Biological theory of psychiatric illness
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Biological theory of psychiatric illness

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Biological theory of psychiatric illness Biological theory of psychiatric illness Presentation Transcript

  • NUR 448
    • Biological Basis for Understanding Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing
  • Functions of the Brain
    • Monitor external world
    • Monitor composition of body fluids
    • Regulate skeletal muscle contractions
    • Regulate internal organs
    • Initiate/regulate basic drives
    • Conscious sensation
    • Memory
    • Mood
    • Thought
    • Regulate sleep cycle
    • Language
    Menu F B
  • 3-3 Activities of neurons (Fig. 3-2) Menu F B
  • Brain Imaging Techniques
    • Computed Tomography (CT)
      • 3D images using computed x-rays
      • Detects:
      • - Lesions
      • - Infarcts
      • - Aneurysms
      • - Cortical atrophy
      • - Ventricular enlargement
    Menu F B
  • Brain Imaging Techniques, cont.
    • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
      • 3D visualization using a magnetic field and computed radio waves emitted by cells
      • Detects:
      • - Edema
      • - Ischemia
      • - Infection
      • - Neoplasia
      • - Trauma
      • - Enlarged ventricles
    Menu F B
  • Brain Imaging Techniques, cont.
    • Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
      • Injected radioactive tracer travels to brain, concentrates in areas of high activity
      • Scanned images are relayed to a computer for 3D images
    • Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPET)
      • Technique similar to PET but uses radio nuclides emitting gamma radiation
      • Detects oxygen utilization, glucose metabolism, blood flow, neurotransmitter-receptor interaction
    Menu F B
  • 3-7 PET scan: Schizophrenia (Fig. 3-5) From Karen Berman, MD, courtesy of National Institute of Mental Health, Clinical Brain Disorders Branch. Menu F B
  • 3-8 PET scan: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (Fig. 3-6) From Lewis Baxter, MD, University of Alabama, courtesy of National Institute of Mental Health. Menu F B Normal Control Obsessive Compulsive
  • 3-9 PET scan: Depression (Fig. 3-7) From Mark George, MD, courtesy of National Institute of Mental Health Biological Psychiatry Branch. Menu F B
  • 3-10 PET scan: Alzheimer ’ s (Fig. 3-8) Courtesy of PET Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, University of Iowa Hospital Clinics, Iowa City. Menu F B
  • 3-11 Neurotransmitter deficiency (Fig. 3-9) Menu F B
  • Neurotransmitter excess
    • 3-12
    (Fig. 3-10) Menu F B
  • Neurotransmitters and Mental Health
    • Dopamine
      • Increase: schizophrenia, mania
      • Decrease: depression, Parkinson ’ s Disease
    • Norepinephrine
      • Increase: mania, anxiety states, schizophrenia
      • Decrease: depression
    • Serotonin
      • Increase: anxiety states
      • Decrease: depression
    Menu F B
  • Neurotransmitters and Mental Health, cont.
    • GABA
      • Increase: reduced anxiety
      • Decrease: anxiety disorders, schizophrenia
    • Acetylcholine
      • Increase: depression
      • Decrease: Parkinson ’ s disease, Alzheimer ’ s disease, Huntington ’ s chorea
    • Histamine
      • Decrease: depression
    Menu F B
  • Antipsychotics: Untoward Effects
    • Dopamine Blockage
      • Movement changes
      • - Parkinsonian
      • - Akinesia
      • - Akathisia
      • - Tardive dyskinesia
      • Decreased prolactin
    Menu F B
  • Antipsychotics: Untoward Effects, cont.
    • Muscarinic Blockage
      • Blurred Vision
      • Dry mouth
      • Constipation
      • Urinary difficulty
    • Alpha 1 Antagonism
      • Orthostatic hypotension
      • Ejaculatory failure
    Menu F B
  • 3-17 Antidepressants: Possible effects of receptor binding (Fig. 3-11) Menu F B
  • 3-18 Actions of Benzodiazepines (Fig. 3-13) Menu F B
  • 3-19 Action of Buspirone (Fig. 3-14) Menu B