Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Sgp ppt ppt version
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Sgp ppt ppt version

1,543
views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Sports

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,543
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
38
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • I choose Injury Prevention because my major at Shippensburg is a career in Physical Therapy. My topic is very similar to that because both topics are involve the human body. My other reason I picked this was because I think that the Human anatomy is an amazing structure in itself .
  • According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC) in 2006 High school athletes attributed to 1.4 million injuries which lead to 500,000 doctors visits and 30,000 hospitalizations in 9 different sports. These injuries documented were 80% new injuries. An the other 20% were reoccurring injuries such as sprained ankles. If athletes had been educated on at least proper warming up and stretching the rate of injury would have been decreased substantially. Researchers reported that 25% of all injuries can be prevented by warming up and stretching properly.
  • The human body is made up of 630 to 650 skeletal muscles. The muscle count ranges because scientist have difficult telling what is a distinct muscle. There are three types of muscles; smooth, skeletal, cardiac. Skeletal muscles act in pairs. The contracting of one muscle is balanced by a lengthening relaxation of its paired muscle. For example when someone running there quads straighten there knee while their hamstrings pulls the leg backwards. They are responsible for moving us around. Smooth muscles line the stomach intestinal walls, veins and artery walls. And are arranged in layers with the fibers in each layer running in a different direction. This arrangement allows contraction in all directions. This allows fluid to be pumped through the intestinal walls, veins and artery walls. Cardiac muscles sole job is to contract automatically to squeeze the walls of the heart inward. This allows blood to be pumped throughout the whole body.
  • The muscles that make up the human body are made up of long, thin cells called muscle fibers. Each fiber is a single cell with at least one nucleus. Those nuclei contain the cell’s genetic material and control its growth and reproduction rate. There are two types of muscles, Fast- Twitch Muscle fiber which have the capacity to produce great deal of force but fatigues quicker. Generally found from weight training. These are mainly found in Olympic sprinters such as Usain Bolt. And the other type of muscle are Slow-twitch muscle fiber which are not able to exert as much force or develop it as quickly. People who have more slow twitch fibers are people who do aerobic workouts such as marathon runners or cyclists.(Duncan Kibet)
  • The shoulder joint otherwise known as the Glenohumeral joint is unique and unlike any other joint because of its range of motion. It’s the only place in the body that allows a joint to rotate 360 degrees. The three main bones of the shoulder are the humerus, clavicle, and the scapula or the shoulder blade. The humerus connects with the shoulder blade. They connect at a small depression in the shoulder blade called the glenoid, this forms the Glenohumeral joint. When bones meet they are cushioned by cartilage. A connective tissue that is stiff yet flexible. This prevents bones from rubbing together. The labrum is a ring of cartilage around the glenoid. This ring adds to stabilizing the joint. It’s because of this unique set up that 20% of athletic injuries are shoulder injuries.
  • Doctors compare this ball and socket joint to a golf ball on a tee. The golf tee represents the glenoid while the ball is the head of the humerus. Any shift in any direction the ball falls off the tee. Similar to the shoulder in the sense that That the only thing stabilizing the joint besides ligaments are four muscles. These muscle combine to make the rotator cuff. We relay on the cuff to provide stability at the shoulder. The muscles that make up the cuff are supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis. If the shoulder has a balance in both strength and flexibility then the shoulder will be able to function properly. If not then a wide variety of problems may result from impingement of the rotator cuff tendon and bursa to chronic instability to labral tears.
  • The ankle acts like a hinge. A hinge that’s made to withstand 1.5 times your body weight while walking. And up to eight times your body weight while running. Its made up of four bones the tibia, fibula, talus, and calcaneus. The ankle has three joints the talocrural joint . Which allows most of the up and down motion. The inferior tibiofibular joint which joint between lower surfaces of tibia and fibula. And the Subtalar Joint provides shock absorption and inward and outward ankle movements.
  • The Knee joint is held together by four strong ligaments. The medial collateral ligament(MCL) and lateral collateral ligaments(LCL) provide side to side stability. While the Anterior cruciate Ligament (ACL) and Posterior cruciate Ligament (PCL) provide front to back stability. The ACL runs from the front of the shin bone to back of the thigh bone. While the PCL runs from the back of the shin bone to front of the thigh bone. The ligaments cross in the middle that’s why they are called cruciate . The crossed design allows you to come to a sudden stop and to accelerate suddenly . MCL is the most common sprain. It causes the knee to move toward the inside of the body and stretches the ligament. There are three grades of severity in knee injuries. Grade one- sprain simply stretches the ligament and cause pain and swelling. Grade two is a sprain partially tears the ligament and is much more disabling. Grade three sprain is a complete rupture and often needs surgical repair.
  • Some of the benefits of strength training are that by exercising your actually increasing bone mineral density. Most people don’t know bones are living tissue which have the ability to remodel and adapt to physical stress imposed on it. Such as those who wish to train Plyometrics. Which are designed to produce fast, powerful movements, and improve the functions of the nervous system, generally for the purpose of improving performance in sports. This type of training puts high strain on the bones and joints. The bones can adapt to many different types of training programs. It also reduces likelihood of injuries. By Increasing strength in areas around the joint you allow less stress on the actual joint. The muscles around it, stabilize the joint keeping the joint together. Strength training also reduces blood pressure and lowers heart rate two key factors in living a healthy life.
  • By lifting weights it raises your basal metabolism, which is the amount of energy required to maintain your bodily functions vital functions at rest. The more muscle mass the higher the B.M.R.. which decreases gastrointestinal transit time, which is the time taken for food to be passed through the mouth, duodenum, jejunum, lleum and to the Large intestine. It also reduces the risk of colon cancer which is developed by waste sitting in colon. The longer it has time to sit there the longer it has to seep back into tissues. Exercising stimulates peristalsis; which is a wave like muscular contraction that helps push waste through colon and out the system.
  • There are many different types of stretches and today were going to talk about static, facilitated, dynamic and ballistic. Static stretches which are held steadily and stretching to the furthest point you comfortably can and then hold that position. Static stretching is used by many professionals after workouts when their muscles are most fatigued to restore their range of motion. Facilitated Stretching is a type of stretching using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation(PNF) to stretch the athlete. PNF facilitates muscular inhibition has to do with impaired communications between the brain and muscle. It refers to the inability of a muscle to contract fully on demand. By contracting the muscles being stretched and continuing the stretch thereafter it allows the body to override autogenic inhibition. Autogenic inhibition is a protective mechanism preventing muscles from exerting more force than bones and tendons can tolerate. Dynamic stretching is the use of movement or momentum and active muscular effort to bring about a stretch. Dynamic stretching is actually shown to reduce muscle tightness. Dynamic stretching is been scientifically proven enhances strength and power athletes performance. Such as sprinters and weight lifters who need to produce power quickly.
  • Ballistic stretching is performed using rapid bouncing, movements to force the target muscle to elongate and stretch. This type of stretching isn’t a favorite to too many athletes or coaches due to it leaving the muscle shorter than its pre-stretched length. Ballistic stretching causes a strong myotatic stretch reflex. The stretch reflex or knee jerk reflex is a prevention technique used to prevent tearing. Its a preprogrammed response by the body to a stretch stimulus in the muscle. When a muscle is stretched an impulse is immediately sent to the spinal cord telling it to contract the muscle. The impulse only has to travel to the spinal cord and back so it takes under 2 milliseconds. Both passive and active can be incorporated with other types of stretches. Passive stretching is done to the stretcher by a partner. It is usually incorporated in static and ballistic stretches. The partner helps gain new range of motion(ROM) This is used for many gymnast because flexibility is crucial for performance. Active the stretcher is doing the work instead of having a partner do it. While performing this type, much less likely to over stretch and cause injury.
  • The benefits of stretching are improved range of motion of your joints. A good range of motion allows the athlete a better balance. This in the end will allow the athletes to keep their balance and less prone to fall. Enhanced circulation which increases blood to flow to your muscles. Improved circulation can speed up recovery of muscles. By allowing more blood flow to the muscles, it allows the blood to deliver more oxygen to the needed muscles. An in exchange, removes the lactic acid from the muscle. Lactic acid build up in muscles as a by product of anaerobic metabolism after the body’s primary energy source(glycogen) has been exhausted. By circulating the blood throughout the body you are washing out lactic acid out of muscles. Helps reduce risk of injury. When you work your muscles to the point of exhaustion they seize up and shorten. By stretching after workouts your restoring your range of motion in your limbs and muscles. People don’t think about it as much but it improves posture by stretching your lower back, shoulders and chest that aligns your back and improves your posture.
  • The most common injuries that occur in all sports are strains, sprains . Strains are caused from twisting or pulling a muscle or tendon. Tendons is a fibrous cords of tissue that connect muscle to bone. These injuries are acute or chronic. Acute strains are caused by trauma or an injury such as a blow to the body. While a chronic strain is usually the result of overuse, prolonged, repetitive movement of the muscles and tendons. Some popular examples of tendon strains are tennis and golf elbow. While hamstrings are the leading muscle strain. Sprains are stretched or torn muscles or ligaments. Ligaments are bands of fibrous tissue that connects two or more bones at a joint. These injuries are classified by grades from one to three. The first grade is slight tear or overstretching of the ligaments. The athlete probably experiences little swelling and little to no loss of function in the joint. The second grade is a partial tear of the ligament with difficulty putting weight on the affected joint. The third grade is considered severe and is a complete tear or rupture of ligament. Not able to bear any weight on the joint in this case the ankle joint. It is very likely the athlete will now have a tendency to sprain this area again.
  • The first sport sport’s injuries I’m going to talk about is Track and field. The first injury found mostly In track would be Runner’s Knee. Runner’s Knee also called chondromalacia patella or patella femoral syndrome. It is the most common overuse injury to the knee. It is caused by misalignment of the kneecap in its groove. The kneecap normally goes up and down in the groove as the knee flexes and straightens. Kneecap is misaligned it will actually pull off to one side and rub on the side of the groove. It causes the cartilage on the side of the groove and back of kneecap cartilage to wear out. It will result in fluid buildup and swelling. In addition its also painful to sit for long periods of time, that’s called theater sign. The other common track and field injury would be jumpers knee. Which is inflammation for the tendons that hook into the upper and lower ends of the kneecap. This injury is from the overuse of the quad muscles and patellar tendons. Those tendons help to straighten the leg. They then become inflamed. Sudden violent vertical leaps to straighten the knee cause minute tears and irritate the tendons.
  • In baseball & softball you have athletes generating a lot of force to throw a ball very fast. Pitchers can throw anywhere from 80 to a 100 pitches in a game. Anytime you have that force inflicted on a body there bound to be some injuries. The most common would be shoulder impingement which is inflammation of rotator cuff and bursae. Bursae are cavities are placed near sites where tendons or muscle pass over bony prominences near joints. They are filled with fluid to reduce friction between bone and tendon. What happens is the rotator cuff is surrounded by bones. So when the muscles become inflamed they swell and compress against the bone. When the swellng goes down the muscle fray like rope. If left untreated the athlete could end up splitting the muscle in two.
  • One of the most common soccer injuries is a ACL Tear. The anterior cruciate ligament(ACL) and the posterior cruciate ligament(PCL) two major ligaments in the knee that work together to stabilize the knee. They cross each other to form a X which allows the knee to flex and extend without side to side movement. In soccer there are a lot of changing direction rapidly, twisting without moving the feet, and slowing down abruptly. This type of movement causes ACL to stretch to the point of tearing. One out of every ten high school girls will tear their ACL. In collegiate soccer, one out of a hundred female soccer players will tear their ACL. Woman are eight times more likely to tear their ACL than male athletes. There are many reasons for why female soccer players are more at risk for knee injuries. One reason is that high levels of specific hormones have been associated with an increase risk of ACL tear. Estrogen is among the leading hormone associated with this. Another reason is during adolescents, puberty changes the risk of woman tearing their ACL from 2 times to 4 times more than men due to their hips widening.
  • With lacrosse being a very physical collision sport injuries are bound to happen. It combines elements of soccer, basketball and ice hockey which all have aggressive contact. With all the planting and stop and starting in lacrosse the ankles act as a shock absorber to absorb that force. The most common injury in lacrosse would be acute ankle ligament sprains. According to the NCAA Men’s Lacrosse Injury list, 101 ankle and high ankle sprains were reported during the 2009 seasons. Ankle injuries made up 18% of all the lacrosse injuries that happened last year. Followed by knee injuries which had 80 reported incidents involving the knee.
  • This year I joined the Winter Track Team, my first time running winter track but I’m no stranger to the world of competitive track and field. One of the first things I noticed about the structure of the practice was that stretching, warming up and cooling down weren’t stressed. I found the need to step in and the next week I had put in a new stretching program. Warming up before stretching is one of the biggest injury preventing things an athlete can do. By stretching cold muscles you are ten times more likely to strain a muscle. That’s why the winter track team runs for 10 minutes before stretching. By working your muscles out for 10 minutes you are warming up muscle fibers by increasing your body temperature. By increasing the temperature of muscle cells, this allows the cells to metabolize the oxygen and fuel needed during workout. This also lessens chance of muscle cramping and fatiguing because blood is supplying oxygen to the muscles. Warm muscle fibers get softer and more fluid. They become easier to stretch and contract more rapidly. In addition to contractions, as the muscles warm the response to the nerve impulses quickens, causing faster contraction therefore quicker response. Allowing joints to warm up properly, allows them to move more freely with less energy expended. It also protects the joints from excessive wear.
  • The stretching done by the winter track team was part static solo stretching and the other part was partner stretching. I picked static stretching because it allows the muscle fibers in your legs to really be stretched unlike other stretching routines where stretches are held for 15 sec these stretches are held for 30 seconds to work on lengthening the muscles before the workout. The cold climate alone tends to tighten muscles up just by not moving continuously, this alone makes it very difficult to stay injury free. I chose partner stretching because not only does it allow some sort of team unity with your teammates but if done correctly can provide for a very efficient stretch. Its more efficient than solo stretches because a lot of time athletes won’t try as hard to stretch but with a partner they stretch for you. In addition to static stretches I installed Fence work which are forward leg swings and Side ways leg swings. Forward leg swings increase hip flexibility and stretches hip flexors. Hip flexors are among the leading muscle not being stretch from high school athletes. And Sidways leg swings which increase lateral movement and stretches the illiotibal band (it band)
  • After a workout it is crucial to warm down gradually it allows the body to naturally cool down by itself. This is something else I’ve added to the structure of the Winter Track team a five- ten minute jog. It allows heart to slow down and adjust its blood flow without pooling of blood into muscles. After a workout blood vessels to your muscles are still dilated to increase the blood supply of oxygen and fuel to muscles. Along with your heart rate is still up. The massaging effect takes place during cool down. It allows blood to start flowing into parts of the body that also need it, in some cases blood will pool into your legs and may not leave enough blood to supply your brain/ heart. it can lead to fainting or a heard attack. Another benefit of a cool down is it enhances the removal of lactic acid. It builds up in muscles as a byproduct of anaerobic metabolism- after the body’s primary energy source - glycogen has been exhausted. Keeping blood flowing through your muscles in this case your legs washed out lactic acid. After the cool down is done. The muscles needed to be re stretched out because it helps restore full range of motion and flexibility.
  • The next part of my application I had arranged for The Rothman Institute to come into Upper Merion to use F.M.S. to assess and educate the athletes on their bodies. The Functional Movement Screen is a screening test that ranks and grades the athlete on seven different exercises that allow the screener to see how functional the athlete really is. The score is used to identify functional limitations the athlete might have. By doing this physical therapist can put specific athletes on stretching and strengthening programs to reduce their chances of injury. For example if an athlete tests well on everything but has inability to raise the leg past or at ninety degrees. This shows the athlete is more at risk for hamstring and lower back injuries. The physical therapist would devise a stretching regiment to decrease the risk of hamstring pulls. It’s becoming increasingly popular among sporting teams there are 10 NFL teams currently using this system to assess their athletes before their spring practices start. They don’t want to spend all this money on an athlete and see them on the bench.
  • One of the inventors of F.M.S. is Gray Cook who has a masters in science and physical therapy(MSPT) He is a Orthopedic Clinical Specialist. He is certified in Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist.(CSCS) In addition to these he is a level I coach with the U.S. weight lifting Federation. Lee Burton is his partner in F.M.S. He too has many degrees and certifications. He has his bachelors and masters in Athletic Training. Along with that he has his doctorate degree in curriculum and instruction with an emphasis in health promotion and wellness. He too has his certified strength and conditioning specialist certification from the national strength and conditioning association. They combine their large knowledge of the human anatomy and how it works to put together the functional movement screening test.
  • The first exercise of seven in the screening test would be the deep squat. The squat portion of the test allows screeners to see if the athlete has extremity mobility, postural control, pelvic and core stability. Basically they want to see the athlete perform the squat a little below 90 degrees with no pain and to see an the athlete have complete control of their body. So there no shifting of weight and the athlete stays on their heels. The dowel held overhead adds another element of difficulty. It also allows screeners to see if the athlete is able to maintain stability of the shoulders and spine while keeping them parallel to the lower leg. To score a three screeners are looking for upper torso parallel with tibia or toward vertical. Femur below horizontal, knees aligned over feet, and dowel aligned over feet. Which the first one has all of these characteristics. While alex scored number one on this due to his knees not aligned with feet. Dowel not aligned over feet. And his tibia and upper torso are not parallel. While his femur was well below horizontal.
  • The hurdle step is designed to challenge the body’s proper stepping and stride mechanics as well as stability and control in single leg stance. The movement requires proper coordination and stability between the hips. To receive a 3 on this exercise you must have hips , knees and ankles remaining aligned in the Sagittal plane. Sagittal plane is an imaginary plane that travels vertically from the top to the bottom of the body, dividing it into left and right portions. Also minimal to no movement is noted in lower back. And the last thing is that the dowel and hurdle remain parallel. To receive a one such as montrez did you must either hit the hurdle or lose balance
  • The in- line lunge movement tries to imitate deceleration movements, and directional changes produced in exercise, activity and sport. The exercises is designed with intent to put the body in a similar position to that in a game such as football where the body is placed under stress during rotation, deceleration and lateral type movements. To score a three on this particular exercise the dowel must remain touching the sacrum and the shoulder blades No torso movement is noted. The dowel and feet remain in Sagittal plane which is invisible line keeping everything in straight line. Knee touches the board behind heel of front foot. To score a 1 loss of balance has to be observed.
  • The fourth exercise is shoulder mobility. This is a two part exercise, It allows the examiner to get a clear view of the shoulder’s mobility without the athlete attempting to use other muscles to compensate for his lack of mobility. Unlike the other exercises this one is either pass/fail no scoring. To pass this test athletes have to be able to keep their fists within one hand length from each other. The athletes hands are measured from their wrist to their middle finger using the dowel. The second part of the test is for the athlete to place his hand on opposite shoulder and attempt to point the elbow upward. If any pain is detected during the exercise the athlete automatically fails that section.
  • The active straight leg raise is the most important of all of the exercises and the most simplest to perform. But that simple pattern not only identifies the mobility of the flexed hip but the continuous core stability within the exercise. Also it shows how far the inactive hip can extend. The exercise challenges the active hamstring and gastrocsoleus flexibility while maintaining a stable pelvis and active extension of the opposite leg. The athlete lays down with the board under there knees and the dowel is placed between the Anterior Superior Iliac Spine (ASIS) (The point of the hip) and the joint line of the knee. The athlete then attempts to raise his malleolus which is the ball of the ankle past or be level with the dowel. If the athlete does do that he receives a three. If a three isn’t reached the dowel is moved from mid thigh to knee joint. To score a one the dowel will be moved from to your mid- patella and your ankle will be level or past that point.
  • The Trunk Stability Push- Up is a more difficult version of the common exercise known by the same name. This exercise requires symmetric trunk stability in the during upper extremity movement. The designers of this test wanted to make the athlete attempt a harder version of a push up to see how the athletes trunk stabilizers or core muscles react. Many functional activities in sport require the core to transfer force symmetrically from upper extremities to lower extremities and vice versa. Movements that demonstrate this are rebounding in basketball or pass blocking in football. If an athlete cannot adequately stabilize during sport, kinetic energy will be lost, leading to poor performance which increases potential for injury. F.M.S. Stability Push- Up is different from a regular push up because instead of having your hands at chest level there align with forehead. The stability push up is done from the lying down position unlike that of a regular push up in which it starts at the top. The screeners are looking for the athlete to lift body as a unit and no “lag” ( which is bringing your chest up and then your core followed by legs.) To receive a three on this exercise the males have perform one repetition with thumbs aligned with top of forehead while the girls have to perform one rep at thumbs aligned with chin. To receive a two males perform one rep while thumbs aligned with chin and the girls perform one rep with thumbs aligned with clavicle. And one is unable to perform push up at levels given.
  • To score a three on this exercise which in the opinion of many of the track guys this was the hardest of all the exercises. To score a three on this you must have completed one rep of the unilateral repetition while keeping spine parallel to the board like Carly did. And the knee and elbow touch in line over the board. To score a two one diagonal rep while keeping spine parallel to board and knee and elbow touch in line over the board just like scoring a three.
  • Rotary Stability a complex movement requiring proper neuromuscular coordination and energy transfer from one segment of the body to another through the torso. The exercise lets screeners assess different levels of stability while a combined upper and lower body motion is performed. Many functional activities in sport require the trunk stabilizers to transfer force asymmetrically from the lower body to the upper body. Running and accelerating out of a down stance in track are common example of this energy transfer. If the trunk does not have adequate stability during these activities it will like i said in the last slide disperse and this will increase potential for injury.
  • For my last component of my application I created specific workouts for three different athletes involving the three different joints talked about. The workouts were 4 weeks long and each athlete met with me twice a week. Kellie workout entailed focusing on her weak ankles. By using the BOSU ball which stands for BOth Sides Up. It increases balance, Kinesthetic awareness and proprioception. Kinesthetic awareness is your bodies awareness of how the body is positioned at any given moment. An proprioception is how your body responds to external forces to keep your joints in the right position. These assets decrease the risk of injury because they simulate a game field with divots and ruts. The other two athletes used dumbbells and crossover cables in their workouts. Dumbbells are great for injury prevention workouts because lifting dumbbells requires various stabilizing muscles unlike machines which target specific muscle groups. This is perfect for Maura to keep her shoulder in place.
  • My two top sources were The Sports Injury Handbook by Allan M. levy and Mark Fuerst because it provided such vivid detail for the knee anatomy it really let me fully understand the complex joint. An facilitated Stretching by Robert McAtee and Jeff Charland because I got a lot of my stretching information from it.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Injury Prevention & Common Sports Injuries
      • By: Michael Bruno
    • 2. Overview
      • Keynote Presentation
      • Video Component
      • Class Activity
    • 3. Thesis
      • My topic is injury prevention and the assessing,educating, and preventing of athletic injuries to athletes. Throughout the year I’ve been able to apply my research, in the effort to help keep our athletic community injury free.
    • 4. Personal Relevance
    • 5. Why Injury Prevention? &quot;Sports Related Injuries Among HIgh School Students.&quot; Center for Disease Control       and Prevention . Department of Health and Human Services, 28 Sept. 2006.       Web. 25 May 2010. <http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/       mm5538a1.htm>.
    • 6. The Human Body
      • The human body has 630 to 650 skeletal muscles
        • Three types of muscle; smooth, skeletal, cardiac
      • Skeletal muscles are used to attach the muscles to the bone through a tendon.
      • Smooth muscles- Line the inside of hollow organs
      • Cardiac- Drives the heart
      Lerner, Lee K., and Brenda Lerner. &quot;Muscular System.&quot; Gale Virtual Reference       Library . N.p., n.d. Web. 11 May 2010. <http://find.galegroup.com/gps/       infomark.do?&contentSet=EBKS&type=retrieve&tabID=T001&prodId=IPS&docId=CX34185015       28&source=gale&srcprod=EB00&userGroupName=king46652&version=1.0>.
    • 7. What is a muscle? &quot;Muscular System.&quot; The Handy Anatomy Answer Book . Invisible Ink Press, 2008.       83-104. Student Resource Center Gold . Web. 12 May 2010.       <http://find.galegroup.com/gps/       infomark.do?&contentSet=IAC-Documents&type=retrieve&tabID=T001&prodId=IPS&docId=A       188491186&source=gale&srcprod=SRCG&userGroupName=king46652&version=1.0>.
    • 8. Shoulder Anatomy Terry, Glenn C., and Thomas M. Chopp. &quot;Functional Anatomy of the Shoulder .&quot;       Journal of Athletic Training : n. pag. eLibrary . Web. 4 Mar. 2010.       < http://elibrary.bigchalk.com/elibweb/elib/do/       document?set=search&dictionaryClick=&seco ndaryNav=&groupid=1&requestid=lib_standa      rd&resultid=27&edition=&ts=32F92BA2A4135 8D8E579FDE16DE84D17_1267736375091&start=2       6&publicationId=&urn=urn%3Abigchalk%3AUS %3BBCLib%3Bdocument%3B34034929 >.
    • 9. Shoulder Anatomy Terry, Glenn C., and Thomas M. Chopp. &quot;Functional Anatomy of the Shoulder .&quot;       Journal of Athletic Training : n. pag. eLibrary . Web. 4 Mar. 2010.       < http://elibrary.bigchalk.com/elibweb/elib/do/       document?set=search&dictionaryClick=&seco ndaryNav=&groupid=1&requestid=lib_standa      rd&resultid=27&edition=&ts=32F92BA2A4135 8D8E579FDE16DE84D17_1267736375091&start=2       6&publicationId=&urn=urn%3Abigchalk%3AUS %3BBCLib%3Bdocument%3B34034929 >.
    • 10. Ankle Anatomy Inverarity, Laura, D.O. &quot;Ligaments of the Ankle Joint.&quot; About.com Health's       Disease and Condition . N.p., 23 Jan. 2008. Web. 12 May 2010.       < http://physicaltherapy.about.com/od/humananatomy/p/ankleligaments.htm >.
    • 11. Knee Anatomy Levy, Allan M., MD, and Mark L. Fuerst. &quot;Preventing Injuries .&quot; Sports Injury       Handbook . New York : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. , 1993. 1-21. Print.
    • 12. Benefits of Strength Training Baechle, Thomas R., EdD,CSCS, NSCA-CPT,D, and Roger W. Earle, MA, CSCS, NSCA-       CPT, D. Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning . 2nd ed. 2000.       Champaign: Human Kinetics, 2000. Print. Essentials of Strength Training and       Conditioning 2.
    • 13. Benefits of Strength Training
      • Raises your basal metabolism
        • Higher muscle mass decreases B.M.R.
      • Decreases gastrointestinal transit time
        • Stimulates peristalsis
      Baechle, Thomas R., EdD,CSCS, NSCA-CPT,D, and Roger W. Earle, MA, CSCS, NSCA-       CPT, D. Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning . 2nd ed. 2000.       Champaign: Human Kinetics, 2000. Print. Essentials of Strength Training and       Conditioning 2.
    • 14. Types of Stretching
      • Static Stretches
      • Facilitated Stretching
      • Dynamic Stretching
      McAtee, Robert E., and Jeff Charland. Facilitated Stretching . 3rd ed.       Champaign: Human Kinetics, 2007. Print.
    • 15. Types of Stretching
      • Ballistic
      • Passive
      • Active
      McAtee, Robert E., and Jeff Charland. Facilitated Stretching . 3rd ed.       Champaign: Human Kinetics, 2007. Print.
    • 16. Benefits of Stretching
      • Range of motion of joints
      • Circulation
      • Improves posture
      Judd, Sandra J. &quot;Injuries to the Trunk, Groin, Upper Legs, and Knees.&quot; Sports       Injuries Sourcebook . 3rd ed. Detroit: Omnigraphics, 2007. 415-99. Print.       Health Reference Series 3
    • 17. Common Injuries I II III Cluett, Jonathan, M.D. &quot;Ankle Sprain.&quot; About.com OrthoPedics . N.p., 25 Mar.       2007. Web. 12 May 2010. <http://orthopedics.about.com/cs/sprainsstrains/       a/anklesprain.htm>.
    • 18. Common Sport Injuries
      • Track and Field
      Greene, Larry, and Russ Pate. Training For Young Distance Runners . 2nd ed. N.p.:       Human Kinetics, 2004. Print.
    • 19. Baseball and Softball Injuries &quot;Arthritis and Impingement Syndrome.&quot; Webmd . N.p., 4 Feb. 2005. Web. 12 May       2010. <http://www.webmd.com/osteoarthritis/guide/       impingement-syndrome>.
    • 20. Soccer Injuries Levy, Allan M., MD, and Mark L. Fuerst. &quot;Preventing Injuries .&quot; Sports Injury       Handbook . New York : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. , 1993. 1-21. Print.
    • 21. Lacrosse Injuries McCulloch, Patrick C., M.D., and Bernard R. Bach, M.D. &quot;Injuries in Men's       Lacrosse.&quot; Orthopedic Supersite . N.p., May 2010. Web. 12 May 2010.       < http://www.orthosupersite.com/view.aspx?rid=20038 >.
    • 22. Winter Track Levy, Allan M., MD, and Mark L. Fuerst. &quot;Preventing Injuries .&quot; Sports Injury       Handbook . New York : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. , 1993. 1-21. Print.
    • 23. Winter Track Levy, Allan M., MD, and Mark L. Fuerst. &quot;Preventing Injuries .&quot; Sports Injury       Handbook . New York : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. , 1993. 1-21. Print.
    • 24. Winter Track Levy, Allan M., MD, and Mark L. Fuerst. &quot;Preventing Injuries .&quot; Sports Injury       Handbook . New York : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. , 1993. 1-21. Print.
    • 25.
      • A screening test that ranks, and grades the athlete on exercises that are key to normal function.
      Functional Movement . N.p., 18 Jan. 2002. Web. 12 May 2010.       < http://www.functionalmovement.com/SITE/functionalmovementscreen/       whatisfms.php >.
    • 26.
      • Creators- Gray Cook
          • MSPT, OCS, CSCS
      • Lee Burton
          • A.T., C.S.C.S.
      &quot;F.M.S. History.&quot; Functional Movement . N.p., 18 Jan. 2002. Web. 12 May 2010.       < http://www.functionalmovement.com/SITE/aboutfms/fmshistory.php >.
    • 27. Screening Exercises Deep Squat 1 3 2 Functional Movement . N.p., 18 Jan. 2002. Web. 12 May 2010.       < http://www.functionalmovement.com/SITE/functionalmovementscreen/       whatisfms.php >.
    • 28. Hurdle Step 1 2 3 Functional Movement . N.p., 18 Jan. 2002. Web. 12 May 2010.       < http://www.functionalmovement.com/SITE/functionalmovementscreen/       whatisfms.php >.
    • 29. In-Line Lunge 1 3 Functional Movement . N.p., 18 Jan. 2002. Web. 12 May 2010.       < http://www.functionalmovement.com/SITE/functionalmovementscreen/       whatisfms.php >.
    • 30. Shoulder Mobility Functional Movement . N.p., 18 Jan. 2002. Web. 12 May 2010.       < http://www.functionalmovement.com/SITE/functionalmovementscreen/       whatisfms.php >.
    • 31. Active Straight Leg Raise Functional Movement . N.p., 18 Jan. 2002. Web. 12 May 2010.       < http://www.functionalmovement.com/SITE/functionalmovementscreen/       whatisfms.php >.
    • 32. Trunk Stability Push- Up Functional Movement . N.p., 18 Jan. 2002. Web. 12 May 2010.       < http://www.functionalmovement.com/SITE/functionalmovementscreen/       whatisfms.php >.
    • 33. Rotary Stability Functional Movement . N.p., 18 Jan. 2002. Web. 12 May 2010.       < http://www.functionalmovement.com/SITE/functionalmovementscreen/       whatisfms.php >.
    • 34. Rotary Stability Video
    • 35. Prehab &quot;Bosu.&quot; Bosu . N.p., n.d. Web. 25 May 2010. < http://www.bosu.com/scripts/       cgiip.exe/WService=BOSU/ story.html?article=4453 >.
    • 36. Prehab Video...
    • 37. Class Activity
    • 38. Work Cited &quot;Arthritis and Impingement Syndrome.&quot; Webmd . N.p., 4 Feb. 2005. Web. 12 May       2010. < http://www.webmd.com/osteoarthritis/guide/impingement-syndrome >. Arthur, Michael. Complete Conditioning for Football . N.p.: Human Kinetics, 1998.       Print. Baechle, Thomas R., EdD,CSCS, NSCA-CPT,D, and Roger W. Earle, MA, CSCS, NSCA-       CPT, D. Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning . 2nd ed. 2000.       Champaign: Human Kinetics, 2000. Print. Essentials of Strength Training and       Conditioning 2. &quot;Bosu.&quot; Bosu . N.p., n.d. Web. 25 May 2010. < http://www.bosu.com/scripts/       cgiip.exe/WService=BOSU/sto ry.html?article=4453 >. Brown , Lee E., Vance A. Ferrigno, a nd Juan Carlos Santana. Training for Speed,       Ag ility, and Quickness . N.p.: Human Kinetics, 2000. Print. Cluett, Jonathan, M.D. &quot;Ankle Sprain.&quot; About.com OrthoPedics . N.p., 25 Mar.       2007. Web. 12 May 2010. < http://orthopedics.about.com/cs/sprainsstrains/a/anklesprain.htm >. Delavier, Frédéric. Strength Training Anatomy . Second ed. Paris : Human       Kinetics, 2006. Print. F.M.S. History.&quot; Functional Movement . N.p., 18 Jan. 2002. Web. 12 May 2010.       < http://www.functionalmovement.com/SITE/aboutfms/fmshistory.php >. Functional Movement . N.p., 18 Jan. 2002. Web. 12 May 2010.       < http://www.functionalmovement.com/SITE/functionalmovementscreen/whatisfms.p hp >. Greene, Larry, and Russ Pate. Training For Young Distanc e Runners . 2nd ed. N.p.:       Human Kinetics, 2004. Print. Inverarity, Laura, D.O. &quot;Ligaments of the Ankle Joint.&quot; About.com Health's       Disease and Condition . N.p., 23 Jan. 2008. Web. 12 May 2010.       < http://physicaltherapy.about.com/od/humananatomy/p/ankleligaments.htm >. Judd, Sandra J. &quot;Injuries to the Trunk, Groin, Upper Legs, and Knees.&quot; Sports       Injuries Sourcebook . 3rd ed. Detroit: Omnigraphics, 2007. 415-99. Print.       Health Reference Series 3. Lerner, Lee K., and Brenda Lerner. &quot;Muscular System.&quot; Gale Virtual Reference       Library . N.p., n.d. Web. 11 May 2010. < http://find.galegroup.com/gps/infomark.do&contentSet=EBKS&type=retrie ve&tabID=T001&prodId=IPS&docId=CX3418501528&source=gale&srcprod=EB00&userGroupName=king46652&version=1.0 >. Levy, Allan M., MD, and Mark L. Fuerst. &quot;Preventing Injuries .&quot; S ports Injury       Handbook . New York : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. , 1993. 1-21. Print. Martin, Elaine L. &quot;Skeletal System .&quot; Gale Encyclopedia of Science . Gale       Virtual Reference Library . Web. 4 Mar. 2010. < http://go.galegroup.com/ps/       retrieve.do?sgHitCountType=None&sort=RELEVANCE&docLevel=&prodId=GVRL&tabID=T003&s       ubjectParam=&searchId=R1&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&searchType=BasicSearchForm&currentPosition=2&subjectAction=&bucketSu bId=&inPS=true&userGroupName =king46652&nav=next&sgCurrent Position=&docId=GALE|CX3418502071 >. McAtee, Robert E., and Jeff Charland. Facilitated Stretching . 3rd ed.       Champaign: Human Kinetics, 2007. Print.
    • 39. Work Cited McClure, Shannon K., Julie E. Adams, and Diane L. Mayo. &quot;Common Musculoskeletal       DIsorders in Women .&quot; eLibrary . N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Mar. 2010.       < http://elibrary.bigchalk.com/elibweb/elib/do/ documentset=search&groupid=1&requestid=lib_standard&resultid=3&urn=urn:bigchalk:US;BCLib;document117522237&style=printable&edition=&start=1&language= >. McCulloch, Patrick C., M.D., and Bernard R. Bach, M.D. &quot;Injuries in Men's       Lacrosse.&quot; Orthopedic Supersite . N.p., May 2010. Web. 12 May 2010.       < http://www.orthosupersite.com/view.aspx?rid=20038 >. &quot;Muscular System.&quot; The Handy Anatomy Answer Book . Invisible Ink Press, 2008.       83-104. Student Resource Center Gold . Web. 12 May 2010.       < http:// find.galegroup.com/gps/infomark.do?&co ntentSet=IAC-Documents&type=retrieve&tabID=T001&prodId=IPS&docId=A       188491186&source=gale&srcprod=SRCG&userGroupName=king46652&version=1.0 >. Roberts, Keil, and Linda Shelton. Stronger Legs and Lower Body . Ed. Cassandra      Mitchell. N.p.: Human Kinetics, 2002. Print. &quot;Sports Related Injuries Among HI gh School Students.&quot; Center for Disease Control   and Prevention . Department of Health and Human Services, 28 Sept. 2006.Web. 25 May 2010. < http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/      mm 5538a1.htm >. Terry, Glenn C., and Thomas M. Chopp. &quot;Functional Anatomy of the Shoulder .&quot;       Journal of Athletic Training : n. pag. eLibrary . Web. 4 Mar. 2010.       < http://elibrary.bigchalk.com/elibweb/elib/do/document set=search&dictionaryClick=&secondaryNav=&groupid=1&requestid=lib_standard&resultid=27&edition=&ts=32F92BA2A41358D8E579FDE16DE84D17_1267736375091&start=26&p ublicationId=&urn=urn%3Abigchalk%3AUS%3BBC Lib%3Bdocument%3B34034929 >.
    • 40. Work Cited
    • 41. Conclusion
      • Throughout the year while doing my research, I’ve gained the knowledge needed to decrease the risk of injury in sports. Taking time to properly warm up and stretch is the most beneficial step an athlete can do to prevent season ending injury. Working with the Functional Movement Screening Test, I learned how to properly analyze athletes motions to assess possible injuries they might have further in their career. I learned how important strength training really is in the fight against injuries. It’s benefits go so far beyond that of preventing injury but increasing an athletes general health.