nutrient cycling and pollution


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Biogeochemical process in ecosystem

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  • Through the respiration performed by plants and animals. Through the decay of animal and plant matter. Through combustion of organic material which oxidizes the carbon it contains.Production of cement. At the surface of the oceans where the water becomes warmer, dissolved carbon dioxide is released back into the atmosphere. Volcanic eruptions and metamorphism release gases into the atmosphere.
  • nutrient cycling and pollution

    1. 1. GROUP 2
    2. 2. Ecosystems maintain themselves by cycling energy and nutrients obtained from external sources. 1 )First trophic level (primary producer) • use solar energy to produce organic plant material through photosynthesis • plants, algae, and some bacteria 2 )Second trophic level • Animals that feed solely on plants • herbivours animal 3 )Third trophic level • predator that eat herbivores • tiger, lions 4 )Decomposers • break down wastes and dead organisms and return nutrient to the soil • bacteria, fungi, molds, worms and insect
    3. 3. • On average about 10 percent of net energy production at one trophic level is passed on to the next level. • Processes that reduce the energy transferred between trophic levels include respiration, growth and reproduction, defecation, and nonpredatory death. • Decomposers process large amounts of organic material and return nutrients to the ecosystem in inorganic form, which are then taken up again by primary producers. • Energy is not recycled during decomposition, but rather is released, mostly as heat (this is what makes compost piles and fresh garden mulch warm).
    4. 4.  Nutrient pollution is also called nutrient over-enrichment because both N and P are vital to plant growth.  Both N and P contributes to the degradation of coastal rivers, bays and seas.  Nutrient over-enrichment has a range of effects on coastal systems, but in general, it brings on ecological changes that decrease the biological diversity ,the variety of living organisms and the ecosystem.
    5. 5. EUTROPHICATION - oxygen depletion - human shellfish poisonings and even marine mammal deaths. - loss of light from reduced water clarity increased populations of economically valuable fishes -increased by nutrient inputs, other valued attributes such as biological diversity may decline.
    6. 6. • An element • The basis of life of earth • Found in rocks, oceans, atmosphere
    7. 7. • The same carbon atoms are used repeatedly on earth. They cycle between the earth and the atmosphere.
    8. 8. • Respiration by plants and animals. • Decay of animal and plant matter. • Combustion of organic material • Production of cement. • The ocean releases CO2 into the atmosphere. • Volcanic eruptions and metamorphism
    9. 9. • Photosynthesis. • The oceans when the seawater becomes cooler, more CO2 dissolve and become carbonic acid. • In the upper ocean areas organisms convert reduced carbon to tissues, or carbonates.
    10. 10. Carbon in Atmosphere Decomposers break down dead things, releasing carbon to atmosphere and soil Fossil fuels are burned; carbon is returned to atmosphere Carbon slowly released from these substances returns to atmosphere Plants use carbon to make food Plants and animals die Bodies not decomposed — after many years, become part of oil or coal deposits Animals eat plants and take in carbon
    12. 12. GREENHOUSE EFFECT NATURAL GREENHOUSE EFFECT Keeps the Earth's climate warm and habitable. MAN-MADE GREENHOUSE EFFECT Enhancement of Earth's natural greenhouse effect by the addition of greenhouse gases from the burning of fossil fuels (mainly petroleum, coal, and natural gas).
    13. 13. CAUSES OF GREENHOUSE EFFECT  Deforestation  Increases amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere  Photosynthesis cannot take place  Burning of fossils  Increases greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane  Uses of electrical appliances  Releases greenhouse gases  Population growth  Causes the needs and wants of people to increase  The increase in industrial processes results in increased greenhouse gases
    14. 14. CONSEQUENCES OF GREENHOUSE EFFECT  More drought and flooding  Evaporation rate increases as weather becomes warmer and causes drought  Extra water vapour in atmosphere falls as rain and cause flood  More extreme weather incidents  The warmer climate causes more rain and storms  Less ice and snow  Ice glaciers melt faster  Rise in sea level  Melting ice and snow causes sea level to rise
    15. 15. WAYS TO REDUCE GREENHOUSE EFFECT  Limit energy consumption  Limit wastes and disposal  Plant more trees
    16. 16.  Nitrogen (N) is an essential component of DNA, RNA, and proteins, the building blocks of life.  All organisms require nitrogen to live and grow.  The majority (78%) of the Earth’s atmosphere is N2
    17. 17. The nitrogen cycle is the process by which nitrogen is converted between its various chemical forms.  This transformation can be carried out through both biological and physical processes. 
    18. 18.  Important processes in the nitrogen cycle include nitrogen fixation, ammonification, nitrification, and denitrification.
    19. 19. Nitrogen fixation NH3 OR NH4+ A process by which nitrogen (N2) in the atmosphere is converted into ammonium (NH3)  High-energy events to break the bond N2  Molecular nitrogen (N2) is relatively inert it does not easily react with other chemicals to form new compounds  The fixation process frees up the nitrogen atoms from their diatomic 
    20. 20. Natural and synthetic, is essential for all forms of life because nitrogen is required to biosynthesize basic building blocks of plants, animals and other life forms.  Most fixation is done by free-living bacteria that have nitrogenase enzyme, combines gaseous nitrogen with hydrogen to produce ammonia  An example of mutualistic nitrogen fixing bacteria are the Rhizobium bacteria, which live in legume root nodules. These species are diazotrophs. An example of the free
    21. 21. Ammonification organic N --> NH4+     Nitrogen enters the soil through the decomposition of protein in dead organic matter This process liberates a lot of energy which can be used by the saprotrophic microbes Done by decomposers (bacteria, fungi) During this process, a significant amount of the nitrogen contained within the dead organism is converted to ammonium (NH4+).
    22. 22. Nitrification         This involves two oxidation processes The ammonia produced by ammonification is an energy rich substrate for Nitrosomas bacteria They oxidise it to nitrite: NH3 + 11/2O2 NO2- + H2O + 276kJ This in turn provides a substrate for Nitrobacter bacteria oxidise the nitrite to nitrate: NO3- + 1/2O2 NO3+ 73 kJ This energy is the only source of energy for these prokaryotes They are chemoautotrophs
    23. 23. Denitrification NO3- --> N2  (Denitrifying) Bacteria do it. Pseudomonas bacteria  Denitrification removes nitrogen from ecosystems, and converts it back to atmospheric N2
    24. 24. The liberated oxygen is used as an electron acceptor in the processes that oxidise organic molecules, such as glucose  These microbes are, therefore, heterotrophs 
    25. 25. Nitrogen uptake  The ammonia (NH3) produced by nitrogen-fixing bacteria is usually quickly incorporated into protein and other organic nitrogen compounds (organisms!).  It’s either absorbed by a plant, by the bacteria itself, or by another soil organism.  Organisms at the top of the food chain (like us!) eat and grow, uptaking nitrogen
    26. 26. Phosphorus Cycle
    27. 27. Phosphorus Cycle
    28. 28. Phosphorus Cycle • It is in these rocks where the phosphorus cycle begins. • When it rains, phosphates are removed from the rocks (via weathering) and are distributed throughout both soils and water. • Plants take up the phosphate ions from the soil. • The phosphates then moves from plants to animals when herbivores eat plants and carnivores eat plants or herbivores. • The phosphates absorbed by animal tissue through consumption eventually returns to the soil through the excretion of urine and feces
    29. 29. Phosphorus Cycle - in aquatic ecosystem-
    30. 30. • Phosphorus is not highly soluble, therefore it mostly reaches waters by traveling with runoff soil particles. • As sediments are stirred up, phosphates may reenter the phosphorus cycle, but they are more commonly made available to aquatic organisms by being exposed through erosion. • Water plants take up the waterborne phosphate which then travels up through successive stages of the aquatic food chain. • Phosphate stimulates the growth of plankton and plants • Excess growth of these plants tend to consume large amounts of dissolved oxygen, potentially suffocating fish and other marine animals, also blocking available sunlight to bottom dwelling species
    32. 32. WHAT IS NUTRIENT? Nutrient are the chemical elements and compound needed for organism to grow and function.
    33. 33. IMPORTANCE OF PHOSPHORUS  Most fundamental plant process (flowering, root growth).  Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), energy currency driving biochemical processes.  Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), seat of genetic inheritance.  Ribonucleic acid (RNA) directs protein synthesis. Apatite, calcium phosphate in bones and teeth.
    34. 34. TOO MUCH PHOSPHORUS Eutrophication TOO LITTLE PHOSPHORUS Land degradation
    35. 35. • Plants and animals could not live without nitrogen. • It is an important part of many cells and processes such as amino acids, proteins, and even our DNA. • It is also needed to make chlorophyll in plants, which plants use in photosynthesis to make their food and energy.
    36. 36. Thus, through the nitrogen cycle: • Plants obtain nitrogen through nitrogen fixation and nitrification. • Animals get their nitrogen from eating plants or animals that have eaten plants or other animals. • At the same time, nitrogen is returned to the soil through decay (ammonification) and to the air through and denitrification.
    37. 37. Important of carbon in plant • Used for photosynthesis ,plant take carbon from CO2 at atmosphere & make own food. Important of water in plant • Photosynthesis • Help transport of mineral & nutrient from soil to root. • Maintenance plant structure.
    38. 38. POLLUTION
    40. 40. WHAT IS NOISE POLLUTION?  Sound that is unwanted or disrupts one’s quality of life is called as noise. When there is lot of noise in the environment, it is termed as noise pollution.  Sound becomes undesirable when it disturbs the normal activities such as working, sleeping, and during conversations.  It is an underrated environmental problem because of the fact that we can’t see, smell, or taste it.  World Health Organization stated that “Noise must be recognized as a major threat to human well-being”
    41. 41. HEALTH EFFECTS  Noise pollution can damage physiological and psychological health.  High blood pressure, stress related illness, sleep disruption, hearing loss, and productivity loss are the problems related to noise pollution.  It can also cause memory loss, severe depression, and panic attacks.
    42. 42. SOURCES  Transportation systems are the main source of noise pollution in urban areas.  Construction of buildings, highways, and streets cause a lot of noise, due to the usage of air compressors, bulldozers, loaders, dump trucks, and pavement breakers.  Industrial noise also adds to the already unfavorable state of noise pollution.  Loud speakers, plumbing, boilers, generators, air conditioners, fans, and vacuum cleaners add to the existing noise pollution.
    43. 43. SOLUTIONS  Planting bushes and trees in and around sound generating sources is an effective solution for noise pollution.  Regular servicing and tuning of automobiles can effectively reduce the noise pollution.  Buildings can be designed with suitable noise absorbing material for the walls, windows, and ceilings.  Workers should be provided with equipments such as ear plugs and earmuffs for hearing protection.
    44. 44. SOLUTIONS  Similar to automobiles, lubrication of the machinery and servicing should be done to minimize noise generation.  Soundproof doors and windows can be installed to block unwanted noise from outside.  Regulations should be imposed to restrict the usage of play loudspeakers in crowded areas and public places.  Factories and industries should be located far from the residential areas.
    45. 45. SOLUTIONS FOR NOISE POLLUTION  Community development or urban management should be done with long-term planning, along with an aim to reduce noise pollution.  Social awareness programs should be taken up to educate the public about the causes and effects of noise pollution.
    46. 46. What is Land Pollution?? Land pollution can be defined as acts occurring on an area resulting in colour change, fertility, and erosion. It is caused by waste in the form of liquid or solid.
    47. 47. Causes of Land Pollution 1)Garbage disposal : 2 methods of disposal I. Garbage filling method II. Combustion method 2)The removal of toxic and nuclear waste : When toxic waste and nuclear contaminates the soil surface, then it will result in decreased soil quality. This will impact large to humans and the environment.
    48. 48. 3)Deforestation : Due to absence of tree roots to grip the ground this resulting landslide which would endanger the lives of people who live near the area . 4)Agricultural chemical : When not used by the plants the nutrients can enter streams and lakes during the run-off or leaching events
    49. 49. What Impact? 1)The spread of disease germs : Pest animals such as rats, cockroaches and flies are concentrated in the area and spread the disease germs by accidental human consumption vulnerable people. 2) Land damaged and less quality : occurrence of soil contamination. Poor quality causes the plants or vegetables that are grown life with imperfect and less fertile.
    50. 50. 3) Soil erosion : Detrimental to the financial and economic terms, but also threaten the security and human life, such as landslides and earthquakes. cleaning and plowing hills serum resulted in no plant that can withstand the ground from collapsing.
    51. 51. How to Solve? Environmental education is one method that can be implemented to overcome the problem of soil pollution. Environmental education can form a positive attitude towards the environment themselves. With the awareness on an individual, he will be aware of the importance of environmental quality are maintained.
    52. 52. In addition, awareness campaigns can also be done to reduce the environmental pollution. Among environmental campaigns that can be implemented is please love our river campaign, recycling, and environmentally friend. During this campaign participants will be taught about the importance of protecting the environment, etc. . Media exposure time is also one of the ways that can be taken to address the issue of soil contamination. During this day, the mass media play an important role in shaping the thinking of all users. As such, with the availability of mass media exposure on environmental contamination issues, the public be very careful in dealing with pollution problems.
    53. 53. AIR POLLUTION Any visible or invisible particle or gas found in the air that is not part of the original, normal composition.
    54. 54. Natural: forest fires, pollen, dust storm Unnatural: man-made; coal, wood and other fuels used in cars, homes, and factories for energy
    55. 55. POLLUTANTS
    56. 56. Carbon Monoxide •colorless, odorless •produced when carbon does not burn in fossil fuels •present in car exhaust •deprives body of O2 causing headaches, fatigue, and impaired vision
    57. 57. Sulfur Dioxide •produced when coal and fuel oil are burned •present in power plant exhaust •narrows the airway, causing wheezing and shortness of breath, especially in those with asthma
    58. 58. Nitrogen Dioxide •reddish, brown gas •produced when nitric oxide combines with oxygen in the atmosphere •present in car exhaust and power plants •affects lungs and causes wheezing; increases chance of respiratory infection
    59. 59. Particulate Matter •particles of different sizes and structures that are released into the atmosphere •present in many sources including fossil fuels, dust, smoke, fog, etc. •can build up in respiratory system •aggravates heart and lung disease; increases risk of respiratory infection
    60. 60. EFFECTS •Limits visibility •Decreases UV radiation •Yellow/black color over cities •Causes respiratory problems and bronchial related deaths •Greenhouse effect •Global warming •Acid rain
    61. 61. •HOW TO OVERCOME?? •Ride your bike •Tell your friends and family about pollution •Make sure your parents get pollution checks on their cars •Join a group to stop pollution •Encourage your parents to carpool to work •Switch off lights, fan, heat, etc. when you leave the room
    62. 62. THANK YOU