Culture , Race, and Gender           PMHN
Culture and Race Culture bound syndrome   Preferentially displayed in particular socio-cultural contexts   Given cultur...
 Culture bound syndrome examples    Spell-commnication with dead persons or spirits (Southern US)    Anorexia-nervosa- ...
 Therapies for culture bound syndromes   Culture specific and ethno-related   Bio-medical models usually ineffective  ...
Gender Identity Disorders Children   Symptoms of wanting to be the other sex are evident before    age 3   Sex ratio of...
 Adolescents and adults    Desire to be of the other sex    Do not identify as homosexual, gay, or lesbian    Desire t...
Intersex Conditions Congenital viralization adrenal hyperplasia   Overproduction of androgens in a female-trypically rai...
   Kleinfeler’s syndrome- extra X chromosome XXY causes      gynecomastia and small testes- resultant dysphoric mood Red...
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Unit3 culture,gender,raceonline2

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Unit3 culture,gender,raceonline2

  1. 1. Culture , Race, and Gender PMHN
  2. 2. Culture and Race Culture bound syndrome  Preferentially displayed in particular socio-cultural contexts  Given culturally sanctioned contexts  Have culturally specific remedies  Examples  Ataque de nervios-uncontrollable shouting trembling, crying and dissociative experiences (Latin Carribean )  Falling out-sudden collapse accompanied by dizziness and complaints of being unable to see, closely resembles hysterical conversion (Southern United States)  Mal de ojo-fitful sleep, crying, diarrhea, vomiting and fever
  3. 3.  Culture bound syndrome examples  Spell-commnication with dead persons or spirits (Southern US)  Anorexia-nervosa- refusal to eat, fear of being fat, altered body image, lanugo, amennorhea (US, South America, and Europe)  Susto- unhappiness and sickness following a frightening event which caused the soul to leave the body (Latinos)  Koro- fear that the penis in men and nipples and vluva in women will disappear into the body (South and East Asia)  Latah- echopraxia, echolalia, and command obedience folllowing a frightening event (Malaysia)  Postpartum depression-crying, irritability, poor concentration from one year to two years following giving birth (US)
  4. 4.  Therapies for culture bound syndromes  Culture specific and ethno-related  Bio-medical models usually ineffective  Need knowledge of the patient’s explanatory model of illness  (What does patient think caused the illness?)  Need knowledge of the patient’s explanatory model of cure  (How does patient think the illness can be cured?)  Cognitive behavioral therapy can help.
  5. 5. Gender Identity Disorders Children  Symptoms of wanting to be the other sex are evident before age 3  Sex ratio of referred children under the age of 12 is 4 to 5 boys for 1 girl  Girls insist they have a penis, refuse to urinate in a sitting position, have an avid interest in playing with male companions and in rough and tumble sports  Boys enjoy wearing female clothes, are disgusted by their genitalia and believe they will grow up to be women.
  6. 6.  Adolescents and adults  Desire to be of the other sex  Do not identify as homosexual, gay, or lesbian  Desire to have treatment to change to sex  Uncomfortable wearing clothes of their assigned sex  Dysphoria with sexual condition
  7. 7. Intersex Conditions Congenital viralization adrenal hyperplasia  Overproduction of androgens in a female-trypically raised as boys-many have gender identity disorder Androgen insensitivity syndrome XY karyotype-tissue unable to use testosterone- raised as girls but have undeveloped testes-usually sense themselves as female Turner’s syndrome- missing a Y sex chromosome karyotype X female genitalia but require exogenous estrogen to develop secondary sex characteristics
  8. 8.  Kleinfeler’s syndrome- extra X chromosome XXY causes gynecomastia and small testes- resultant dysphoric mood Reductase deficiency  Male appears female at birth and does not viralize until puberty-gender confusion results Hermaphrodism and pseudohermaphrodism-  Presence of both sex genitalia or ambiguous genitalia

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