Through the respiration performed by plants and animals. Through the decay of animal and plant matter. Through combustion of organic material which oxidizes the carbon it contains.Production of cement. At the surface of the oceans where the water becomes warmer, dissolved carbon dioxide is released back into the atmosphere. Volcanic eruptions and metamorphism release gases into the atmosphere.
nutrient cycling and pollution
Ecosystems maintain themselves by cycling energy and
nutrients obtained from external sources.
1 )First trophic level (primary producer)
• use solar energy to produce organic plant material
• plants, algae, and some bacteria
2 )Second trophic level
• Animals that feed solely on plants
• herbivours animal
3 )Third trophic level
• predator that eat herbivores
• tiger, lions
• break down wastes and dead organisms and return
nutrient to the soil
• bacteria, fungi, molds, worms and insect
• On average about 10 percent of net energy
production at one trophic level is passed on to
the next level.
• Processes that reduce the energy transferred
between trophic levels include respiration,
growth and reproduction, defecation, and
• Decomposers process large amounts of organic
material and return nutrients to the ecosystem in
inorganic form, which are then taken up again by
• Energy is not recycled during decomposition, but
rather is released, mostly as heat (this is what
makes compost piles and fresh garden mulch
Nutrient pollution is also called nutrient over-enrichment
because both N and P are vital to plant growth.
Both N and P contributes to the degradation of coastal rivers,
bays and seas.
Nutrient over-enrichment has a range of effects on coastal
systems, but in general, it brings on ecological changes that
decrease the biological diversity ,the variety of living
organisms and the ecosystem.
- oxygen depletion
- human shellfish poisonings
and even marine mammal
- loss of light from reduced
increased populations of
economically valuable fishes
-increased by nutrient inputs,
other valued attributes such
as biological diversity may
• An element
• The basis of life of earth
• Found in rocks, oceans, atmosphere
• The same carbon atoms are used repeatedly on earth.
They cycle between the earth and the atmosphere.
• Respiration by plants and animals.
• Decay of animal and plant matter.
• Combustion of organic material
• Production of cement.
• The ocean releases CO2 into the atmosphere.
• Volcanic eruptions and metamorphism
• The oceans when the seawater becomes cooler, more
CO2 dissolve and become carbonic acid.
• In the upper ocean areas organisms convert reduced
carbon to tissues, or carbonates.
Carbon in Atmosphere
break down dead
Fossil fuels are
is returned to
carbon to make
part of oil or coal
take in carbon
Keeps the Earth's climate
warm and habitable.
Enhancement of Earth's
natural greenhouse effect by
the addition of greenhouse
gases from the burning of
fossil fuels (mainly
petroleum, coal, and natural
CAUSES OF GREENHOUSE EFFECT
Increases amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
Photosynthesis cannot take place
Burning of fossils
Increases greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide,
nitrous oxide and methane
Uses of electrical appliances
Releases greenhouse gases
Causes the needs and wants of people to increase
The increase in industrial processes results in increased
CONSEQUENCES OF GREENHOUSE EFFECT
More drought and flooding
Evaporation rate increases as weather becomes warmer
and causes drought
Extra water vapour in atmosphere falls as rain and cause
More extreme weather incidents
The warmer climate causes more rain and storms
Less ice and snow
Ice glaciers melt faster
Rise in sea level
Melting ice and snow causes sea level to rise
WAYS TO REDUCE GREENHOUSE EFFECT
Limit energy consumption
Limit wastes and disposal
Plant more trees
Nitrogen (N) is an
DNA, RNA, and
building blocks of
require nitrogen to
live and grow.
(78%) of the
atmosphere is N2
The nitrogen cycle is the process by
which nitrogen is converted between
its various chemical forms.
This transformation can be carried out
through both biological and physical
NH3 OR NH4+
A process by which nitrogen (N2) in
the atmosphere is converted into
High-energy events to break the bond
Molecular nitrogen (N2) is relatively
it does not easily react with other
chemicals to form new compounds
The fixation process frees up the
nitrogen atoms from their diatomic
Natural and synthetic, is essential for
all forms of life because nitrogen is
required to biosynthesize basic
building blocks of plants, animals and
other life forms.
Most fixation is done by free-living
bacteria that have nitrogenase
enzyme, combines gaseous nitrogen
with hydrogen to produce ammonia
An example of mutualistic nitrogen
fixing bacteria are the Rhizobium
bacteria, which live in legume root
nodules. These species are
diazotrophs. An example of the free
organic N --> NH4+
Nitrogen enters the soil through the
decomposition of protein in dead organic
This process liberates a lot of energy
which can be used by the saprotrophic
Done by decomposers (bacteria, fungi)
During this process, a significant amount
of the nitrogen contained within the dead
organism is converted to ammonium
This involves two oxidation processes
The ammonia produced by ammonification is an energy
rich substrate for Nitrosomas bacteria
They oxidise it to nitrite:
NH3 + 11/2O2
NO2- + H2O
This in turn provides a substrate for Nitrobacter bacteria
oxidise the nitrite to nitrate:
NO3- + 1/2O2
NO3+ 73 kJ
This energy is the only source of energy for these
They are chemoautotrophs
NO3- --> N2
Bacteria do it.
and converts it
The liberated oxygen is used as an
electron acceptor in the processes
that oxidise organic molecules, such
These microbes are, therefore,
The ammonia (NH3) produced by
nitrogen-fixing bacteria is usually quickly
incorporated into protein and other
organic nitrogen compounds
It’s either absorbed by a plant, by the
bacteria itself, or by another soil
Organisms at the top of the food chain
(like us!) eat and grow, uptaking nitrogen
• It is in these rocks where the phosphorus cycle
• When it rains, phosphates are removed from the
rocks (via weathering) and are distributed
throughout both soils and water.
• Plants take up the phosphate ions from the soil.
• The phosphates then moves from plants to
animals when herbivores eat plants and
carnivores eat plants or herbivores.
• The phosphates absorbed by animal tissue
through consumption eventually returns to the
soil through the excretion of urine and feces
• Phosphorus is not highly soluble, therefore it mostly
reaches waters by traveling with runoff soil particles.
• As sediments are stirred up, phosphates may reenter the
phosphorus cycle, but they are more commonly made
available to aquatic organisms by being exposed through
• Water plants take up the waterborne phosphate which
then travels up through successive stages of the aquatic
• Phosphate stimulates the growth of plankton and plants
• Excess growth of these plants tend to consume large
amounts of dissolved oxygen, potentially suffocating fish
and other marine animals, also blocking available sunlight
to bottom dwelling species
WHAT IS NUTRIENT?
Nutrient are the
chemical elements and
compound needed for
organism to grow and
IMPORTANCE OF PHOSPHORUS
Most fundamental plant process
(flowering, root growth).
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), energy
currency driving biochemical processes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), seat of
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) directs protein
Apatite, calcium phosphate in bones and
• Plants and animals could not live without
• It is an important part of many cells and
processes such as amino acids, proteins,
and even our DNA.
• It is also needed to make chlorophyll in
plants, which plants use in photosynthesis
to make their food and energy.
Thus, through the nitrogen cycle:
• Plants obtain nitrogen through nitrogen fixation
• Animals get their nitrogen from eating plants or
animals that have eaten plants or other animals.
• At the same time, nitrogen is returned to the soil
through decay (ammonification) and to the air
through and denitrification.
carbon in plant
• Used for photosynthesis ,plant take
carbon from CO2 at atmosphere &
make own food.
water in plant
• Help transport of mineral & nutrient
from soil to root.
• Maintenance plant structure.
WHAT IS NOISE POLLUTION?
Sound that is unwanted or disrupts one’s quality of life is
called as noise. When there is lot of noise in the
environment, it is termed as noise pollution.
Sound becomes undesirable when it disturbs the normal
activities such as working, sleeping, and during
It is an underrated environmental problem because of the
fact that we can’t see, smell, or taste it.
World Health Organization stated that “Noise must be
recognized as a major threat to human well-being”
Noise pollution can damage physiological and psychological
High blood pressure, stress related illness, sleep disruption,
hearing loss, and productivity loss are the problems related to
It can also cause memory loss, severe depression, and panic
Transportation systems are the main source of noise pollution
in urban areas.
Construction of buildings, highways, and streets cause a lot of
noise, due to the usage of air compressors, bulldozers,
loaders, dump trucks, and pavement breakers.
Industrial noise also adds to the already unfavorable state of
Loud speakers, plumbing, boilers, generators, air conditioners,
fans, and vacuum cleaners add to the existing noise pollution.
Planting bushes and trees in and around sound generating
sources is an effective solution for noise pollution.
Regular servicing and tuning of automobiles can effectively
reduce the noise pollution.
Buildings can be designed with suitable noise absorbing
material for the walls, windows, and ceilings.
Workers should be provided with equipments such as ear
plugs and earmuffs for hearing protection.
Similar to automobiles, lubrication of the machinery and
servicing should be done to minimize noise generation.
Soundproof doors and windows can be installed to block
unwanted noise from outside.
Regulations should be imposed to restrict the usage of
play loudspeakers in crowded areas and public places.
Factories and industries should be located far from the
SOLUTIONS FOR NOISE POLLUTION
Community development or urban management should
be done with long-term planning, along with an aim to
reduce noise pollution.
Social awareness programs should be taken up to educate
the public about the causes and effects of noise pollution.
What is Land
Land pollution can be defined as acts occurring on
an area resulting in colour change, fertility, and
erosion. It is caused by waste in the form of liquid
Causes of Land Pollution
1)Garbage disposal : 2 methods of disposal
Garbage filling method
2)The removal of toxic and nuclear waste : When toxic
waste and nuclear contaminates the
soil surface, then it will result in
decreased soil quality. This will impact
large to humans and the environment.
3)Deforestation : Due to absence of tree roots to grip
the ground this resulting landslide which would
endanger the lives of people who live near the
4)Agricultural chemical : When not used by the plants
the nutrients can enter streams and lakes during the
run-off or leaching events
1)The spread of disease germs : Pest animals such as
and flies are concentrated in the area
and spread the disease germs by
accidental human consumption
2) Land damaged and less quality : occurrence of soil
quality causes the plants or
vegetables that are grown life with
imperfect and less fertile.
3) Soil erosion : Detrimental to the financial and
economic terms, but also threaten the
security and human life, such as landslides
and earthquakes. cleaning and plowing
hills serum resulted in no plant that can
withstand the ground from collapsing.
How to Solve?
Environmental education is one method that can
be implemented to overcome the problem of soil
pollution. Environmental education can form a positive
attitude towards the environment themselves. With the
awareness on an individual, he will be aware of the
importance of environmental quality are maintained.
In addition, awareness campaigns can also be done to
reduce the environmental pollution. Among environmental
campaigns that can be implemented is please love our river
campaign, recycling, and environmentally friend. During this
campaign participants will be taught about the importance of
protecting the environment, etc. .
Media exposure time is also one of the ways that can
be taken to address the issue of soil contamination. During
this day, the mass media play an important role in shaping
the thinking of all users. As such, with the availability of
mass media exposure on environmental contamination
issues, the public be very careful in dealing with pollution
Any visible or invisible particle or gas
found in the air that is not part of the
original, normal composition.
Natural: forest fires, pollen, dust
Unnatural: man-made; coal, wood
and other fuels used in cars,
homes, and factories for energy
•produced when carbon does not burn
in fossil fuels
•present in car exhaust
•deprives body of O2 causing
headaches, fatigue, and impaired
•produced when coal and fuel oil are burned
•present in power plant exhaust
•narrows the airway, causing wheezing and
shortness of breath, especially in those with
•reddish, brown gas
•produced when nitric oxide combines
with oxygen in the atmosphere
•present in car exhaust and power
•affects lungs and causes wheezing;
increases chance of respiratory
•particles of different sizes and
structures that are released into the
•present in many sources including
fossil fuels, dust, smoke, fog, etc.
•can build up in respiratory system
•aggravates heart and lung disease;
increases risk of respiratory
•Decreases UV radiation
•Yellow/black color over cities
•Causes respiratory problems and
bronchial related deaths
•HOW TO OVERCOME??
•Ride your bike
•Tell your friends and family about pollution
•Make sure your parents get pollution checks
on their cars
•Join a group to stop pollution
•Encourage your parents to carpool to work
•Switch off lights, fan, heat, etc. when you
leave the room