THE POPULATION OF THE U.SGive me yourtired, your poor,Your huddled massesyearning to breathefree,The wretched refuse ofyour teeming shore.Send these, thehomeless, tempest-tostto me,I lift my lamp besidethe golden door!
QUESTIONS Where did the immigrants come from? When did they arrive? Why did they leave their home countries? Where did they settle? Where did they work? What aspects of their culture did they bring withthem? What impact did immigrant cultural traditions have onthe United States?
FACTS Due to potato rot which began in 1845, the potatocrop in Ireland began to fail. From 1845 to 1850 there were famine conditions inIreland. More than one million people died of starvation. One-fourth of the Irish population moved to theUnited States.
FACTS Because of improved farming methods such ascrop rotation-and therefore greater abundance offood-the population of Europe doubled between1750 and 1850. These improvements reduced the need for farmworkers → many peasants were forced off land thatthey had lived on for generations.
FACTS The passage to the United States in sailing vesselstook three months, on the average, at the beginningof the 1800s. The passage in steamships (which began to beused in the mid-nineteenth century) took ten days. The Russian government began to carry outpogroms (organized attacks) against the Jews ofeastern Europe.
FACTS A Norwegian worker could earn up to 4-5 dollars a day in the UnitedStates. This was more than triple the wage that the same person could haveearned in Norway at that time.
FACTS The U.S. Congress passed the Contract LabourLaw in 1864. Employers could make contracts with workers inother countries and many employers lent money toforeign workers to pay for their transportation to theUnited States. After the workers arrived, they were required to paythe money back out of their wages.
THREE GREAT WAVES OFIMMIGRATION 1815-1860: 5 million immigrants- mainlyEnglish, Irish, Germanic,Scandinavian, andothers fromnorthwestern Europe. 1865-1890: 10 million immigrants- again mainly fromnorthwestern Europe. 1890-1914: 15 million immigrants –mainly from EasternEurope.
REASONS FOR IMMIGRATION There are two types of motivation forimmigration:- Push factors (reasons to leave home country),- Pull factors (reasons for settling in USA).
REASONS FOR IMMIGRATION –1607-1830 Political Freedom. Religious Tolerance. Economic Opportunity -People want a better life -better job - more money. Political Refugees fear fortheir lives. Some want free atmosphere. Forced Immigration (slavery). Family Reunification.
REASONS FOR IMMIGRATION1830- 1890 Land plentiful, and fairlycheap. Jobs were abundant, wageshigh. Birthrate → decline. Industry and urbanization →increase. Notion that in America, thestreets were, "paved withgold”. Religious and politicalfreedom.
REASONS FOR IMMIGRATION1890-1914 Jews came for religiousfreedom. Italians and Asians camefor work. Russians came toescape persecution. America had jobs. America had religiousfreedom. America was hyped up inmany countries as "Landof Opportunity„.
WHO WERE THE IMMIGRANTS?1830-1890 Nationality → Mainly Irish, English andScandinavians. Circumstances The Irish → potato famine. They resented the British rule of their country. British landlords. The British Protestantism. British taxes. The average life expectancy was 19. The British → look for better opportunities ofwork.
Age: Irish: Teenager to Young Adult. British: Most immigrants from Britain were fairlyyoung, although not quite as young as their Irishcounterparts. Social Classes: Most Irish → tennant farmers before they came tothe United States. They had little taste for farm work and little money tobuy land in America anyway. The British → professionals, independentfarmers, and skilled workers.
THE IRISH Settled in New York (too poor totravel). Discriminated against. Poor living conditions (80% of Irishinfants died in New York). Took the jobs no one wanted. "Let Negroes be servants, and if notNegroes, let Irishmen fill their.place..." With the arrival of EasternEuropeans the Irish no longer lowestclass. Became policemen & firemen.
WHO WERE THE IMMIGRANTS?1890 - 1914 Italians Voluntary White Catholics and RomanCatholics Eastern Europeans Voluntary White Jewish & Christian Greeks Voluntary White Eastern Orthodox Russians:• Voluntary• White• Jewish
EASTERN/SOUTHERN EUROPEIMMIGRANTS Immigrants fromSoutheastern Europeblamed for increasingproblems 1880 – 1920 →New Yorkgrew by 300%, Chicago →400%, L.A→1000% These newcomers wereoften described by whatthey were not: Not Protestant Not English-speaking Not skilled Not educated Not liked. Anglo-Saxon Myth created Restrictions on immigrationgradually imposed Anti-Catholic feelings Anti-eastern Europeanfeelings Polish immigrantassassinated the Americanpresident (McKinley
NORWEGIAN SETTLERS Nearly 1 million between 1820-1920 Why? Land Social and political reasons Higher wages Increase in poulation Cleng Peerson ”Sloopers” Where? Most settled in the Mid West 1851 - Treaty of Traversedes Sioux 1862 – Homestead Act
VIEWS ON IMMIGRANTS” The ones who come here are usually the most stupid of theirnation. Few understand our language, so we cannotcommunicate with them.. It has been reported that young mendo not believe they are true men until they have shown theirmanhood by beating their mothers. They do not believe theyare truly free unless they also abuse and insult their teachers.And now they are coming to our country in great numbers.Few of their children know English. They bring in much of theirown reading from their homeland and print newspapers intheir own language. In some parts of our state, ads, streetsigns, and even some legal documents are in their ownlanguage and allowed in courts.Unless the stream of these people can be turned away, theywill soon outnumber us so that we will not be able to save ourlanguage or our government. However, I am not in favour ofkeeping them out entirely. All that seems necessary is todistribute them more evenly among us and set up moreschools that teach English. In this way, we will preserve thetrue heritage of our country.”Benjamin Franklin about German immigrants in 1751
IMMIGRATION LAWS 1790 → Naturalization rule establishes →a two-year residency requirement forimmigrants wanting to become U.S. citizens. 1875 → No convicts or prostitutes. 1882 → Immigration from China is stopped; ex-convicts, lunatics, idiots, and thoseunable to take care of themselves are excluded. A tax (50 cents) must be paid byimmigrants. 1892→ Ellis Island opens. 1903 → No political radicals, epileptics, professional beggars. 1907 → No feeble-minded, tuberculars, persons with physical or mental defects, andpersons under age 16 without parents. Tax on new immigrants is increased ($8). 1910 → No criminals, paupers, diseased. 1917 → Immigrants over 16 years old must pass literacy exam. 1921 → Annual immigration limited to 350 000. Quotas for each nationality areintroduced. 1924 → immigration limited to 165 000 annually. The nationality quota is revised to 2% of each nationalitys representation
MELTING POT VS SALAD BOWL Melting Pot → Allimmigrants mixedtogether form the”American”. Salad Bowl → Allimmigrants areAmerican, yet keeptheir cultural heritagefrom their ”home”.