Biological theory of psychiatric illness


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Biological theory of psychiatric illness

  1. 1. NUR 448 <ul><li>Biological Basis for Understanding Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing </li></ul>
  2. 2. Functions of the Brain <ul><li>Monitor external world </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor composition of body fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate skeletal muscle contractions </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate internal organs </li></ul><ul><li>Initiate/regulate basic drives </li></ul><ul><li>Conscious sensation </li></ul><ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Mood </li></ul><ul><li>Thought </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate sleep cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul>Menu F B
  3. 3. 3-3 Activities of neurons (Fig. 3-2) Menu F B
  4. 4. Brain Imaging Techniques <ul><li>Computed Tomography (CT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3D images using computed x-rays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detects: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Lesions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Infarcts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Aneurysms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Cortical atrophy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Ventricular enlargement </li></ul></ul>Menu F B
  5. 5. Brain Imaging Techniques, cont. <ul><li>Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3D visualization using a magnetic field and computed radio waves emitted by cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detects: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Edema </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Ischemia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Neoplasia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Trauma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Enlarged ventricles </li></ul></ul>Menu F B
  6. 6. Brain Imaging Techniques, cont. <ul><li>Positron Emission Tomography (PET) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Injected radioactive tracer travels to brain, concentrates in areas of high activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scanned images are relayed to a computer for 3D images </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPET) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technique similar to PET but uses radio nuclides emitting gamma radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detects oxygen utilization, glucose metabolism, blood flow, neurotransmitter-receptor interaction </li></ul></ul>Menu F B
  7. 7. 3-7 PET scan: Schizophrenia (Fig. 3-5) From Karen Berman, MD, courtesy of National Institute of Mental Health, Clinical Brain Disorders Branch. Menu F B
  8. 8. 3-8 PET scan: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (Fig. 3-6) From Lewis Baxter, MD, University of Alabama, courtesy of National Institute of Mental Health. Menu F B Normal Control Obsessive Compulsive
  9. 9. 3-9 PET scan: Depression (Fig. 3-7) From Mark George, MD, courtesy of National Institute of Mental Health Biological Psychiatry Branch. Menu F B
  10. 10. 3-10 PET scan: Alzheimer ’ s (Fig. 3-8) Courtesy of PET Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, University of Iowa Hospital Clinics, Iowa City. Menu F B
  11. 11. 3-11 Neurotransmitter deficiency (Fig. 3-9) Menu F B
  12. 12. Neurotransmitter excess <ul><li>3-12 </li></ul>(Fig. 3-10) Menu F B
  13. 13. Neurotransmitters and Mental Health <ul><li>Dopamine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase: schizophrenia, mania </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease: depression, Parkinson ’ s Disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Norepinephrine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase: mania, anxiety states, schizophrenia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease: depression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Serotonin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase: anxiety states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease: depression </li></ul></ul>Menu F B
  14. 14. Neurotransmitters and Mental Health, cont. <ul><li>GABA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase: reduced anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease: anxiety disorders, schizophrenia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acetylcholine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase: depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease: Parkinson ’ s disease, Alzheimer ’ s disease, Huntington ’ s chorea </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Histamine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease: depression </li></ul></ul>Menu F B
  15. 15. Antipsychotics: Untoward Effects <ul><li>Dopamine Blockage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Parkinsonian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Akinesia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Akathisia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Tardive dyskinesia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased prolactin </li></ul></ul>Menu F B
  16. 16. Antipsychotics: Untoward Effects, cont. <ul><li>Muscarinic Blockage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blurred Vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constipation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urinary difficulty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alpha 1 Antagonism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orthostatic hypotension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ejaculatory failure </li></ul></ul>Menu F B
  17. 17. 3-17 Antidepressants: Possible effects of receptor binding (Fig. 3-11) Menu F B
  18. 18. 3-18 Actions of Benzodiazepines (Fig. 3-13) Menu F B
  19. 19. 3-19 Action of Buspirone (Fig. 3-14) Menu B
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