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Darwin, el ‘impedimento taxonómico, y las ‘especies biológicas’


Francisco Vergara Silva - Foro de Evolucion - Palacio de Minería

Francisco Vergara Silva - Foro de Evolucion - Palacio de Minería

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  • … y uso de los escritos de S Mueller-Wille para sugerir que LA NOCIÓN DE VARIACIÓN PUEDE RECONSTRUIRSE EN EL CONTEXTO DE LA HISTORIA NATURAL DEL SIGLO XVIII Y POR TANTO ES PREDARWINIANA. Esto es relevante para apuntalar las críticas actuales a la ‘tesis esencialista’. (¿LO ES?)
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  • 1. Darwin, el ‘impedimento taxonómico, y las ‘especies biológicas’ Francisco Vergara Silva
  • 2. Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker, FRS (30 junio 1817 – 10 diciembre 1911) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Dalton_Hooker
  • 3. National Geographic , febrero de 2009
  • 4. balanos, percebes; cirripedios 1854. Living Cirripedia, The Balanidæ, (or sessile cirripedes); the Verrucidæ . Vol. 2 http://darwin-online.org.uk /EditorialIntroductions/Richmond_cirripedia.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barnacle Robert E. Grant (1793-1874)
  • 5. a J. D. Hooker 12 de octubre de 1849 My dear Hooker, (…) I have of late been at work at mere species describing , which is much more difficult than I expected & has much the same sort of interest as a puzzle has; (…) What miserable work, again, it is searching for priority of names; I have just finished two species which possess seven generic & 24 species names! My chief comfort is, that the work must be sometime done, & I may as well do it, as anyone else.-
  • 6. a J. D. Hooker 25 de septiembre de 1853 My dear Hooker, (…) In my own cirripedial work (…) I have not felt conscious that disbelieving in the permanence of species has made much difference one way or the other; in some few cases (…) I sh. d not have affixed names, & in some few cases sh. d have affixed names to remarkable varieties.
  • 7. (…) Certainly I have felt it humiliating, discussing & doubting & examining over & over again (…) whether the form varied today or yesterday (…). After describing a set of forms, as distinct species , tearing up my M.S., & making them one species ; tearing that up & making them separate , & then making them one again (which has happened to me) I have gnashed my teeth, cursed species , and asked what sin I had committed to be so punished. But I must confess, that perhaps nearly the same thing w d. have happened to me on any scheme of work.-
  • 8.  
  • 9. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Darwin Darwin, C. R. 1860. On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life . Londres: John Murray. 2ª. edición Many years ago, when comparing, and seeing others compare, the birds from the separate islands of the Galapagos Archipelago, both one with another, and with those from the American mainland, I was much struck how entirely vague and arbitrary is the distinction between species and varieties .
  • 10. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Darwin It must be admitted that many forms, considered by highly-competent judges as varieties, have so perfectly the character of species that they are ranked by other highly-competent judges as good and true species. But to discuss whether they are rightly called species or varieties, before any definition of these terms has been generally accepted, is vainly to beat the air .
  • 11. A pesar de que me parecía un poco ‘engorroso’ andarle poniendo nombres linneanos a mis especies de percebes, reconozco que era necesario… ¡entender la importancia de las clasificaciones me ayudó a desarrollar mi teoría!
  • 12. ¿qué son las ‘especies biológicas’? ¿son reales las especies biológicas?
  • 13.  
  • 14.  
  • 15. Kress & Eriksson
  • 16. http://www.dnabarcoding.ca/
  • 17.  
  • 18. ‘ crisis de biodiversidad’ reto biológico de nuestra época – preservar, continuar el legado de conocimiento taxonómico para futuras generaciones el ‘impedimento taxonómico’ – tasas mayores de extinción de especies; menos taxónomos para estudiarlas
  • 19.  
  • 20. Godfray
  • 21.  
  • 22. Yo definía especies sin “pensar evolutivamente”, ¡pero por supuesto que consideraba la variación de los caracteres de mis muestras de herbario!
  • 23. INECOL Biolog ía Evolutiva de Cycadales & Genética de Poblaciones A. Vovides J. González-Astorga F. Nicolalde-Morejón © The Cycad Pages J B Francisco Javier Clavijero (Xalapa) Dioon
  • 24. Dioon
  • 25. morfología moléculas
  • 26. las especies biológicas “no se ven”; las especies biológicas son HIPÓTESIS EXPLICATIVAS sobre las observaciones biológicas (morfológicas, moleculares, etc.) Kirk Fitzhugh http://www.nhm.org/research/annelida/staff.html
  • 27. Estoy de acuerdo, kirk agradecimientos - UNAM Dra. Susana Magallón (IBUNAM) [email_address]
  • 28.  
  • 29. http://www.eco-pros.com/biodiversity-genetic.htm
  • 30. Aadi-maxi (lengua otomí), bachuga (lengua cuicatleca), be-thoxi, bi-tuixi, pe-thoxi, bichoaxhe,pe-thoxe (lengua zapoteca), ha'sikil-p'ak, p'ak, ts'ulub'p'ak (lengua maya), tuthay, tuthey (lengua huasteca), mbaremoxu (lengua mazahua), paclshá (lengua totonaca), shitumal, xitomat (dialecto náhuatl), xitomatl (lengua náhuatl), tzajalpish (lengua tojolobal), xayuqui-te (lengua huichol), xucúpara (lengua tarasca) http://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/solanaceae/lycopersicon-esculentum/fichas/ficha.htm#1.%20Nombres
  • 31. http://www.conabio.gob.mx/malezasdemexico/solanaceae/lycopersicon-esculentum/fichas/ficha.htm#1.%20Nombres Solanaceae Lycopersicon esculentum P. Mill. (= Solanum lycopersicum L.) Jitomate silvestre