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Efforts of scholars in eliminating doubts upon the collection of fabricated Ahadith

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The present research(here only presentation is being shared) is about the scholar work on Fabricated traditions: from origin of fabrication to its detection and separation from Original text to its …

The present research(here only presentation is being shared) is about the scholar work on Fabricated traditions: from origin of fabrication to its detection and separation from Original text to its present collection. The document also analysis the need to 21st century research and criteria to check and separate the fabricated tradition.


Engr.Sumera Khalid

1/10/2014

Published in: Education, Spiritual

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    • 1. They said, "Exalted are You; we have no knowledge except what You have taught us. Indeed, it is You who is the Knowing, the Wise."
    • 2. EFFORTS OF SCHOLARS IN ELIMINATING DOUBTS UPON THE COLLECTION OF FABRICATED AHADITH Engr. Sumera khalid
    • 3. PROJECT OVERVIEW Introduction Definition of fabrication Origin of fabrication Causes of fabrication Qur’anic verses refuting fabrication Prophetic tradition refuting Fabrication Early efforts to separate fabricated traditions Methods of detecting fabrication Means of eliminating fabrication Scholars contribution Books and literature Efforts to eliminate doubts upon the collection of fabricated Ahadith Doubts raised by the scholars on collection Method to eliminate these doubts Refined books of collection of fabricated Hadith Conclusion Summary of project The research methodology The outcome of research
    • 4. Introduction
    • 5. Definition:A forged hadith or al- muwdu’, may be defined as report, invented by a liar, who has attributed it to Prophet and it may include either the text or both the text and the isnad of the report. Numerous names are associated with forgery: • Aban b.Jafar al-Numayri forged a large number of ahadith after Abu Hanifa, • and • Ibrahim b.Zayd al-Aslami did so in the name of Imam Malik. • Jabir b. Yazid al-Jafi, • Ahmad b. Abdullah al-Juybari, • Muhammad b.Shajja al-Thalji
    • 6. Origin of Fabrication  early decades of the advent of Islam.  It is believed to have begun following the turmoil over the murder of the third caliph, Uthman, which dealt a heavy blow to the unity of the Ummah.  This momentous event is held responsible for the emergence of serious political differences and partisan groups such as Shia, Kharijites and Mutazila, as well as the onset of forgery in
    • 7.  Ahmad Amin held that the fabrication began during the lifetime of the Prophet. To support his view he cited the frequently quoted hadith which reads, “Who deliberately lies about me, let him seek a place in Hell” (Muslim).  As-Siba`i interpreted the abovementioned hadith to mean that the Prophet only warned his audience with this hadith
    • 8. Causes of Hadith Fabrication Sunan Ibn Majah, has given examples of fabricated Ahadith under the following eight categories of causes of fabrication 1.Political differences; 2.Factions based on issues of creed; 3.Fabrications by zanadiqah (enemies-within spreading heretical beliefs); 4.Fabrications by story-tellers; 5.Fabrications by ignorant ascetics; 6.Prejudice in favour of town, race or a particular imam; 7.Inventions for personal motives; 8.Proverbs turned into Ahadith
    • 9. Qur’anic verses refuting fabrication
    • 10. It is stated in Al-Qur’an “When a transgressor(fasiq)comes to you with news, then investigate(its veracity)so that people are not afflicted with adversity due to ignorance and then you regret what you have done”(al-Hujurat,49:6).
    • 11. Another Quranic passage that is quoted in this context is “the one which validates the testimony of two persons for proof of unsubstantiated claims” (al-Baqara, 2:282).
    • 12. At another place it is sated that, “But there, among the men, those who purchase frivolous hadith, without knowledge to mislead (men) from the path of Allah and throw ridicule (on the path).For such there will be a humiliating penalty”. (Surah 31:6)
    • 13.   Narration and transmission of hadith are no less important than testimony and they are both accepted only from upright and trustworthy individuals. Owing to the great sensitivity of this matter, some “ulama” went so far as to say that intentional propagation of lies in the name of hadith amounted to disbelief (kufr) and validated the death punishment for its perpetrator..
    • 14. Prophetic tradition refuting Fabrication Although the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), has in principle encouraged diffusion of the knowledge of his teachings and Sunnah, he has in the meantime warned the believers in such terms: “If any tells a lie about me intentionally, let him be sure of his place in the Hell fire”
    • 15. In another hadith he is reported to have said: “If anyone speaks of a hadith in my name while knowing that I have not said it, he is a liar” These and similar other warnings influenced the companions and subsequent generations of Muslims to exercise caution in the transmission of hadith.
    • 16. EARLY EFFORTS TO SEPARATE FABRICATED TRADITIONS METHODS OF DETECTION OF FABRICATION
    • 17. Kamali in his book “a text book of hadith studies “ discusses the methods used by the scholars to identify forged isnads. He also outlines how forgery can be detected in the text of a hadith. He lists seven factors:  The use of crude language since the Prophet was known for his eloquence.  Irrational language, for example "the arc of Noah circumambulated the Kaaba seven times and then prayed to units of Salah at the end" is evidently unreasonable.  Statements which stand in clear opposition to the Quran. For example "The offspring of zina [unlawful sexual relations] shall not enter Paradise down to seven generations" was rejected by the Prophet’s widow Aisha since it violates the clear text of the Quran that "no soul shall carry the burden of another soul" in Quran 6:164.  Where the text is a historical anachronism.
    • 18.  5. Where the hadith shows scholastic fanaticism.  6. Where the hadith is supposed to have been known to large numbers of people but only one person has actually reported it. For example the so-called hadith that "Anyone who touches his sexual organ must take a fresh ablution." If this were true, the entire Ummah would have known it and have practiced it; as that is not the case, is likely to be a forgery.  7. They hadith which promises disproportionate rewards or excessive punishments for a small act that clearly does not warrant the stipulated consequences. Kamali gives the example of "the report ‘anyone who says "there is no God but Allah", Allah will create for him a bird with 70,000 tongues each of which speaks 70,000 languages and all will be praying for him."
    • 19. MEANS OF ELIMINATING FABRICATION
    • 20. • Examining the character of the narrator. In order to be considered reliable, Hadith transmitters must possess personal integrity and must be able to provide flawless isnads for their hadiths. • Making a textual comparison. This method was applied to make cross comparisons between the hadiths, for example, comparing the hadiths of different students of the same scholar.
    • 21.  Comparing the statements of a single scholar at different times. This method of criticism was applied to check whether the transmitter added something to the hadith or if it remained the same as he transmitted it before.  Comparing written documents with a hadith transmitted from memory. According to the Hadith scholars (muhaddithun), the information gained from books is more authentic and accurate than what is based on one’s memory.
    • 22. Comparing the hadith with related verses of the Qur’an and other hadiths. Another factor is if the hadith contradicted the Quran, in such a way that there was no way to reconcile it interpretation. For example the fabricated hadith “the offspring of zina will not enter paradise for 7 generations” contradicts the verse “no soul shall carry the burden of another soul
    • 23. Scholar’s contribution Muslim scholars took this attempt at falsification as a challenge, and their services in this regard may be classified into six categories: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Development of the sanad system in the Prophetic traditions. Campaigning for Hadith narration only from most reliable sources. Investigations of the reporters of hadith. Biographical dictionaries about the reporters. Compilation of works on genuine tradition of the prophet. Compilation of works containing unreliable and fabricated traditions.
    • 24. EARLY LITERATURE ON FABRICATED HADITHS (AL-MAWDU ‘AT)
    • 25. Traditions fabricated in the name of the Prophet should have been discarded centuries ago, yet they were not. Instead and despite labeling them as such, Hadith scholars memorized and transferred them to the next generation with a clear message that they were lies attributed to the Prophet. Later generations of scholars preserved them with a view to reminding future scholars and students of what had been fabricated, how and by whom. These compilations are few in number,
    • 26. The most famous among existing compilations are: 1. Al-Mawdu ‘at by Abu Said Muhammad ibn Ali alAsfahani (d.414 AH). 2. Tadhkirah al-Mawdu’at by Muhammad ibn Tahir al-Maqdisi (d.507 AH). 3. Al-Abatil by Abu Abd Allah al-Husayn ibn Ibrahim al-Juzqani (d.543 AH).also known as Al-Mawdu`at min Al-Ahadith Al-Marfu`at . 4. Al-Asrar al-Marfu’ah fi al-Ahadith al-Mawdu’ah by Nur al-Din Mulla ‘Ali al-Qari (d.1014 AH). 5. Al-Fawa’id al-Majmuah fi al-Ahadith al-Mawduah by Muhammad ibn Ali al-Shawkani (d.1250 AH). 6. Ahadith Al-Qussas by Ibn Taymiyyah
    • 27. Efforts to eliminate doubts upon the collection of fabricated Ahadith  Al-Hafiz Abu'l-Faraj, Abd al-Rahman Ibn al-Jawzi’s (d.597H) book entitled Al-Mawdu’at Al-Kubra is a renowned work on forgeries, which became the focus of attention of several follow-up works.  Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti(d.911) wrote a follow-up on this entitled Al-Ta’ aqqubat al -Mawdu’at, and also a summary of Ibn al-Jawzi’s book bearing the title Al-La’ali al-Masnu’a fil-Ahadith al-Mawdu’a.  Many have noted, however, that al-Jawzi all too readily classified even good ahadith as forgeries.  Abu Hafs Umar b. Badr al-Musali’s(d.622)Al-Mughni’an al-Hafz wa’l-Kitab isolated themes and chapters that had become liable to forgery, and Abu’lFadl Muhammad Ibn Tahir al-Maqdisi’s(d.507)Tadhkirat al-Mawdu’at identified ahadith narrated by liars and discredited individuals and their abundant works.
    • 28. DOUBTS RAISED ON AL –MAWDU AT BY IBN AL JAWZI:
    • 29.  Al-Jawzi’s classification of recorded traditions as fabricated has been based not on analysis of text but examination of chain only, although all the traditions compiled in this work could easily have been rejected merely on this basis of text alone, without having to look at the position of the chain. Despite this, the book’s headings speak volumes of Ibn al Jawzi’s inclination towards authentication of tradition form a textual angle, although he remains short of declaring any tradition in his work to be fabricated in terms of textual analysis.
    • 30. Ibn al Jawzi has classified the traditions mentioned in the authentic collections of hadith, including al Bukhari and Muslim, into six categories: (1)Those traditions, which are unanimously authentic. (2)Those tradions which are authentic but have only been recorded by al – Bukhari or Muslim. (3) Those traditions which are claimed to be authentic but neither al Bukhari nor Muslim have recorded them. (4) Those traditions which are weak in nature. (5) Those traditions which are extremely weak (6)And those traditions which are nothing but lies fabricated in the name of the Prophet.
    • 31. Doubts raised by Mustafa Azami:  Methology of usul-al-hadith has not been accurately observed in work of Abu’l- Faraj ibn alJawzi (597 H) entitled Al-Mawdu’at ,  Mustafa al Siba’i who recorded this information added that subsequent Scholars especially Ibn- eHajar Asqalani (d.825H) and jalal al-Din Suyuti (d.911)followed up Ibn al-Jawzi’s work and although they disagreed with it in some respects, they nevertheless endorsed most of the Ibn –e- Al Jawzi’s conclusions on the Presence of Weak Hadith in the Standard collections
    • 32. METHOD TO ELIMINATE THESE DOUBTS
    • 33. Efforts of Ibn al –Qayyim: Ibn al –Qayyim (d.751AH) was the first to categorically construct some level of criteria for authenticating Hadith through analysis of text. Those criteria developed by him are: (1) The hadith must not contradict the Qur’an, (2) The hadith should not go against highly authentic ahadith, (3) The hadith should not negate true observation, (4) The hadith should not describe reward and punishment in a disproportion ate manner, (5) The hadith should not contain an unsound statement, and (6) The hadith should not praise or condemn illogically any place, person, profession, or thing.
    • 34. Ibn al Qayyim’s book al-Manar al Munif fi al Sahih wa al Da if , contains fifty sections under each of which he records traditions declaring them to be unreliable in terms of both the chin and the text. The total number of traditions recorded is three hundred and forty seven.
    • 35. Efforts of Misfir Gurm Allah al Dumanyi: al Dumanyi is the first scholar to have a comprehensive book “ Maqaysis Naqd Mutun Al_Sunnah “on the importance of hadith analysis from a textual perspective. His work was originally a doctorate thesis submitted to and approved by Umm al –Qura University, Makkah .It is comprised of an introduction and three chapters. The three chapters, entitled 1. Criteria of textual examination of the Sunnah by the Companions, 2. Criteria of textual examination of the Sunnah by Hadith Scholars 3. Criteria of textual examination of the Sunnah by Jurists.
    • 36. In Third chapter while exploring the approach of Muslim jurists to Hadith texts, Al- Dumayni identifies seven criteria (1) Quran , (2) the Sunnah , (3) consensus of Ummah (4) practices of companions (5) logical analogy , (6) general principals , (7) and the impact of solitary
    • 37. Refined books of collection of fabricated Hadith: 1. Ad-Durar Al-Masnu`at fi Al-Ahadith Al-Mawdu`at by Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Salim As-Saffarini 2. Tahdhir Al-Khawas min Akadhib Al-Qussas by As-Suyuti 3. Al-Mughni `n Al-Hifz wa Al-Kitab by `Umar ibn Badr Al-Mawsili 4. Al-Manar Al-Munif fi 5. Tanzih Ash-Shari`a Al-Marfu`a `an Al-Ahadith AshShani`a al-Mawdu`a by Ibn `Arraq Al-Kinani To these sources one can add the contemporary study of Al-Albani titled Silsilat Al-Ahadith Ad-Da`ifa wa Al-Mawdu`a
    • 38. FABRICATION IN TAFASEER AND FIQH & SCHOLRS CONTRIBUTION IN ELIMINATION Engr. Sumera khalid
    • 39.  renowned works of fiqh such as the Hadaya of Almarghinani →Al-Hafiz Jamal al-Din ‘Abd Allah al Zayla’i’s (d 762) book entitled Nasb al – Raya fi Tarhrij Ahadith al Hidaya.  Ibn e Hajar al Asqalani (d 852) wrote a similar work on Sharh al-Rafi bearing the title Talkhis al-Habir fi Takhrij Ahadith Sharah al Rafi’ al-Kabir,in which he also supplemented Al-Rafi’s reference to the hadith and ascertained its reliability and accuracy or otherwise of isnad .  al-Zayla’i also authored Takhrij al ahadith wa’l-Athar al Waqi’ a fi Tafsir al-Kashshaf lil- Zamakhshari on Zamakshari ‘s tafsir al-Kashshaf.  Hafiz Zayn al- Din Al Iraqi wrote a compendium on Abu hamid Al Ghazali’s Ihya, ‘ulum-al-Din.
    • 40. EFFORT OF CONTEMPORARY SCHOLAR YUSUF AL-QARADAWI regarding the weak hadith in the standard collections and his proposal for the compilation of three encyclopedia’s on hadith: • A comprehensive encyclopaedia on the narrators and their biographies. • The text of all hadith available from the beginning down to the latter third of the fifth century AH including all of their chains of transmission. • The Sahih and Hasan hadith derived from the second encyclopaedia using the biographical information and hadith methodology, with a comprehensive index.
    • 41. Summary • The contemporary scholars put their efforts towards the textual evaluation of the traditions and set different criterion. • As for textual examination of the Hadith, the most prominent works are Ibn al- Qayyim’s and Al – Dumayni’s. • the methodology that the ulama’ of the hadith have developed for the authentication of the hadith is basically adequate , although new methods of research , documentation and classification that are now available due to better facilities could be utilized to great advantage.
    • 42. QUESTIONS? JAZAKALLAH