Nur tradtional 2012 fall history and what is nursingl 06 03 2012
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Nur tradtional 2012 fall history and what is nursingl 06 03 2012 Nur tradtional 2012 fall history and what is nursingl 06 03 2012 Presentation Transcript

  • What is Nursing? Rosemary F. Hall, PhD, RN, MSN, BSNUniversity of Miami School of Nursing & Health Studies
  • What Are Your Thoughts? Concepts of Nursing Art, Science and Evidenced-Based Practice History A Profession Theories Hands on Nursing Care: Being There Making a Difference: To Attain , Maintain, or Recover Optimal Health and Quality of Life with Individuals, Families, and Communities
  • Nursing: The Beginning Florence Nightingale – Crimean War 1854-1856 – Notes on Nursing: What It Is and What It is Not (1959) – St. Thomas’s Hospital in London (1860)  First training school for nurses would become the models for nursing education in the United States
  • Nursing: The Beginning American Civil War 1861-1873 – No professional nurses were available, Sisters of Charity responded to the need. – President Lincoln responded to the need by establishing the United States Sanitary Commission and appointing Dorothea L. Dix
  • Nursing: The Beginning A substitute for professional training, Doreatha Dix focused on the criteria of good health, high moral standards, and a matronly, “plain” appearance as qualifications for service. Trained one month before being sent to care for the wounded. The American Red Cross (Clara Barton) Military hospital reform
  • Nursing: The Beginning First training schools established in 1873 – Bellevue Training School for Nurses in New York City – Connecticut Training School for Nurses in New Haven – Boston Training School for Nurses at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston
  • Nursing: The Beginning American nursing’s first professional organization, the American society of superintendents of Training Schools for nurses, was founded in 1893. This organization became the National League for Nursing Education (1912) and then the National League for Nursing (1952).
  • Nursing: The Beginning Henry Street Settlement (1890s) – Rise of public health nursing – Growing acceptance of nurses The initiation of state licensure in 1903 herald standardization of nursing education programs.
  • Nursing: The Beginning World War I and the influenza epidemic of 1917-1919 created a strong demand for nursing services. Many schools of nursing were opened in response, mostly in hospitals. 1920: Provision of military rank for nurse
  • Nursing: The Beginning The Great Depression and World War II created new opportunities for nurses. The Cadet Nurse Corps was formed to respond to the need, which added 120,000 new registered nurses to the profession by the end of the war.
  • Nursing: The Beginning Since World War II, hospitals expansion, technological advances, social changes have created new and progressively autonomous roles for nurses, especially advanced practice nurses.
  • Nursing ConceptualModels Dorothea Orem: Self-care: determination of the patient’s ability to provide effective self- care Image King: Theory of Goal Attainment: interaction with the patient, setting patient goals; utilizing nursing process Sister Callista Roy: Adaptation Model: adaptation of the patient and environment
  • Professionalism Defined educational requirements: accreditation of Nursing Programs Knowledge, skills, and expertise obtained from higher education Standards of Practice: American Nurses Association Professional Organization Scope of Practice and Code of Ethics Requirement: Professional Licensing exam to practice Nursing
  • Nursing in the Society: Past & Present
  • Nursing in the Society: Past & Present Socialization: “The process where by values/expectations are transmitted generation to generation” (Chitty, 2005, 64) Learning gender roles Stereotypes Gender role stereotypes
  • Men in Nursing History of men in nursing Men in nursing Enter nursing for similar reasons Benefits of men in nursing – Changes socialized role of the “female nurse” – Learning from men Recruiting men into nursing
  • Societal Factors Impacting Nursing Media – Impact both consumers & nurses Technology – Machines, equipment, computer Violence – Towards women – In the workplace Nursing shortage – Internal causes – External causes
  • A Calling A Vocation A Commitment Making a Difference Dedication Compassion
  • Summary Nursing Is a Notable Profession: Science and an Art, foundation from Florence Nightingale to Evidenced-based Practice Nursing As A Profession: Responded to Wars, Poverty, Epidemics, and Various Social Changes Nursing Shortage: Continues: aging of the population and nurses retiring Diversity in the Profession: Men in Nursing Initiatives to Provide Stable Supply of Registered Nurses: American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation; Johnson and Johnson Campaign for Nursing’s Future