assembly. The military paper The Clarion was distributed to the dele- government of Myanmar had approved an gates and the reaction on the HRC’s resolution agricultural reform that prompted numerous were catastrophic for us. The Secretary General protests, and the government’s reaction was of C’MUN, Raül Jiménez, affirmed that “the cruel: they suppressed the protests, assassina- Human Rights Council had failed in the pro- ted the Nobel Peace Prize awarded, Aung San motion of Human Rights” and the NGOs Am- Suu Kyi, and accused rebel groups of having nesty International and Human Rights Watch assassinated both the protestants and the fa- declared that “it was the worst moment of mous leader of the opposition. The delegates the Human Rights Council”. Both criticized the of the Human Rights Council spent the rest vagueness of the resolution which did not con- of day trying to find a solution, which could demn the violation of the Human Rights by the achieve a consensus of all the committee, and government of Myanmar, but the violations of during the whole process, the Under-Secretary human rights in general. The delegates were General for Chairing, Ambiorix, and some of overcome, since its intention was to find a con-
edito- 15sensual answer of the Committee in which all before, the Committee had approved. At theof the opinions were included, but due to that, final moment, the International Pirate Partythey lost some important operating clauses. tried to include a clause which expressed the importance of the rights of the intellectual However, it has to be mentioned that the property, but the rest of the committee in-fault of the first resolution motivated the de- validated the amendment. After a meaningfullegates to make the second one better. The and fruitful day of debate, the HRC approvedHRC continued the theme regarding to the the proposal of a merged resolution. The dele-rights of health versus patents. All of the del- gates had been extraordinary productive andegates worked without cease in some wor- the chairs were sure that they would gain atking papers, and they exposed theirs ideas least some working paper on the second topic.and tried to reach an agreement. A balancedagreement had to be found between those The final day was started slower than thedifferent rights and it was clear that the de- previous days, since many delegates enjoyedveloped countries, with big pharmaceutical the social and cultural activities of the dayindustries, like the United States, defended before. In spite of that, many countries werepatents; while the countries like Brazil and motivated to even approve a third resolution.Thailand, which depend on development in More working papers were written and weremedical research and industrial plants, tried to discussed in moderated and unmoderated cau-emphasize the right to health. Two more draft cus. As we had only the morning session to fi-resolutions were written and both got better nish, the delegates had to hurry up to achieveduring the unmoderated caucus. The UNESCO their objective. After the break, the delegatesalso fought to be involved in the documents, began to write a resolution. Nevertheless, thatsince this institution is important to achieve a resolution could not be presented, and it wasbalanced agreement between both rights. At far from neither being discussed, nor amended,the end of the afternoon, both planning reso- nor approved. In spite of that, the last morninglution were merged, as the delegates realized was very productive and the resolution pro-that both had many clauses in common. The posed would be a good base for a satisfactorychairs rejected as “inappropriate” the proposal resolution.of dividing the matter in both resolutions andto include just the approved operative clauses. Personally, C’MUN 2011 was a great ex-The final resolution project was presented and perience and I would like to thank all thosewas debated productively. Important amend- people who worked for making it possible.ments were approved and some orthographic Especially, I would like to thank Alkmini-Lydiaand grammar errors were eliminated. Particu- Mitsikosta, my colleague and co-chair, for herlarly, I would like to emphasize the discussion support and incalculable work during thesebetween France and Saudi Arabia in which days. And of course, to all the distinguished de-both could not find an agreement in a specific legates who strived and worked incessantly atformulation, and as a result, Saudi Arabia recti- the Committee to obtain exceptional results. Ified a France’s amendment that, few moments hope that all of you enjoyed it as much as I did! The delegates of the Human Rights Council.
16 C’MUN, the Model United Nations of Barcelona HRC/ 2011 Human Rights Council Distr.: General 8 April 2011 Resolution on the Situation of Human Rights in the Republic of the Union of Myanmar The Human Rights Council, Regarding the UN charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as two principal documents cons- tituting the framework for the achievement of the UN goals, Emphasizing the fact that global peace and stabilization should be perceived as the ﬁrst and foremost objec- tive of the UN countries, Respecting the authority of the government of Myanmar, 1. Condemns violence towards civil population and encourages the dialogue between the parties involved; 2. Expresses the will of the bordering countries to provide the political refugees from Myanmar with the necessary aid of the UNHCR; 3. Declares the will of the UN to ensure that citizens have all their basic needs met: (a). Access to water; (b). Food; (c). Medical care; 4. Speciﬁes that each country should contribute with aids according to its possibilities; 5. Recognizes only humanitarian intervention, excluding any kind of military intervention, which is in any case beyond the powers of this committee; 6. Stresses that it is within the UNSC competence to take into account the situation of Myanmar.
edito- 17C’MUN, the Model United Nations of Barcelona HRC/ 2011 Human Rights Council Distr.: General 8 April 2011Resolution on the Right to Health vs. PatentsThe Human Rights Council,Acting under the UN Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights,Believing that access to healthcare including the right to obtain sufﬁcient medicines for a reasonable priceshould be regarded as a Human Right,Bearing in mind the need for intellectual property of pharmaceutical companies protection,Being fully aware of the fact that the contradiction between IP rights and the right to health exists,Noting with a deep concern current situations in some of the developing countries, without access to funda-mental medicines,Wishing acting together within the UN community to contribute to the current state of affairs improvement,Acknowledging the Millennium Development Goals, focusing on the goal number 8,Realizing that generic medicines might constitute an ultimate alternative for those remaining in destitution,Believing in the global understanding of the problem and the will of obtaining common solutions to the matter,Further recognizing that a priority of the world states is the health of the population,1. Proposes the extension of competences of already existing bodies such as the WHO, the Accelerated Ac-cess Initiative, WIPO and the Global Fund to ﬁght AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, determining exactly theircompetences;2. Encourages the creation and implementation of educational and awareness programs with the collabora-tion of the WHO and UNESCO, to track and control the course of medicines to the country of destination andto improve infrastructures in developing countries (sewage system, water puriﬁcation, road and rail network);3. Proposes the creation of an international fund, with the purpose of investing into research for new curesfor diseases or reduction of costs for essential medicines, favoring the countries affected by price increases,taking into account the GDP (giving more consideration to the HDI); managed by a commission created insi-de a previously existing body such as the UNDP to assist and guarantee the new and previous competences,with an important assistance of any international organization;4. Declares, accordingly to the TRIPS agreement, the need of promoting public health care and also takes intoconsideration the necessity of protecting intellectual property in order to promote the research and creation ofnew medical advances;5. Strongly urges the creation of an advanced market for drugs of limited proﬁtability to ensure the right tohealth of all people; one way to accomplish this is through the creation of advanced purchasing funds; anotherless costly option is an exchange of know-how;6. Recommends, in collaboration with the WHO and WIPO, an international regulation to unify and specifythe deﬁnition of a crisis situation, when compulsory licensing is permitted according to the Doha Declarationon the TRIPS Agreement of 2001;7. Suggests the delocalization of the production of pharmaceutical companies in a mutually beneﬁcial wayfor both developed and developing countries in order to promote the establishment of their own medicineresearch development and production plants, following the examples such as the ones of Thailand and Brazil,proportionally to the capabilities of each country;8. Recognizes the need of promoting health care and also takes into consideration the protection of intellectualproperty in order to promote the research and creation of new medical advances, although recognizing othernot private ways of researching;9. Proposes the further development of research regarding medical issues which affect both developed anddeveloping countries, regarding the article 66 of the TRIPS Agreement;10. Invites all Member States, relevant organizations of the UN system and other international organizations,including non-governmental organizations to participate in World HIV Day in an appropriate manner, in or-der to raise public awareness, as well as its prevention and care including education and mass media;11. Afﬁrms the rules governing the use of property rights established by the Bangui agreement which providesfavorable measures for developing countries;12. Recognizes that every alliance (referring to the possibility of regional agreements) would be formed takinginto account their position in the international system and their speciﬁc situation;13. Urges all Nations to work together towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals,focusing on Target 17 “access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries.”
18 Economic and Financial Committee International Taxes to Fight Poverty and the Economic Crisis Persefoni Ririka. Chair of the Economic and Financial Committee in C’MUN 2011, University of Macedonia.The Economic and Financial Com-mittee during the first day ofsessions. In the Economic and Financial Committee something which was also raised as a point by of the General Assembly of this year’s confer- many delegation of the committee during the ence there was one challenging topic under sessions. Manonelles later wondered if CTT discussion: “Establishing international taxes will be implemented and accepted to answer to fight poverty and the economic crisis :a) many delegates’ questions. banking and stock exchanges taxes . b) avia- tion tax. c) tourism tax”. Although most of the delegates were first timers, it was a great pleasure seeing them These days the world has to face a crisis being confident, passionate and active. The originated by the developed countries, a discussion started and the common belief in- crisis which highly affects the real economy, side the committee was that taxes are not a further worsened by the lack of liquidity in solution and that a more concrete and radical the financial circuits. Delegates represen- change should be made in order to fight the ting countries from all over the world had to economic crisis and reach the MDGs, a change reach an agreement and introduce a resolu- of the economic system itself. The majority tion which would state a clear position re- of the developed countries were in favor of garding the issue of international taxes and the immediate implementation of the taxes their use in order to combat poverty and while the developing ones were against it, reach the Millennium Development Goals. both taking into consideration the fact that the crisis caused by the developed countries At beginning of the first day of the sessions affected the whole world. Some of the most we had the honor of hosting Mr. Manuel important views on the issue were expressed Manonelles, director of the Foundation by the delegations of China, which was in Culture of Peace, who gave us a speech on favor of a more independent policy of deve- the issue of international taxation system. loping countries helping themselves on their Manonelles talked about Currency Transaction own, Morocco, which asked the transactional Tax for Financing Development (CTT for FfD) taxes to be used as an aid for the developing and stated that introducing a tax of 0.005% countries, France and Germany, which were on currency exchange would “suffice to raise in favor of aviation taxes and United King- an amount of money over 30 billion USD per dom, which questioned the long term effec- year”. According to the results of the research tiveness of such measures. conducted by a group of experts, by request of the Leading Group on Innovative Financ- Although there were different opinions on ing for Development, this tax will not cause the subject and blocks were made, the out- problems at the real economy and it has to be come of the first day was one working paper underlined that these Funds will be managed which summarized the opinions heard during by United Nations programs and agencies, the sessions. The paper also suggested some
edito- 19measures regarding the issue, such as the im- Since an agreement on transportation taxesplementation of taxes on financial transac- did not seem feasible, delegates decided totions, the introduction of an agency which concentrate mainly on financial transactions.would monitor the progress and process of The day closed without an introduction of ainternational taxes and the liability of inter- draft resolution although the committee wasnational rating agencies. Moreover, an idea close to the introduction of one.of a creation of a public international ratingagency was heard. During the last day of session the delegates were really busy with forming the draft reso- During the second day of sessions delegates lution but heated discussion continued takingwere concentrated on forming a draft resolu- place. Finally, a draft resolution was intro-tion and talking about tourism and aviation duced, sponsored by the delegations of Boli-taxes. According to the delegations of Japan via, Morocco, Spain and United Kingdom. Theand Morocco tourism tax is really important committee, realizing the importance and dif-and should not affect tourists, thus they were ficulty of reaching an agreement, decided toagainst it. Brazil supported the opinion ex- strengthen the significance of taxes on finan-pressed by the delegation of Greece which cial transactions and currency speculations.was against tourism taxes as tourism is a very While recommending that 1/3 of the fundssensitive area, while Sweden was in favor of it raised through the above mentioned taxesas they believe that tourism is not affected by should be managed by each country sepa-taxes. As far as aviation taxes are concerned rately and 2/3 by the MDG Achievement Fundmost of the countries were in favor of them it further requested that the taxes shouldwhile IATA underlined that even 1 euro would range between 0.05% and 0.25%. Further-be too much and it could have severe effects. more, it decided that at this point reachingGermany, Morocco and Japan were the lead- an agreement on tourism and transportationing countries of the group which was in favor taxes was impossible. Last but not least, it ex-of this taxation with the latest expressing its pressed its belief that regulation and super-will that developing countries would commit vision should become more effective and itto it. United States of America and European decided to remain active on the matter.Union further suggested the implementationof taxes on sea and air transportation and Being a chair of the Economic and FinancialMorocco stressed the importance of taxes on Committee of C’MUN conference 2011 was acompanies which cause the pollution of the great pleasure and honor for me. I should un-environment, such as air companies, which derline that all our delegates were really ac-was further underlined by Egypt. On the tive and passionate and that it is my firm be-other hand, the delegations of developing lief that in the future they will achieve manycountries believed that it was unfair to pay things both in favor of their personal lives andthe same taxes as the developed nations. of the world. I would like to thank the organi-The African Union, South Africa and Bulgaria zation team for giving me the opportunity ofwere against these taxes, while China was chairing this marvelous committee, bringingafraid of supporting the implementation of us together and for their hard work duringtaxes on polluting companies. The result of all these days, which made this conference athis difference was two different working pa- success and an unforgettable experience.pers, one by China and the other by Morocco. The delegates of the Economic and Financial Committee.
20 C’MUN, the Model United Nations of Barcelona A/C.2/ 2011 General Assembly Distr.: General 8 April 2011 Economic and Financial Committee Sixth Session 2nd Committee Adopted by the C’MUN X Committee at its 6th meeting, on 08 April 2011 Establishing International Taxes on Financial Transactions to Fight Poverty and the Economic Crisis: A) Banking and stock exchanges taxes B)Aviation tax C)Tourism tax The Economic and Financial Committee of the General Assembly, Determined to foster strict respect for the purposes and principles stated in the Charter of the United Nations, Having considered the impact of the ﬁnancial crisis on the whole world and its threat to long term objectives a the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, Convinced by the fact that speculative ﬁnancial transactions should be restricted by international taxes, Afﬁrming that a transaction tax would stabilize asset prices, thus improving general macroeconomic functioning, Emphasizing that a transaction tax would allow the United Nations to have enough funds to accomplish the Millennium Development Goals, Convinced that a better regulation of the ﬁnancial markets will improve the global economy, Realizing the difﬁculties in reaching a consensus regarding transportation taxing, Recognizing the crucial importance and the need of immediate considerations in the ﬁnancial sector, Deeply concerned with the recent food crisis that boosts food prices and raises poverty and hunger, 1. Strongly afﬁrms the necessity of a global and international implementation of a tax on ﬁnancial transactions; 2. Recommends the implementation of a tax on foreign currency speculations; 3. Further afﬁrms the necessity of 2/3 of the funds raised by the above mentioned taxes to be managed by the MDG Achievement Fund. Under the principle of subsidiarity, in 2015 the funds will be transferred to the UNDP, which will allocate the money to any commission similar to the MDG Achievement Fund; 4. Recommends that 1/3 of the funds raised by the previously mentioned taxes to be managed by each country for internal issues, stressing on the importance of solving the sovereign debt crisis; 5. Suggests that the nature of both taxes should be global and adopted simultaneously by all the countries worldwide; 6. Requests that the value of the tax ranges from 0.05% to 0.25%, depending on the nature and risk of the ﬁnancial product, which will be evaluated by the already existing UN Commission of Financial Experts; 7. Asks for a minimum tax rate to be set at 0.05% for all countries; 8. Recommends the inclusion of countries which have already implemented taxes in their national legal sys- tem to the abovementioned tax system; 9. Further recommends public companies not to pay taxes as long as the nature of their activity is not specu- lative; 10. Afﬁrms that, in order to ﬁght speculation and enhance development, ﬁnancial transactions related to trade will not be affected by this tax; 11. Suggests the IMF to strengthen the Financial Sector Assessment Program for closer ﬁnancial sector sur- veillance; 12. Calls upon those nations interested in taxing transportation to act regionally and nationally under the gui- dance of the UN, emphasizing that we recommend states to avoid taxing maritime transport as it is essential for trade; 13. Acknowledges the importance of tourism and trade and therefore, cannot, at this point, reach a consensus regarding transportation taxes; 14. Encourages the FAO to take serious action against food speculation before 2015; 15. Stresses the critical need of making regulation and supervision more effective; 17. Encourages the international community to take long-term actions to strengthen the international econo- mic system, such as restricting complex ﬁnancial products; 18. Decides to remain active on this matter.
edito- 21Ad Hoc Committee of the Alliance of CivilizationsGender and MigrationAleksandra Semeriak. Co-Chair of the Ad Hoc Committee of the Alliance of Civilizations in C’MUN 2011.Universitat Pompeu Fabra. The Ad Hoc Committee of the Alliance of Civilizations during the first day of sessions. This year in the 6th Catalonia Model Unit- to begin the discussion, and almost all ofed Nations, the Committee of the Alliance them wanted to be added to the speakersof Civilizations had to face a subject of dis- list. When the session was reaching a highcussion as wide as strong and as important point, an unexpected event shook theas difficult. This year, the content, always Committee: in front of the surprised faceson the importance of managing labor mi- of the delegates, Juan Sebastián Mateos in-gration, tried to focus on the role of gen- formed them that the clashes in Myanmarder. The theme of the meeting was divided had led to a repression on the part of theinto three subtopics: gender equality, gen- military government and ended up withder violence and religious visual symbols. the murder of Aung San Suu Kyi, the mostPer se, migration is still a difficult topic to famous “symbol” of the Myanmar’s oppo-deal with, above all in political and cultural sition. The agenda set up by the delegatesmatters which confront countries receiving was postponed in order to firstly discuss themigration with home countries. Adding crisis. All countries tried to find measuresreligion and gender equality, we were ex- and solutions to the wave of immigrantspectant to see how the discussion would towards China that, after the serious prob-develop. lems, the Burmese population started to suffer. Despite having different economic The first day of meeting, we had the interests on the area, delegations tried togreat opportunity of counting on the pre- forget (as far as possible) their own ben-sence of Juan Sebastián Mateos, Head of efits to issue a statement recommending aServices of the Office of the “real” Alliance humanitarian intervention on the area toof Civilizations, within the Spanish Ministry avoid the displacement and the possibleof Foreign Affairs and Cooperation. Dele- disasters which could derive from this tra-gates could obtain first-hand information gic outcome. First thing in the morning ofabout the Committee and ask questions the following day, this statement was sub-giving their own opinion on the topics mitted to the Security Council which wasbefore putting themselves in the shoes of working on a resolution to the conflict.the representatives of the countries theyhave been assigned for the next days. Af- After having dealt with the crisis, theter the pleasant visit, delegates were ready present representatives of the Commit-
22 tee were ready to retake the discussion pass a resolution that doesn’t respect the on migration and gender equality on the cultural traditions and religions of the mi- second day. Insisting on the importance of grants’ home country, since this resolution managing the time (since we only had a would not be to their liking. Influenced by day and a half of sessions), delegates put the polemic news about the banning of the a lot of effort in starting to collect ideas integral veil in France, the resulting work and find solutions. The day began with two of the Committee looked for the passing working papers led by the delegations of of the delegations affected in this aspect Peru, on the one hand, and Australia, on without going against the host countries. the other hand. It seems the main topic of gender equality was tackled in both docu- Despite some discrepancies, the discus- ments, finding some similarities and also sion should go on. The new topics were differences. Following the spirit of the Alli- added to the working paper and new re- ance of Civilizations that the Chairs always quests were taken into consideration. Each remembered, delegates decided to bet on delegation had something to say and time the consensus and unify both working pa- was pressing. Thanks to the collaboration of pers in one. The resolution was about to be all delegates, who devoted all their efforts born. However, in the middle of the after- both during and out of the formal sessions, noon the delegations of the Muslim coun- a real joint work could be carried out. The tries and religious organizations, such as delegations considering it necessary sent the Holy See and the Organization of the their proposals for modification during an Islamic Conference, expressed their wish to unmoderated caucus, in which the repre- add the topic of the religious symbols due sentatives were sitting in their respective to the significance related to the migrant seats instead of gathering in small groups. population and education. Despite the criti- In this unmoderated caucus, they discussed cism of some delegations, since they ar- the working paper and the modifications gued that it would be very difficult to reach point by point informally. They also argued a consensus in a very short space of time, why these modifications should be made the representatives of the Muslim countries or not, so that all delegations were kept in- knew how to prove that this subject could formed about the changes and they could not be out of the resolution. The modera- reach an agreement or voice their opposi- ted caucuses were used to state their con- tion at the moment. This procedure, posi- cerns and intentions to the rest of delegates tively valued by the chairs, enabled us not and they also clarified that they would not to have a single amendment and to reachThe delegates the Ad Hoc Com-mittee of the Alliance of Civili-zations
edito- 23the favorable vote on the part of all dele- man Rights. It is a resolution that coversgations, when it was presented as a draft everything.resolution the last day. It is a resolutionthat urges the improvement of the measu- It is said that when something is repeatedres already recommended and also insists constantly, finally you end up internaliz-that achieving gender equality is directly ing it. After constantly repeating that theattached to poverty, education, social servi- Alliance of Civilizations had to find a con-ces and policy implementation which must sensus and work jointly, not as divided dele-remove the current differences. A resolu- gations, I think that both Pau and I managedtion that recommends and suggests to the to bear this idea in mind in every declara-Member States of the United Nations that tion and proposal issued by the delegates.they promote equal opportunity and equal We couldn’t be happier with the work doneaccess for women to public and private sec- in a limited time. We would have been de-tors of the society, both from the adminis- lighted, if we had had the opportunity oftration and the education. This resolution further discussing each topic proposed foris based on the respect for the multicultu- the agenda and going into details thatralism and the different religions, and for emerged from the subtopics. Likewise, wethe freedom of migrants to endure their hope the sessions have been to delegates´own traditions without being discrimina- liking and we apologize in case of not ha-ted and also the respect for freely choosing ving met some of your expectations. Finallytheir way of life, but always respecting Hu- and once again, thank you very much.The Ad Hoc Committee on the Alliance of Civilizations8 April 2011Statement by the President of the UN Alliance of CivilizationsAt the 6th United Nations Model, held on 7 April 2011, in connection with the Alliance’s considera-tion of the item entitled “The issue of Myanmar crisis”, the President of the Alliance of Civilizationsmade the following statement on behalf of the Alliance:“Condemns the outbreaks of violence in Myanmar.“Demands an immediate end to violence from both the demonstrators and the military.“Invites neighboring countries to take substantive action to help the refugees from Myanmar.“Encourages UN members, especially those who have achieved a higher level of economic deve-lopment, such as the USA and consenting EU countries, to give humanitarian and ﬁnancial supportto handle the situation of the refugees that might arrive to the neighboring countries, since thesecountries will not be able to handle the crisis without help.“Recommends the Security Council to be vigilant of the current events.“Encourages Myanmar to be as cooperative as possible in keeping the international community in-formed about the recent events, by allowing international NGOs and journalists to enter the countryand report on the migratory movement.“Reminds Myanmar of the potential threat that massive, uncontrolled migration movements mightpose, making this issue of international interest.“Encourages ﬁnancial support for any neighboring country that is willing to help the refugeesthrough the help of more economically developed countries and the International Monetary Fund.“Views positively any humanitarian mission that includes provision of medical help for shelters andanything else that can be offered with the help of relevant NGOs such as the Red Cross, DoctorsWithout Borders and other NGOs from the Platform of European Social NGOs.“Emphasizes the importance of cultural exchange in order to achieve mutual understanding to solvecontroversies in a peaceful manner to contribute to the stabilization of the region so as to achievedevelopment.”
24 C’MUN, the Model United Nations of Barcelona A/C. Ad Hoc/ 2011 General Assembly Distr.: General 9 April 2011 The Ad Hoc Committee on the Alliance of Civilizations The General Assembly, Reafﬁrming the commitment made by the United Nations regarding the Millennium Development Goals, Recalling the resolutions S/RES/1325, S/RES/1261, S/RES/1265, S/RES/1296 and S/RES/1314 vo- ted by the Security Council, as well as relevant statements made by its Presidents, Bearing in mind the commitments of the Beijing Declaration regarding the platform for action (A/ RES/52/231) as well as those contained in the resulting document of the twenty-third special session of the United Nations General Assembly on “Women 2000: gender equality, development and peace for the twenty-ﬁrst century” (A/S-23/10/Rev.1), Convinced that global cooperation amongst states is of crucial importance in eliminating gender inequality, Noting with deep concern the inefﬁciency and lack of coordination of past initiatives, Deeply disturbed by the widespread violation of women rights and the persistent inequalities that exist between men and women, Fully alarmed that gender discrimination is the principal reason why different manifestations of gender inequality and violence against women occurs in all countries, 1. Further invites new measures and improvements of those which already exist in order to prevent, reduce and prosecute all forms of violence against women. Special attention should be dedicated to female migrants in order to eliminate human trafﬁcking and ethnical violence; 2. Considers that gender equality is directly linked to poverty, education, health services, juridical assistance and employment. The development and implementation of policies and programs with a determinant focus on gender is encouraged; 3. Requests the enforcement of existing structures of a Committee of Control and Evaluation, such as UN Women. This committee formed by independent experts will analyze annual reports sent by country members. Encouraging the UN members to collect and make available the relevant data for such reports, which should address each country´s situation regarding gender equality, especially in education area. Experts would make recommendations for improvement to each country regarding each situation; 4. Calls for the establishment of governmental programs to improve gender equality: (a) Promote access and participation of women in the political sphere, public government and admi- nistration, and in the decision-making roles; (b) Encourage the access of women into each level of the working sector, in consideration to the speciﬁc economical structure of each region; (c) Promote equal access to social and cultural services; (d) Encourage the adoption of measures by enterprises and governments that favor conciliation bet- ween individual personal and working lives. Assuring that maternity issues do not affect women´s employment rights; (e) Promote a positive image of women in employment, as well as the values of equality through the media and educational programs; and (f) Recommend measures in order to condemn and punish domestic violence, including sexual vio- lence; 5. Endorses education measures: increase national efforts to guarantee the equal access of women at all education levels, especially at primary school. Programs will also be dedicated to making school affordable for all families;
edito- 25C’MUN, the Model United Nations of Barcelona A/C. Ad Hoc/ 20116. Expresses its appreciation to the states which guarantee free choice of religious education and/or secular education at school. However, we encourage all countries to include religious studies intheir curriculum in order to allow students to be aware and respectful with both their own and allreligions and traditions;7. Further suggests that all countries allow personal religious symbols, in their private schools, asa minimum;8. Encourages the promotion of educational programs which respect Universal Human Rights prin-ciples, cultural and ethnical diversity, and the freedom of choosing and practicing a religion;9. Calls upon universal access to family planning education, including education on gender rela-tions, in line with each country’s culture, religion and tradition in multiple forms, as long as it doesnot impinge on the fundamental human rights:(a) Suggesting the promotion of educational programs in order to reduce the spread of venerealdiseases in all countries; and(b) Suggesting the teaching of mutual respect amongst the genders in accordance with each country´scultural norms;10. Reafﬁrms the importance of women´s access to education and calls for the investment of the UNmembers in this sector, especially for developing countries;11. Takes note of the role of non-governmental sectors in developing educational, social and culturalprojects and contributions;12. Further invites the development of a mechanism of cooperation for the implementation of hu-manitarian border management strategies, in order to ensure the respect of human rights of migrantwomen;13. Expresses its hope of the inclusion of speciﬁc measures related to migrant women in order tofacilitate their integration;14. Recommends free obligatory language classes for all migrants who do not speak the languageof the host country, along with the creation of parents groups (with an emphasis on the participationof women) in order to facilitate their integration into the host community to allow them to play anactive role in their child´s educational development;15. Invites the creation of shelters for abused women which will provide both a safe haven for abu-sed women and also ferment their reintegration into host societies –helping them to enter or re-enterthe labor market and look for housing.This decision has been adopted by consensus of all the present and voting delegations.The delegation of Argentina supports this resolution, with the following reservation to article 14:The word “obligatory” used in this resolution may be used by some countries as a political measureto discriminate or to increase obstacles for legal free migration.
26 UNESCO Traditions versus Animal Welfare Catherine Moore. Chair of the UNESCO Commitee in C’MUN 2011. University of Essex. to the Chairs for review. After lunch it was a flurry of discussion and heated debate as the committee debated the resolution, its operative clauses, and the areas where it needed improvement. In fact, the committee was so wrapped up in writing amendments to the reso- lution and an opposing resolution being written that they let the speakersThe UNESCO committee during list exhaust!! When suchthe first day of sessions. a thing happens, and as had been explained to The UNESCO committee at C’MUN 2011 the committee multiple times throughout debated both intangible and tangible cul- the first two days, the committee must vote tural heritage during the conference. The on whatever resolutions are on the floor topic of bullfighting and animal welfare, at at the time. Debate was closed and voting the center point of the intangible cultural procedure commenced. As there had been heritage debate, was met with a swift hand. some pushback from several delegates on The presence of such organizations as the the quality of the resolution, and to keep WSPA and PETA added greatly to the discus- some delegates honest in their vote, a mo- sion, focusing the committee on the rights tion was made for a roll call vote followed and welfare of those who have no human by a division of the question. Both passed voice. The first full day was spent with de- and the committee voted on draft resolu- legates pushing their own country’s agenda tion 1.2 clause by clause through a roll call and establishing the general framework vote. This 14-clause draft resolution passed for the final resolution, with six working with the exception of clauses 3 and 4, the papers being sub- mitted, all outlining the general ideas of the delegates and which aided greatly in writing the draft resolutions. The se- cond day of debate was met with a much more serious tone and the delegates quickly got to work on converging the working papers into a draft resolution. By lunchtime, one had been intro- duced to the floor for debate and another was sent
edito- 27most contentious clauses. It then became not necessary to the debate, a similar shuf-resolution 1 and the committee would soon fle was performed with other countries inbe moving on to a second topic. While the order to make the debate livelier, includingresolution passed, it was clear that this the introduction of Greece and a newly re-was not the resolution that the committee formed United Kingdom. This proved to bewanted to pass, as amendments were floa- quite interesting as these two countries de-ting around. However, this was an instance bated the ownership of the Elgin Marbleswhere the rules of procedure hindered and which country was the rightful owner.the debate, as the inexperience of some The delegates, for this particular topic,delegates was obvious to the Chairs. The were much more lively and engaged morefinal resolution, however, provided a gen- in active debate than the first topic as moreeralized viewpoint of the topic at hand. A countries felt directly involved in the topicdistinction was made between cruelty to at hand. After just 4 hours of debate, a draftanimals for entertainment purposes and resolution was presented, voted upon, andslaughter of animals for religious purposes. passed. This resolution encouraged com-The la-tter, according to the committee, munication between countries directly in-should be preserved so as to not infringe volved in these issues and proposes itself,upon the right to freedom of religion. UNESCO, to act as a third party arbitratorFurthermore, the resolution went on to in disputes. Broad, sweeping recommen-propose measures that a country could dations were made as well in hopes of ad-rely upon to help enforce any legislation dressing the issue. It was clear to the Chairsagainst animal cruelty while also improving that if the delegates had more time to de-living conditions of these types of animals, bate this topic, the quality of the resolu-i.e. bulls, dogs, etc. It appeared that, de- tion would have been much higher and thespite the unusual nature of the closure of plans put in place by the committee woulddebate on the topic, the majority of the have been more in depth.committee agreed on the bulk of the re-solution as it stood. Only two clauses were On the whole, the Chairs were quiteeliminated during voting procedure and pleased with the final outcome of the com-the rest of the resolution remained intact. mittee session, as it was made apparent to them that many in the committee were be- The committee was then redirected as a ginner MUNers. It is our hope that throughsecond topic was introduced, “Illicit Traf- their time at C’MUN 2011, the delegatesficking of Cultural Property.” While some will come to love the concept of MUN justcountries had to be reassigned, NGOs and as much as the Chairs do! We hope to seeobservers such as WSPA and PETA that were you all at C’MUN 2012!! The delegates of the UNESCO committee.
28 C’MUN, the Model United Nations of Barcelona UNESCO/ 1/ 2011 UNESCO Distr.: General 8 April 2011 The United Nations Education, Scientiﬁc, and Cultural Organization Topic: Traditions versus Animal Welfare The General Conference of the United Nations Education, Scientiﬁc, and Cultural Organization, Noting with regret that animals are subjected to both physical and mental suffering caused by some of the traditional cultural practices involving animal use, Recalling the Recommendation on Safeguarding Traditional and Popular Culture of 1989, the Declaration of Principles on International Cultural Cooperation of 1966, the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity adopted by the UNESCO General Conference of 2001, the Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage of 2003, Guided by the deﬁnition of “cultural heritage” adopted within The Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, Recognizing animals are sentient creatures, highly perceptive and capable of experiencing a range of emo- tions, including pain and suffering, Understanding the need to uphold respect and compassion towards animals, Recognizing animal welfare as a key priority on the domestic and international agenda, Acknowledging that animal neglect in spheres encompassing farming and agriculture should be reduced, Desiring that countries economically dependent on practices involving cruelty would be supported by nations in adopting have the potential to ﬁnd alternative sources of revenue, Afﬁrming the need to use humane methods of slaughter in circumstances of unavoidable slaughter, Acknowledging that improved animal welfare is conducive to the fulﬁllment of the UN Millennium Develo- pment Goals, Realizing that the current phenomenon of globalization also entails the reestablishment of values and the evolvement of cultural practices, Bearing in mind that animal slaughter for necessity and slaughter or torture for entertainment purposes should be distinguished and the latter should be condemned, Acknowledging that religion has to be respected, that a balance can be ensured between religious values and animal welfare, Recognizing every human being’s right to have access to food, as established in the UN Declaration of Hu- man Rights, likewise the animal consumption as a necessity, Underlining that animal consumption for necessities should not involve endangered species, Taking into consideration that not only direct actions over animals, but also the deterioration of the environ- ment has an inﬂuence in animal welfare, Adopts the following resolution: 1. Encourages the establishment of an international body which Multinational Corporations and international organizations would be invited, along with nation states, to discuss the issue of animal welfare; 2. Calls for the modiﬁcation and improvement of the Universal Declaration of Animal Welfare and recogni- tion of the latter by the United Nations; 3. Advises the states to monitor the religious sacriﬁces during the festival days in order to make sure that animals are not subject to torture; 4. Requests nations to ensure the presence of animal welfare experts in religious festivals to guarantee the quick and safely monitored deaths so as to reduce suffering as much as possible; 5. Suggests making sure that animals are respected and honored through a number of activities such as movies, plays, lectures and publications, within the context of an international campaign sponsored by the UNESCO; 6. Implores governments to draft legislation concerning animal well-being in order to improve animal welfare and protection; 7. Encourages the nations which already have regulations and policies regarding animal welfare to strengthen their existing legislation so that they can be more effective. 8. Recommends the monitoring and regulation of traditional animal trading in the international markets;
edito- 29C’MUN, the Model United Nations of Barcelona UNESCO/ 1/ 20119. Afﬁrms member states enforcing educational programs that provide information regarding current and pastpractices involving animal cruelty;10. Encourages member states to engage in deliberate local efforts that seek to eliminate unnecessary suffe-ring and/or death in entertainment;11. Further invites nations to share scientiﬁc and technical expertise in assisting the abovementioned countriesin their endeavor;12. Encourages member states to empower pre-existing civil society movements and NGOs that deal withanimal welfare;C’MUN, the Model United Nations of Barcelona UNESCO/ 2/ 2011 Distr.: General UNESCO 9 April 2011The United Nations Education, Scientiﬁc, and Cultural OrganizationTopic: Illicit Trafﬁcking of Cultural PropertyThe General Conference of the United Nations Education, Scientiﬁc, and Cultural Organization,Recognizing that cultural property is important for the preservation of world culture,Convinced that illicit trafﬁcking of cultural poverty erodes and destroys the history and heritage of nationsand threatens the preservation of culture,Bearing in mind the Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export andTransfer of Ownership of Cultural Property (1970), The Second Protocol to the Hague Convention of 1954,The UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects (Rome, 1995),Adhering to the deﬁnitions of cultural property, illicit trafﬁcking, among others in the aforementioneddocuments,Adopts the following resolution:1. Reminds that the problem of illicit trafﬁcking is both a domestic and an international problem;2. Promotes ﬁnancial help for those countries who have difﬁculty in implementing measures to monitor;3. Encourages the loan of cultural property for educational research purposes, time, restitution, and returnbased on the agreement between legally recognized entities;4. Proposes that discrepancies between two countries over historical transactions will be solved by a third-party authority under the auspices of UNESCO and supported by authorities of legal expertise;5. Suggests that upon the return of an object of cultural signiﬁcance to the original geographic location, aportion of the accrued funds (donated or otherwise) will be sent back to the former country to aid that countryto preserve its endemic cultural heritage;6. Encourages those countries that exhibit the cultural heritage from other countries in their museums to studyand promote policies to return that cultural heritage to their country of origin, as part of their nations plans fordevelopment;7. Suggests that if a government refuses to return illegally obtained articles, cooperating countries raise theissue in other UN forums as a point of concern with the hope of ﬁnding a solution;8. Seeks strong commitment of member countries to regulate the international market;9. Calls for the adherence to pre-existing databases and inventories on cultural property;10. Invites nations which receive national and cultural items for touristic and educational purpose to reinforcea strict supervision of purchased items and to return them when legal conditions of trade are not met.11. Endorses the technical expertise and knowledge transfer from more able countries to others in the form ofconsultants, experts or advisory advisory committees to help regulating crimes related to trafﬁcking.
30 World Health Organization Towards the End of Tobacco? Sara Ersoezlue. Chair of the World Health Organization in C’MUN 2011. Charité Medical School Berlin.The World Health Organizationduring the first day of sessions. At this year’s edition of the Catalonia the most recent statistics, outlined the Model United Nations, the World Health challenges of this topic and demonstra- Organization dedicated itself to one of ted how the WHO Tobacco Free Initiative the biggest public health threats our glo- has been fighting tobacco consumption bal community has ever faced: Tobacco. for the last decades. As he opened him- In response to this global epidemic 168 self for questions, delegates queued for countries have signed the WHO Frame- using this one-time opportunity. After this work Convention on Tobacco Control great opening, delegates had the chance (FCTC) and many of them, including most to inform the house about their country recently Spain, have prohibited smoking positions. Before lunch break, the first in public places. However, despite all these lobbying groups were formed and more- efforts global tobacco consumption is in- over five working papers were handed creasing, especially among young people in, which was worth a round of applause. and in particular in the developing coun- However, after this strong start the WHO tries. Why is that so? And how can the experienced a motivational “low” in the global community tackle this problem in afternoon. Moreover, uncertainties with a more effective way? What are the obs- the Rules of Procedure became apparent tacles? And how can they be overcome? and we were confronted with several These and many more questions had to be unplanned “minutes of silence” during answered by this Committee. formal debate, which we managed to overcome, also by some informal an- The core issues dealt with in this Council nouncements to the house. were: control of advertisement, smoking bans, education, taxation, the environ- The second day started off with a series mental perspective and the creation of of moderated caucuses on several aspects alternative industries to the tobacco in- of tobacco consumption, which were con- dustry. However, also cultural aspects of ducted in a good way. While on the first tobacco consumption were brought up by day, many statements were rather general several counties. and repetitive of the FCTC, at the 2nd day, delegates came also up with more con- The first session of the WHO started crete ideas: for instance, the proposal of of enthusiastically with an inspiring pre- rising taxes on the materials and facilities sentation by the doctor Armado Peruga, required for the production of cigarettes Manager of the WHO Tobacco Free Ini- and other tobacco products. Also some tiative. Peruga provided the Council with quite memorable statements were made
edito- 31during formal debate. For instance onedelegate started off his speech this way:“Cancer is bad, right? So then smoking isbad, too”. As I learned later that day, several de-legates stood up early in the morningto familiarize themselves with the Rulesof Procedures, the FCTC and their coun-try positions. Two delegates furthermorewanted to use their rights to the fullest byasking for rights of reply, which did heat which was sponsored by Germany, Kenyaup the atmosphere as a matter of fact. De- and Sweden, passed at 13:15 o’clock.spite all the controversy delegates wereeager to find common grounds; sometimes For me personally, it was a great plea-maybe a bit too ambitious. We were more sure to chair the WHO on this topic. Ithan surprised, when we received a draft really enjoyed the interdisciplinary ap-resolution sponsored by the WHO Tobacco proach to this public health issue andFree Initiative and Phillip Morris. At the on the whole I am very happy with theend of the second day, the first draft reso- way the WHO simulation went. Duringlution was introduced to the house, fol- the opening session I had concluded mylowed by a second one on the next day. speech with the question where our glo-Both resolutions had merit. However, bal community was heading: “Towards aneach one had a different focus: one rather even bigger epidemic or towards the enddealt with public health policies and the of tobacco?” After 3 days of simulationother one with the economic aspects. We my question was clearly answered withtherefore encouraged the delegates to “towards the end of tobacco!” It, howe-merge their ideas. ver remains unclear, when this “end” will be. It’s up to us… let’s see how this will On the third day, just before we started turn out in 2030. Before we reconveneour final debate on the resolutions, the in 2030 to see whether we achieved ourcommittee experienced a dramatic mo- goals, let be first thank all of you, hono-ment: The delegate of Iran decided to rable delegates of the WHO, for makingwithdraw her sponsorship of her own draft this MUN such a great experience! You allresolution in order to sign the other one. did a great job! I’d further like to thankDuring the last 90 minutes, delegates tried Dogan for being a great Co-Chair! Finally,to improve the remaining draft resolution I’d like to thank Raül for giving me theby amendments. After a final round de- opportunity to be part of C’MUN 2011! Ibate and amendments, the house made a really enjoyed it, thanks! My very specialmotion to directly move to voting on the thanks go to Ambiorix, who was alwaysdraft resolution. Finally the resolution, there, whenever we needed him! On top, the Chairs of the World Health Organization. On the bottom, all the delegates.
32 C’MUN, the Model United Nations of Barcelona WHO/1/ 2011 World Health Organization Distr.: General 9 April 2011 The World Health Assembly, Noting that tobacco is proved to be the most fatal preventable cause of death, Acknowledging the effectiveness of tobacco control measures for the improvement of health, Recalling the articles 2, 6, 13 and 15 of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Deeply concerned by the increasing consumption of tobacco products, Recalling its resolutions WHO 49.17, WHA 52.18 and WHA 56.1 in accordance with Article 19 of the Cons- titution of WHO, Guided by the notion of the ascendancy of public health against the right of personal choices, Appreciating the full protection of public health, achieved in some countries by the total ban of smoking in public places, Acknowledging and appreciating the work that is being done on the Protocol on Illicit Trade, 1) Proposes the participation and cooperation of specialized international agencies and programs, including the international labor ofﬁce, the United Nations Development Program, the Food and Agricultural Organi- zation of the United Nations and World Bank; 2) Recommends the establishment of working groups intended to help the collection of data referring to the implementation of the treaty and examine the conditions of tobacco production in developing countries; 3) Suggests the protection of public health, through the implementation of bans and restrictions of advertising, sale and promotion of tobacco products; 4) Further recommends the enforcement of higher taxes and the implementation of excise on all tobacco products; 5) Requests more studies to be conducted and more data to be collected as far as taxation is concerned; 6) Invites the working group that is handling this issue to consider the balance in increasing direct and indirect taxes; 7) Proposes the establishment of an intergovernmental negotiating body that will evaluate the speciﬁc eco- nomic conditions of each country and recommend appropriate rates accordingly; 8) Urges the implementation of a restriction on waste (both chemical waste and tobacco waste), a limitation on pesticides and carbon emissions, through establishment of a working group, in order to address: a. the detrimental effects on the environment, caused by tobacco production through the contamination of water, b. soil degradation, c. lack of biodiversity; 9) Encourages the creation of long term programs in order to ﬁnd alternative livelihoods to tobacco in colla- boration with the Tobacco Free Initiative done through a development perspective since it involves health, social , environmental and economic aspects beyond substitution of one economic activity for another; 10) Invites all the parties to the WHO Framework Convention of Tobacco Control (FCTC) to contribute to raising of funds and the establishment of mechanisms to supervise the implementation of the Articles 17 and 18 of the Framework Convention; 11) Requests the establishment of a new ad-hoc committee under the World Trade Organization (WTO) that will regulate the trade of tobacco products in order to strengthen the multilateral collaboration in boarder control; 12) Supports the collaboration of an Inter-Agency Task Force on Tobacco Control which works under the World Health Organization with the WTO; 13) Further Invites the Conference of the Parties (COP) to establish: a. a special fund to help developing countries, b. a study group on new technologies and investments that will help developing countries overcome high deﬁcits and public debts; 14) Asks all member states to allocate a bigger proportion of current tax revenues from tobacco products in support of education and cessation programmes; 15) Encourages all member states to consider cultural aspects of tobacco consumption when making any decision concerning tobacco; 16) Welcomes the fund for education and smoking cessation programme from Tobacco-Free Initiative and other stakeholders.
edito- 33International Court of JusticeThe North Pole’s FutureMarta Garbarino. Judge of the International Court of Justice in C’MUN 2011. Universitat de Trieste. The International Court of Justice during the first day of sessions. The new “cold war” between the United the militarization and territorial claims inStates of America and the Russian Federa- the area. As a matter of fact, the most im-tion: this is how the situation in the Arctic re- portant feature of the Arctic is its naturalgion has been defined by experts. According environment. Because of the extreme cli-to the definition given by the Arctic Council, mate conditions and the delicate balancewhen we speak about the Arctic we are re- of nature in the area, the protection andferring to an enormous area, sprawling over preservation of the Arctic have becomeone sixth of the earths’ landmass, that is also one of the major goals of the United Na-the home of four million people, including tions as well as of many NGOs, who fearover thirty different indigenous peoples. that the increasing human activities may cause some irreparable damages to such a With almost 30% of world’s oil and gas fragile environment.reserves buried under the Arctic seas, therace between Arctic states to claim the How has the Arctic region changed soownership of the North Pole has begun. far, and what future changes are expected?As a matter of fact, the bad impact of glo- This was the challenging question uponbal warming, caused by climate change, which the delegates of the Internationalhas recently contributed to an unexpected Court of Justice at C’MUN 2011 had to findacceleration of the ice melting process in an answer.the area, so that new opportunities for theexploitation of natural resources are now So let’s have a look at the work of the ICJavailable. Because of the economical po- during C’MUN2011!tentiality, the Arctic issue has become oneof the top priorities of the political agen- Since the very first day of the conference itda of the 8 Arctic states. Moreover, since was clear that the discussion was very interes-changes in the Arctic will not only affect lo- ting but at the same time very difficult becausecal people and natural ecosystems but also of the broadness and technicality of the topic.the rest of the world, the attention of the During the first session five Member Statesinternational community is now focused on and six observers had the chance to present
34 their opinion on the topic. However, later on People. Even thou the question of the right the same day the debate begun to come to a of Indigenous People was smartly avoided standstill, so the Judges encouraged the adop- during the debate, all Member States fi- tion of a new agenda, dividing the general nally agreed with the principles of the UN topic into some specific sub-topics, that after Declaration of Rights of Indigenous People a short discussion was accepted unanimously and stressed their commitments towards the by the Court. protection of indigenous communities who live inside their borders. Moreover many ob- Therefore, the second day started with serves introduced some relevant data con- the first point on the new agenda: eco- cerning the level of pollution of the Arctic nomic aspects and management of Arctic region and the impact of climate change on natural resources; with a special reference the delicate environment of the Arctic. to fishing, mining industry and oil and gas exploitation. On one side Member States Later on the same day the Judges finally discussed the management of numerous informed the Court that they were satisfied natural resources available in the area, rei- with the information gathered and they terating the principle of state sovereignty were ready to bow out and deliver an opi- over territorial seas already expressed in nion. I must admit that the high level of the the UNCLOS convention. Concerning the debate and the astonishing preparation of management of natural resources beyond each delegate, made the work of the three the so called Exclusive Economic Zone, the judges even more difficult. After a long Court discussed two possible solutions: an and challenging exchange of opinions, the expansion of the mandate of the Interna- Judges decided come up unanimously with tional Sea-bed Authority or the creation of an opinion and read it to the Court. Basi- a new treaty. cally the Judges recognized UNCLOS as the only binding agreement in the region and On the other side the Observers, especially declared that no further militarization, ter- UNEP and Greenpeace, stressed the need of ritorial claims or economic exploitation in the implementation of the so called “cor- the high sea have to be performed before porate social responsibility” among private further scientific explorations will clarify and public companies. They also asked for the composition of the area. a “free, prior and informed” consent when economic activities has to take place in the According to my personal point of view, land of Indigenous People. the work within the International Court of Justice was characterized not only by an The second part of the debate was dedi- uncountable number of maps projected cated to the issue of sovereignty. All coun- on the screen but also by many wonderful tries agreed with the principles expressed in memories to take back home. Personally I the Law of the Sea Convention (1982); ac- was impressed by the high preparation and cording to this agreement coastal states own the commitment of each delegate; their the seabed beyond existing 200 nautical mile passion and enthusiasm during the three zones if it is part of a continental shelf of days of conference, inside and outside for- shallower waters. The Court was informed mal sessions, was simply amazing and un- that many territorial claims in the area has forgettable. If the work within the ICJ went already been solved, but the ownership of so smoothly, the truth is that I could never the North Pole remain the bone of conten- hoped for a better and more inspiring Co- tion. Later on the same day the Court was Judges. I would like to thank one more time also able to open the debate on the issue Maarja Meitern and Dechen Alba Campo of militarization. Many countries affirmed for their precious help and unconditional that the militarization of their Arctic lands support before, during and after the con- was implemented as a defense against pos- ference. Last but not least, I would like to sible external threats (for example pirates or thank the family of ANUE Spain, the board terrorists), but no offense to other Member and all the organizers for giving me the op- States was intended. portunity of being involved in such a chal- lenging and enriching experience one more On the very last day of session the Court time. It was a real pleasure to work with discussed the issue of the protection of the you all and I hope we will meet again soon, environment and the rights of Indigenous hopefully in next year edition of C’MUN!
edito- 35 The delegates of the Internatio- nal Court of JusticeBelow, the consultive opinion of the International Court of Justice of C’MUN 2011. You can read the fullpronouncement on our website http://www.anue.org/castellano/indexcmun.htm International Court of Justice ADVISORY OPINIONPresent: Judges Marta GARBARINO; Maarja MEITERN; Dechen CAMPO ALBA.;Registrer Ricardo GALIZA.On the accordance with international law of the Future sovereignty of the North Pole,THE COURT,composed as above,gives the following Advisory Opinion:1.Bearing in mind the Convention of Law of the Sea, the Court recognizes the Arctic region fully fallunder the scope of the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea. Notwithstanding which,the Court decides not to take position with any of the States’ claims over the North Pole sovereignty,insofar no further scientiﬁc research will clarify the geographical composition of the Arctic region asa result of the climate change process. Therefore the Arctic region is to be considered and ruled accor-ding to the deﬁnition and principle of High Sea.2. Pursuant to art. 279 of the UNCLOS, States must settle disputes by peaceful means bur are equallyfree to agree to adopt some means other than that prescribed in the Convention. The court recommends,however, that all the military actions adopted in the region should be suspended until a clear pictureof the geographical and environmental composition of the high sea area has been provided by experts.Meanwhile, the States should conﬁne their activities to the strict exercise of their right to innocentpassage over the territory corresponding to other States in light of the abovementioned Convention.3. The court recalls the universality of human rights of all peoples, and accordingly, the rights of theindigenous peoples must be respected by the States. Furthermore, the Court reiterates that the right ofall the peoples over the natural resources sited in their territories is unalienable. Any military and eco-nomical activity of the states performed in the area should not conﬂict with their fundamental rights,including the right of sovereignty.4. Any further provision over the subsequent rights and prerogatives over the High Seas should beaddressed within the framework of a treaty, having present all the legitimate interests at stake. We iden-tify the UN as the most reliable organization to patrol and control the exploitation of those resources.
36 Press Team The Importance of Journalism Juan Calleja. Editor in chief of ‘The Clarion’ in C’MUN 2011. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. The sixth edition of the Catalonia Model set to work to collect ideas, statements, United Nations started with a historical con- first drafts and final decisions that have text marked by the revolutionary upheavals been discussed within the rooms of the in the Middle East and the recent natural spectacular CosmoCaixa of the city of Bar- disaster and subsequent nuclear crisis caused celona. The tools that we use are paper, by the terrible tsunami in Japan. More than notebook and recorder, and our vehicle 350 delegates who participated in this new of transmission that we use is the news- edition of C’MUN know the importance of paper, The Clarion. their opinions, because some of them will be the politicians that represent us in the In my third year as a journalist for The future. During the sessions, they will have Clarion and my second year as editor, I to battle with conflicts such as those men- confess that this one has been the most tioned above, therefore they must be well intense and interesting edition of those prepared for their participation. The MUNs lived until now because of the success in are not only good for the delegates from the choice of topics by the organization. different countries and the Chairs of each The vibrant discussion about the possible committee at learning more about how ban of burqa, shows such as bull or cock- the UN works, but also at becoming aware fighting, smoking in public spaces, or the of the responsibility that comes with repre- “utopian” paths to follow to turn econo- senting a country in this major multilateral mic ideas such as the Tobin tax into some- body that orders international diplomatic re- thing really effective and supportive, and lations. This body has a duty: to be judge and that natural paradises like the Arctic are part of the most serious global problems. usable by countries without giving effect to its slow destruction, have been some of Like every year, we the team of the the attractive topics treated from the jour- most prestigious Spanish model, have nalistic point of view. Also a simulated cri-On top, the frontpages of TheClarion 2011. On the bottom, apicture of the Parliament of Ca-talonia, previous to the opening,with the journal on all seats.
edito- 37sis of Myanmar that took all delegates by nowadays being a discredited profession,surprise. because we are not the fourth power, but we have to dance with world leaders As editor in chief of the C’MUN newspa- every day and without us their opinionsper, I only have words of gratitude to all and decisions would not reach out to alljournalists that have been part of the press the citizens. The Clarion has been printedteam. Thanks for their daily tenacity to col- one year again, moreover, it has returnedlect, in the most serious and professional to fulfill their journalistic duty. I wish thatway, news and bubbling statements of these twelve pages won’t be the last to beeach of the committees, despite the tight published because it is really worth all thistiming of delivery that a daily newspaper effort. I hope we’ll see each other again.requires. Some of them have become jour-nalists for four days, others are going tobecome one, but the common link in all isthe energy and desire to do well regard-less of their role. They have participated aspartners in an UN-sponsored project thatnot only it is a great responsibility, but alsoit is a personal challenge to see how far weare able to reach. I hope we have done things right, thatDelegates, Chairs and all the staff whoworked and participated in the 2011C’MUN have been well reported each dayof all the events through The Clarion.I firmly believe in journalism despite it On this page, several images of the press work: the first one, interviewing; the second one, delegates reading the paper; the third one, the press room; and, finally, all the team of The Clarion 2011.
38 C’MUN Staff C’MUN 2011: From Inside Stela Zarija. Staff member of C’MUN 2011. Universitat Jaume I de Castelló.C’MUN 2011 staff meeting atUNA-Spain Headquarters, beforethe conference. One more year has passed and another edi- ing the sessions and to put themselves in the tion of C’MUN took place, an edition which skin of a country. could be described as innovative, because of the “unexpected” elements that it has inclu- This pace of work characterizes the months ded. Actually, the general conclusion is that it preceding C’MUN, year after year, and while has been one of the best Models held so far, it gets closer, the team of ANUE thinks how and all thanks to the good organization and to make the delegate’s stay as pleasant as the enthusiasm of the participants. possible. That is, they try it not to be just a working visit to Barcelona. This year, for ex- The organization of an event of this mag- ample, cultural events and visits were organ- nitude involves many months of work and its ized to suit all tastes. planning starts almost after finishing the pre- vious edition. That is, it’s a project that never During the preparation of this year, a sug- sleeps and continuously needs ideas in order gestion was made, which gave the title of to make it more effective every year. “innovative” to C’MUN 2011: simulating the outbreak of a crisis in Myanmar, so as to illus- The first thing to be considered is the par- trate the current situation in the Arab world. ticipant committees and topics. This is a dif- In this way, we wanted to test the ability of ficult task because the international political young people to solve a sudden conflict and scene provides exciting matters to discuss to agree on a crisis situation. every day. Therefore, the selection criteria that must prevail is the relevance of the topic, However, the acid test for the team is the its international impact and the degree of UN days of C’MUN. The previous days, all volun- involvement in it. teers to serve on the staff are summoned. At this meeting the roles of each member are set Then, the member countries of each com- and guidelines are established, so as to deal mittee simulated at C’MUN are analyzed. This with different situations that may arise. phase is particularly intriguing, as it is always interesting to see the views of key players in- And finally, the day of reception of the volved in a conflict. nearly 400 delegates of C’MUN 2011 came, during which they were given the documen- After the initial stage, young people from tation. This year, organizers included a new around the world are summoned, people feature: the possibility of attending a train- interested in international politics and in ing session so as to help those who under- the running of the UN. Thanks to a Model, took this adventure for the first time. At the they are given the opportunity to truly un- opening session, where we had the support derstand what is the protocol followed dur- of the President of the Catalan Parliament,
edito- 39participants received an official welcome. So It’s noteworthy the sincere interest of thethe starting signal was given for what was to young participants in gender and immigra-be one of the most active editions. tion issues, which was clearly reflected in the debates of Muslim and Christian repre- On the first day, sessions began with the es- sentatives. This demonstrated the commit-tablishment of the topics on the agenda. In ment and professionalism of the delegates,the Alliance of Civilizations, which I was res- who were able to convey the point of viewponsible of, gender and immigration issues of the countries they represented, not theirwere voted. Consensus was reached easily own. It’s also outstanding the respect for thebecause these are matters that have always Model protocol which showed the high leveltroubled the Alliance. of preparation of participants. In the middle of the session, the crisis After voting the final resolution, the at-planned in advance by the organizing team mosphere was defused and the Group oferupted. Delegates were really surprised but Friends of the Alliance voted several awardknew how to react quickly. After handing out categories. They have been so varied thatinformation on Myanmar, they began to state almost all delegations were awarded, de-their positions. And for it to be more accu- monstrating the friendly spirit of the Alli-rate, we invited the delegation of Myanmar, ance. We hope this tolerance to be reflectedfrom the Security Council. We can therefore in the real Alliance of Civilizations, in ordersay that the inclusion of this crisis truly tested to make possible a genuine dialogue be-the ability of participants to resolve sudden tween East and West.conflicts, as they voted unanimously a resolu-tion condemning Myanmar’s military regime. In the closing ceremony, it was clear once again the ability of participants to reach a On the second day of debate, the Alliance consensus, since each committee summarizedfocused on topics on the agenda: gender and the voted resolutions, showing that throughimmigration. After discussing the contro- dialogue it is possible to solve conflicts. It wasversial issues and expressing the position of a very exciting ceremony, both for organi-their countries, some delegations offered to zers and delegations, as it put an end to andraw up a draft resolution. From this draft, edition that was innovative in many aspects,delegations with similar interests began to which proved to be a success.ally and that was clearly reflected during theunmoderated caucus. Participants discussed In conclusion we can say that, throughoutin a very professional manner, respecting the these days, the delegates showed that theytimes set by the chairs. are the world’s future politicians. Because, if at this early age they show this professio- On the last day, during the debate, the final nalism, in a few years, after gaining experi-resolution was voted. It included amendments ence in the field, they will become true massand proposals so as to improve the resolution. leaders and experts in international relations.Finally, the amendments were voted on and And C’MUN, which gives them the opportu-when the resolution was drawn up, it received nity to gain experience, is only the first step inthe unanimous agreement of all delegations. a long successful political career. C’MUN 2011 staff meeting at UNA-Spain Headquarters, after the conference.
40 Participants of C’MUN 2011 Universities Aarhus University, Denmark Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain Adelaide University, Australia Universidad Carlos III, Madrid, Spain Ankara University, Turkey Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain Aston University, UK Universidad de Deusto, Spain Bilkent University, Turkey Universidad de Granada, Spain Cass Business School, London, UK Universidad de Málaga, Spain Charite Medical School, Berlin, Germany Universidad de Salamanca, Spain Chelyabinsk State University, Russia Universidad de Sevilla, Spain City University London, UK Universidad del País Vasco, Spain Collegium Civitas, Poland Universidad Pablo de Olavide de Sevilla, Spain Coventry University, UK Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Spain ESADE, Spain Universidade de Vigo, Spain European Institute of the University of Geneva, Universitá de Turin, Italy Switzerland Universitá degli studi di Milano, Italy Franklin College, Switzerland Universitá degli studi di Napoli, Italy Fudan University, China Universitá degli studi di Perugia, Italy Gothenburg University, Sweden Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, Spain House of Europe in Saint-Petersburg, Russia Universitat Cattolica Sacro Cuore di Milano, Italy Humboldt University of Berlin, Germany Universitat de Barcelona, Spain IES EMT Escola Municipal del Treball, Spain Universitat de València, Spain Ilia State University, Georgia Universitat Jaume I de Castelló, Spain Institut Barcelona d’Estudis Internacionals, Spain Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Spain Institute of Foreign Languages of the Federal Université Bretagne-Sud Lorient-France State University, Russia Université de Genève, Switzerland Ivane Javakhishvili Tblisi State University, Georgia Universiteit van Amsterdam, the Netherlands Koç University, Turkey University College London, UK London Metropolitan University, UK University for Development Studies, Ghana Lund University, Sweden University of Birmingham, UK Maastricht University, the Netherlands University of Bristol, UK Máster de Estudios Latinoamericanos University of Bucharest, Romania Contemporáneos, Spain University of Essex, UK Middle East Technical University, Turkey University of Florence, Italy National and Kapodistrian University of University of Göttingen, Germany Athens, Greece University of Groningen, the Netherlands Richmond, The American International University University of Helsinki, Finland in London, UK University of Macedonia, Thessaloniki, Greece Rijks University, Groningen, the Netherlands University of Manchester, UK Ritsumeikan University, Japan University of Nairobi, Kenya Sciences Po Bordeaux, France University of National and World Economy, Spyken School, Lund, Sweden Sofia, Bulgaria St. Augustine University of Tanzania University of Padova, Italy Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, University of Palermo, Italy Ukraine University of Piraeus, Greece The Hague University, the Netherlands University of Southern Denmark Tianjin Foreign Language University, Chine University of Stockholm, Sweden UAB Research Group on Animal Law Society, University of Trieste, Italy Spain University of Warsaw Ulyanovsk State University, Russia University of Yaoundé, Cameroon UNA-Sweden Uppsala University, Sweden Nacionalities American Cameroonian Finnish Italian Polish Swedish Andorran Canadian French Japanese Portuguese Swiss Argentinian Chilean Georgian Jordan Romanian Tanzanian Australian Chinese German Kazakh Russian Turkish Austrian Colombian Ghanaian Latvian Slovenian Turkmen Azerbaijani Cypriot Greek Malaysian Spanish Ukranian Belgian Dominican Indian Mexican South African Venezuelan Bulgarian Dutch Iranian Moldavian Stonian Brittish Ecuadorian Israeli Nigerian Surinamese
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