CRITICAL STUDY IN LIGHT OF ISLAMIC SHARIAH
“PRINCIPLES OF ISLAMIC
CRITICAL STUDY IN LIGHT OF
Engr. SUMERA KHALID
Table of Contents
BATTERING AGAINST WOMEN IS HARAM PROVED BY QURAN
PROVED BY HADITH
LIGHT BEATING IN ISLAM IS WITH SIWAK(MISWAK)
SUMMARY OF A FATWA, “THE PROHIBITION OF
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN ISLAM “
By definition, domestic violence is a pattern of
physical, sexual, financial, spiritual, emotional and
verbal, including disparagement, blame, being
ostracized, isolated and condemned.
ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE ON DOMESTIC
• “O mankind! reverence your Lord, who created
you from a single soul, and created, of like
nature, its mate, and from them twain scattered
(like seeds) countless men and women;
reverence Allah, through whom ye demand your
mutual (rights), and (reverence) the wombs
(that bore you), for God ever watches over you.”
• Status of women in pre Islamic era.
• Female infanticide.
• Islam as a light in darkness.
• Equal rights of man and woman.
ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE ON DOMESTIC
• "O mankind! We created you from a single
(pair) of a male and a female, and made you
into nations and tribes, that ye may know each
other (not that ye may despise (each other).
Verily the most honored of you in the sight of
Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you.
And Allah has full knowledge and is well
acquainted (with all things)" (Qur’an, 49:13).
• Men and women are partners of one another.
• They don’t own each other.
• Islam condones wrong acts.
• Islam provides healthy alternatives.
In the light of Sunnah:
• Prophet said, “Never beat God’s handmaidens
• “Could any of you beat his wife as he would
beat a slave, and then lie with her in the
• Incidence of Hazrat Ayesha.
• “The Believers, men and women, are protectors
one of another (awliya’): they enjoin what is
just, and forbid what is evil: they observe
regular prayers, practice regular charity, and
obey Allah and His Messenger. On them will
Allah pour His mercy: for Allah is Exalted in
• Controversy of the verse 4;34.
• Meaning of the word ‘daraba’.
• Wrong interpretation of the word and
BATTERING AGAINST WOMEN IS HARAM
PROVED BY QURAN
• Wife beating is more common in societies in which men have economic and
decision-making power in the household, where women do not have easy
access to divorce, and where adults use violence to resolve their conflicts. The
second strongest predictor of the frequency of wife-beating is the absence of
• There are numbers of Quranic verses that explain that violence against
women is haram.In Islam there is absolutely no difference between men and
women as far as their relationship to Allah is concerned, as both are promised
the same reward for good conduct and the same punishment for evil conduct.
The Quran says
PROVED BY QURAN
• “O you who have believed, it is not lawful for you to inherit women by
compulsion. And do not make difficulties for them in order to take
[back] part of what you gave them unless they commit a clear
immorality. And live with them in kindness. For if you dislike them perhaps you dislike a thing and Allah makes therein much good”
Considering the fact that before the advent of Islam the pagan Arabs
used to bury their female children alive, make women dance naked in
the vicinity of the Ka'bah during their annual fairs, and treat women
as mere chattels and objects of sexual pleasure possessing no rights or
position whatsoever, these teachings of the Noble Quran were
PROVED BY QURAN
• Unlike other religions, which regarded women as being
possessed of inherent sin and wickedness and men as being
possessed of inherent virtue and nobility, Islam regards men and
women as being of the same essence created from a single soul.
The Quran declares:
Another verse of Quran strictly criticized that battering or violence
against women is haram .It is not allowed in Quran or Islamic
shariah to hit a women.The Quran says :
PROVED BY QURAN
• “O mankind, fear your Lord, who created you from one soul and
created from it its mate and dispersed from both of them many
men and women. And fear Allah , through whom you ask one
another, and the wombs. Indeed Allah is ever, over you, an
Thus Quran is a solid proof of that
“VIOLENCE AGINST WOMEN IS TOTALLY PROHIBITED IN
PROHIBITION OF BATTERING
AGAINTS WOMEN - PROVED BY
•Prohibition of battering againts women
- proved by Hadith
• Condition of women before the advent of
• Status of women after arrival of Islam.
•Holy Prophet times incident
•Death penalty for proven rape
•Hadith narrated by muawiyah
• Hadith narrated by Muawiyah
• Hadith against beating
• Permission of beating with condition.
LIGHT BEATING IN ISLAM IS WITH
• Islamic scholars and commentators have emphasized
that hitting, even where permitted, is not to be harsh.
or some even contend that they should be "more or
• Abu Shaqqa ,Hanafi scholar, notes that the reprimand
should be "A non-violent blow with miswak [a small
stick used to clean the teeth] or similar. This means
that to hit with any other means is legally [Islamically]
• Ata' said: "I asked Ibn `Abbas: 'What is the
hitting that is ghayr al-mubarrih?' He
replied: '[With] the siwak and the like'."
• The Prophet (peace be on him) once, when
angry with his servant, mentioned to him,
saying, 'If it were not for the fear of
retaliation on the Day of Resurrection, I
would have beaten you with this miswak
THE PROHIBITION OF DOMESTIC
VIOLENCE IN ISLAM”
Shaykh M. Hisham Kabbani
Dr. Homayra Ziad,
• The authors of the fatwa explain the rulings
about the notion of "wife beating"
In this verse one word alone invokes the
The word w'adribuhunna, from the Arabic verb
A linguistic Exploration of the
The best understanding of the
Quranic terminology comes from the
Qur’an itself, seeking the meaning of
a word in one verse by studying its
use in other verses.
The root ‘daraba’ has over fifty derivations
They present ten Quranic meanings of daraba:
1. To hold up as an example
2. To coin a similitude
3. To coin
4. To cite an example of bad behavior
5. To brand with or stamp upon
6. To strike a path
7. To go about
8. To set forth
9. To set up
Interpreting the Holy Qur’an
The Qur’an protects and upholds
family values with the reference and
meaning of different ayath .
• The fatwa also states, "Imam Suyuti reasoned
that a wife should not be beaten, but rather
softness and good conduct should be shown her
an, if necessary, outside parties should
intervene to restore.
“Wife beating is more common in societies in
which men have economic and decision-making
power in the household, where women do not have
easy access to divorce, and where adults use
Australia & New Zealand
violence to resolve their conflicts. The second
Title of the Presentation frequency of wifestrongest predictor of the
Sub-title of the Presentation
beating is the absence of all-women workgroups.”
Ruchira Tabassum Naved, ‘A Situational Analysis of Violence against
Women in South Asia’
The Family Violence Prevention
"a pattern of assaultive and forcible
behaviors, including physical, sexual, and
psychological attacks, as well as economic
pressure that adults or adolescents use
against their intimate partner”
Qur’an describes the relationship
between spouses as one founded
on mercy, compassion, and
There are verses that specifically
prohibit behaviors that constitute
emotional and psychological
abuse, such as
spying, intimidating, namecalling, insulting, and blackmailing.
It was narrated that the
Prophet (peace and
blessings be upon him)
"The best of you is the
best towards his wife, and
I'm the best of you to my
(Al-Bayhaqi and Ibn
Hibban from `Aishah)
This one verse in the Qur’an that mentions hitting one’s wife
has been the subject of much attack from non-Muslims and
controversy among Muslims Qur’an 4:34.
verse begins by describing
responsibility that men
have over women, and
defines their leadership
role in financially
supporting the family
It then identifies the steps a husband should take in the
event a wife is guilty of disloyalty (nushuz), with the final
step in the process being to hit her.
An Arabic word, that has been interpreted in a variety of
ways, including sexual misconduct, disobedience, and
This final step has also been translated from Arabic as
that this verse is not teaching wife-beating; ----the
hitting should be done in a manner that would leave no
mark or injury;
and that it provides a step-by-step procedure to deal
with a very specific and very severe threat to the
The verse underscores the importance of the marital
unit, the gravity of sexual misconduct, and the ultimate
accountability of both spouses to God.
What Muslim women do..
Research shows that the more we are exposed to
violence against women, the less we are upset by
Muslim women need to improve their knowledge
of their own faith, and then reclaim their right to
define themselves in the light of the Qur'an and
Families need to maintain open lines of
communication between all of their members;
regular family meetings where everyone is
allowed to express themselves without any
recriminations are helpful.
Marriage must be seen as a partnership, and
marriage contracts should specify a commitment
to an abuse-free and violence-free family