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Willoughby D. Miller (1853-1907), Scientific Pioneer of Dentistry
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Willoughby D. Miller (1853-1907), Scientific Pioneer of Dentistry

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WD Miller, a graduate of the University of Michigan and later student of R. Koch, is significant in the annals of history as the person who discovered the role of microorganisms in the mouth as a ...

WD Miller, a graduate of the University of Michigan and later student of R. Koch, is significant in the annals of history as the person who discovered the role of microorganisms in the mouth as a contributing cause of caries (dental cavities, or tooth decay). This slide presentation is made available in partial celebration of the 100th anniversary of his death. Revisions and related materials will be made available shortly.

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Willoughby D. Miller (1853-1907), Scientific Pioneer of Dentistry Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Willoughby D. Miller (1853-1907) Scientific Pioneer of Dentistry A joint presentation by Shannon O’Dell, Curator, Sindecuse Museum & Patricia F. Anderson, Dentistry Library Willoughby Dayton (W. D.) Miller A.B., D.D.S., M.D., Ph.D., Sc.D. © 2007 Regents of the University of Michigan. All rights reserved.
  • 2. W. D. Miller (1853-1907) Scientific Pioneer of Dentistry Shannon O’Dell, Curator, Sindecuse Museum Willoughby Dayton (W. D.) Miller A.B., D.D.S., M.D., Ph.D., Sc.D. © 2007 Regents of the University of Michigan. All rights reserved.
  • 3. Miller Exhibit
  • 4. Front of Exhibit
  • 5. Back of Exhibit
  • 6. Personal Life and Education
    • Born in 1853, Ohio
    • Family background
    • Childhood
    • College
  • 7. Personal Life and Education
    • Europe
    • Why Germany?
    • Post Graduate Education
    • Becoming a dentist
  • 8. Caroline Abbott and Willoughby
    • Love changes everything
    • Dr. Abbott’s decision
    • Off to Pennsylvania
  • 9. Mrs. Willoughby D. Miller
    • Her role in the scientist’s home
  • 10. Miller at University of Berlin
  • 11. Seminal Publication, 1890
    • Carbohydrate foods mixed with saliva and incubated at 37 ° C generated lactic acid which could decalcify entire crown
    • Identified several bacterial organisms involved in creating acids
    • Different bacteria invaded dentin
    • 18 propositions were posed, most valid today
    • A classic in dental literature and a landmark in dental education.
    • Re-orientated the dental profession from one of treatment to the idea of prevention.
  • 12.  
  • 13. Miller’s career in Germany Cover, Prof. Miller’s notebook, University of Berlin laboratory, ca. 1904 School of Dentistry Collection, Bentley Historical Library
  • 14. Recognition
    • Considered the outstanding scientist of his day
    • Honorary PhD by University of Michigan in 1885
    • Professor Extraordinarius (1894) University of Berlin
    • Honorary Doctor of Science degree by University of Pennsylvania (1902)
    • German Emporer bestowed title of Geheim Medizinalrat (Privy medical Councilor)(1906)
    • Elected to honorary membership to more than 40 dental societies
  • 15. UM College of Dental Surgery & Dr. Miller
    • Dr. Taft retires, 1900
    • Dr. Hoff’s role
    • Visits faculty here
    • The shocking news
  • 16. His impact
    • Preventative Dentistry  new subfields
    • Hygiene Program
    • Scientific basis for developing lifelong cleanliness
    • New products
  • 17. Memorials
    • University of Michigan, School of Dentistry, 1940 Sculptures by Samuel Cashwan
    • University of Pennsylvania, School of Dental Medicine, 1981 The W.D. Miller Clinical Research Center (CRC) was established to develop a program that would foster interdisciplinary clinical research.
    • Ohio State Dental Society commissions 8 foot high sculpture of Miller completed in 1915. It now resides near the Dental campus, Ohio State University
  • 18. Sculptures by Samuel Cashwan
  • 19. Ohio Memorials
    • Campus of Ohio State University
    • Commissioned by Ohio State Dental Society
    • Dedicated in 1915
    • Artist: F. C. Hibbard
  • 20. Marker in Alexandria, OH
  • 21. Laid to rest
    • Willoughby D. Miller is buried in Alexandria, OH in 1907.
    • Caroline moved to Middletown, CT with her two daughters, to be closer to her mother. She lived there until she dies in 1949, never remarrying.
    • Kathrin (Miller) Cady, eldest daughter, died in 1909 after suffering some time with heart trouble. Her son was age 2.
    • Amy Miller, youngest daughter died of polio in 1910 while a senior in high school.
    • WD Miller’s eldest son, Dr. John W. Miller, was still living in Germany in 1949.
    • Grandson Willoughby Miller Cady was born in 1907. He becomes a physicist like his father and dies in 1953.
  • 22. W.D. Miller: The Impact of His Research Patricia F. Anderson December 5, 2007 [email_address] © 2007 Regents of the University of Michigan. All rights reserved.
  • 23. Research during Miller’s Life
  • 24. Miller’s Basic Research Laboratory Specifications
    • Image of Miller’s microscope. Text from his book.
    • For one hundred and twenty-five dollars a laboratory may be furnished with about all the apparatus necessary … but not the microscope.
  • 25. Miller’s Basic Research Laboratory
    • Pipette
    • Test tubes
    • Bottles of various sizes for holding preparations
    • Bottles with ground stoppers for staining materials
    • Wash-bottle
    • Object- & cover-glasses
    • A few hollow object-glasses for drop-cultures
    • Various-sized porcelain evaporating dishes
    • Two platinum needles
    • Brushes
    • Spatula
    • Filter, filter paper
    • Cotton, wire baskets for culture-tubes
    • Scissors
    • Pincers
  • 26. Miller’s Basic Research Laboratory
    • Microscope, magnification of 200-300 diameters
    • Oil-immersion lens
    • Incubator, zinc or copper
    • Hot-air sterilized
    • Steam sterilizer
    • Spiral burner
    • Thermo regulator
    • Microtome with freezing arrangement
    • Two gas burners
    • Two dozen glass plates and benches
    • Six damp chambers
    • Leveling apparatus for pouring cultures
    • Pair of scales (0.1-20.0 grams)
    • Water-bath
    • One dozen small glass dishes and watch-glasses
    • One dozen Petri-sche Schalen
    • Measuring-glass
  • 27. Laboratory Accoutrements of the Age
  • 28. Miller’s Most Significant Research
    • Microorganisms of the Mouth, 1889
      • Cited over 200 times in past 50 years
  • 29.
    • Selected images from Microorganisms of the Mouth
      • Actinomyces
      • Rasen von Bacillus maximus buccalis
      • Data table
  • 30. The Human Mouth as a Focus of Infection
    • Cited over 20 times in past 50 years
    • Selected images
      • Bacillus buccalis septicus. From the blood of a mouse. Methyl violet 1000:1.
      • Bacillus buccalis septicus. Pure culture on gelatine, one day old. Methyl violet. 1000:1.
  • 31. Experiments and observations on the wasting of tooth tissue …
  • 32.
    • Cited over 100 times in past 50 years
    • Selected images
      • Cupping of gold filling … produced by friction of brush ad powder
      • Shortening of the teeth … produced by immoderate use of brush and powder.
      • Excessive action of brush and power on tooth tissue compared with gold filling
  • 33. Miller’s Research in His Own Life
    • “”He is greedy of but one thing, and that is work. There are not enough hours in the day for his labor, and he borrows much of the night.”
  • 34. Problem
    • 1. Microorganisms grow in the mouth
    • 2. These cause dental decay
    • 3. How do you prevent dental decay?
    • 4. Kill the microorganisms
    • 5. How to best kill the microorganisms?
  • 35. Solution
    • A mouthwash made from a Colorado Claro cigar proves very effective at killing bacteria
    • Surprising to us, but logical at the time
    • Miller used this distillation himself with no observed ill effects
  • 36. Miller, Giant Killer
    • That “Giant Killer,” our own Miller,
    • Pursuing the germ to his lair,
    • Has driven the picket from the thicket
    • and laid his hiding-place bare.
    • And the the "Lactic," which our old tactics
    • Did so disastrously ignore,
    • Were so dammed in with germs jammed in,
    • Only ruin wrought the more.
    • Signs of acidity we scan with avidity,
    • And follow to their sources.
    • Our lines we lengthen and doubly strengthen,
    • to defend the vital forces.
    • O ye untactical, so called practical,
    • That see nothing beyond the sight,
    • Proof of existence is in persistence --
    • The undefeated still will fight!
  • 37. Impact of Miller’s Research Then
    • Antisepsis: Borolyptol
    • “ Most human mouths are veritable ‘Septic Nurseries’ … “
    • “ Formaldehyde and the balsams is the ideal mouth bath”
  • 38. Miller’s Last Year of Research
    • From the Index of Dental Literature
  • 39. International Miller Prize
    • Awarded by the F édération Dentaire Internationale (FDI, World Dental Federation)
    • The first medal was awarded in 1910 to GV Black of Chicago by Dr. Florestan Aguilar for Dr. Black’s contributions to international dental research.
    • 2nd awarded in 1912 to Charles Godon of Paris
  • 40. The Willoughby D. Miller Memorial
    • “ To be Unveiled in Columbus, Ohio. at the next Meeting of The Ohio State Dental Society, At Columbus in December, 1915”
  • 41. Impact of Miller’s Research Now
    • THEN: Caries treatment and management
      • NOW: Prevention, antiseptic, dental prophylaxis (hint, hint - dental hygiene?)
    • THEN: Focal infection theory
      • NOW: Relationship between periodontal health and systemic diseases
    • THEN: Saliva as a research fluid
      • NOW: Salivary diagnostics
  • 42. Examples of Recent Articles Citing Miller’s Works
  • 43. Most Cited Years for Miller
    • Since 1950
  • 44. Journals Citing Miller Most Frequently
  • 45. W. D. Miller