Jonathan Taft

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A brief introduction to the role of Dr. Jonathan Taft in the development and evolution of professional ethics in American dentistry.

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Jonathan Taft

  1. 1. Jonathan Taft: Father of American Dental Professional Ethics P. F. Anderson Dentistry Library, University of Michigan, September 18, 2002
  2. 2. Jonathan Taft <ul><li>“ He labored to make this a leading school for training men to the highest ideals of professional culture, that through its alumni professional standards might be upheld and public service of the highest grade secured.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted October 23rd, 1903, by the Faculty of the College of Dental Surgery of the University of Michigan. Dental Register 57 (1903):586-587. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Jonathan Taft: Early Career <ul><li>1820-1903. </li></ul><ul><li>1848: 1st professional paper. </li></ul><ul><li>1850: Graduated from Ohio College of Dental Surgery. </li></ul><ul><li>1854: Professor at same. </li></ul><ul><li>1856-1900: Editor, Dental Register . </li></ul><ul><li>1858: Dean of same. </li></ul><ul><li>1859: 1st edition of Taft’s Operative Dentistry . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Jonathan Taft: “Power of Association” <ul><li>1868-69: President, ADA. </li></ul><ul><li>1883: Founded the National Association of Dental Examiners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elected 1st President. Re-elected 1884, 1885, & 1886. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1884: Organized the National Association of Dental Faculty (now ADEA). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President, 1899-900. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1887: 1st President, International Medical Congress, Section XVIII: Dental and Oral Surgery. </li></ul><ul><li>1892: Chairman, AMA, Section of Oral and Dental Surgery. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Jonathan Taft at UM <ul><li>1875: 1st Dean of the School of Dentistry. </li></ul><ul><li>1877: Inducted into Michigan Dental Association. </li></ul><ul><li>1881: Doctor of Medicine (Honorary), UM. </li></ul><ul><li>1891: School’s 1st independent quarters. </li></ul><ul><li>1900?: Succeeds in having curriculum extended to 4 years. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Jonathan Taft: Testimonials <ul><li>“ We are called upon to record the death of Dr. Jonathan Taft, one of the pioneers of our profession and one who has done as much if not more for the upbuilding and advancement of dentistry than any other one man. His service to his profession was not alone in educational and literary work, but also in the influence of his personal character.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Passing of a Great Man. Dental Digest 9 (1903):1287-1290. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Jonathan Taft: Testimonials <ul><li>“ Several of his professional associates have suggested that the profession should erect over his grave a suitable monument which should help to perpetuate his name. This would be a very happy and fitting memorial; but whether it shall be done or not his life has made an impression that will probably outlive any monument of stone.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hoff, Neville S. &quot;Jonathan Taft, D.D.S., M.D.&quot; Dental Register (Nov. 15, 1903) 57(11):541-546. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Jonathan Taft: Testimonials <ul><li>“ WHEREAS, by the death of our honored and esteemed colleague and leader, Dr. Jonathan Taft, the faculty of the College of Dental Surgery of the University of Michigan feels that it has been sorely bereaved in a personal as well as an official manner. … He was ever ready to make needed sacrifice of time and talent for his beloved profession, and especially for the school of dental education, to which he gave so many years of valuable service.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted October 23rd, 1903, by the Faculty of the College of Dental Surgery of the University of Michigan. Dental Register 57 (1903):586-587. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Jonathan Taft: Stories: Women Dentists 1 <ul><li>Lucy Beaman Hobbs Taylor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graduated 1866, Ohio College of Dental Surgery 1st Woman DDS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ida Gray </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graduated 1890, UM, 1st African American Woman DDS </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Jonathan Taft: Stories: Women Dentists 2 <ul><li>“ Women can accomplish good work, and I have observed they are always above men in their class. This is accounted for in that she is self-reliant. Women know they will meet opposition, and prepare for it; they determine to succeed. Many men are not first-class in every respect: it is a common opinion that it is easy to prepare for dentistry, and so these men who know they are not fitted for something else, enter the study of dentistry, expecting but little work and talent will be required. Women do not think so, and for that reason are eminently successful. Women go immediately into good positions, and will be a means of elevating the profession.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taft, J. &quot;Women as Dentists in Perfect Propriety.&quot; Dental Items of Interest 12 (1890):38. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Jonathan Taft: Stories: Murder <ul><li>1870: The Robinson/Lunsford murder case </li></ul><ul><li>“ In the morning, there being no signs of life about Mrs.Lunsford's room, an entrance was effected, and she was found lying diagonally across the bed in her night-clothes, with her throat cut, and other cuts and bruises on different parts of her body. Her arm was also bitten in several places, the prints of the teeth being plainly visible.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>History of Richland County , Ch. 37, p. 372. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>[*** evidence presented, 1st bitemark evidence in US judicial history] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taft, J. Editorial: Dental Jurisprudence. Dental Register XXIV 1870:457-459. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Jonathan Taft: Stories: Quacks and Dentistry <ul><li>“ The quack seeks to cast the vail [sic] of mystery over every thing connected with his profession; this he does, that he may keep others in ignorance, that they may not ‘measure his shoal water;’ but chiefly, that he may practice deception and fraud upon them.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taft, J. &quot;The Dental Profession – the Past and Future.&quot; Dental Register 6 (1853):119-129. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Once, it was esteemed a mere trade or mechanical occupation. It now stands side by side with other honorable, scientific, and responsible professions. Once, it was almost wholly, in the hands of ignorance, charlatancy, and knavery; now it can boast of men – in its foremost ranks – of learning, science, and sterling integrity.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taft, J. &quot;The Dental Profession – the Past and Future.&quot; Dental Register 6 (1853):119-129. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Jonathan Taft: Stories: Quacks and Cows <ul><li>Teaching space for the School was initially shared with the Homeopathy Department. </li></ul><ul><li>One interaction between the Schools involved a cow in a second floor classroom left waiting for the dental students, having been dosed by a student of “Materia Medica.” </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Taft had strong feelings about the situation, publishing an article calling for the resignation of the University’s faculty of Homeopathy on the grounds that they were quacks. ( Dental Register 30 1876: 272-274). </li></ul>
  14. 14. Jonathan Taft: Stories: Personal <ul><li>“ Through his personal efforts a mission enterprise for mountain whites in the mountains of Kentucky was organized several years ago which has become an influence for good in all that part of the State. In many other ways he has shown his interest in the general welfare of the poor and helpless. He took a deep interest in political matters, while never personally engaged in active politics he supported men always who stood for high moral principles.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hoff, Neville. “Jonathan Taft, D.D.S., M.D.” Dental Register LVII(11) November 15, 1903:541-546. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Jonathan Taft: Stories: Personal <ul><li>“ He took great interest in benevolent work of various kinds. He was an earnest member of the Congregational Church for many years, and served his church in many official relations. He was superintendent of the Vine Street Congregational Church Sabbath-school for twenty-five years. He was Registrar of Miami Conference for about thirty years. He was Assistant Superintendent of the great Bethel Sunday-School in Cincinnati, and a member of its Board of Directors for many years.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hoff, Neville. “Jonathan Taft, D.D.S., M.D.” Dental Register LVII(11) November 15, 1903:541-546. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Jonathan Taft: Ethics in the Profession <ul><li>Member of committees which drafted original ethical codes (MI, OH) </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards of professional conduct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duties of the professional dentist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standards of professional dental education </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Jonathan Taft: Ethics in the Profession: Papers 1 <ul><li>1858: Dental Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>1859: Professional Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>1860: The Province of the Dentist </li></ul><ul><li>1861: Diversities in Dental Practice </li></ul><ul><li>1862: The Wants of the Dental Profession </li></ul><ul><li>1862: Dental Fees </li></ul><ul><li>1862: Influence of the Times Upon the Dental Profession </li></ul><ul><li>1864: Demands of the Age Upon Our Profession </li></ul><ul><li>1864: Dental Education </li></ul><ul><li>1879: Dental Education and Etiquette </li></ul>
  18. 18. Jonathan Taft: Ethics in the Profession: Papers 2 <ul><li>1880: Tobacco Among Dentists </li></ul><ul><li>1883: Of Dental Colleges </li></ul><ul><li>1884: Danger -- Carelessness </li></ul><ul><li>1885: Dental Societies </li></ul><ul><li>1887: Factors and Forces in the Development of Dentistry </li></ul><ul><li>1892: Personal Cleanliness </li></ul><ul><li>1893: Progress and Needs in Dentistry </li></ul><ul><li>1895: Present Needs in Dentistry </li></ul><ul><li>1897: The Dentist’s Duty </li></ul><ul><li>1898: The Influence and Power of Association </li></ul><ul><li>1902: The Power of Association </li></ul>
  19. 19. Taft: Case Study: Land 1a <ul><li>The Great Land Debate ... </li></ul>
  20. 20. Taft: Case Study: Land 1b <ul><li>Yesterday afternoon, Dr. J.A. Robinson, of Jackson, presiding officer of the State dental association, read a paper on &quot;Art in Dentistry,&quot; in which he objected to the radical reading of the code of ethics in reference to advertising on the part of dentists. This brought on a discussion, in which some of the university dental professors became very personal and scored Dr. C.H. Land, of Detroit, unmercifully. Dr. Land had violated the section of the state dental association's constitution, which says: &quot;It is unprofessional to resort to public advertisements,&quot; etc. Dr. Land in reply said that as he thought he had made some valuable additions to the science of dentistry it was right to advertise them, even if such action was opposed to the dental code of ethics . </li></ul>
  21. 21. Taft: Case Study: Land 1c <ul><li>This morning the question of the violation of the ethics in reference to Dr. Land came up again. The report of the board of directors in reference to the matter was that Dr. Land be expelled from the association for his &quot;antagonism to the code and his persistent violation of the same. Dr. Dorrance, of the university, moved that the report be accepted and adopted.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Much wrangling followed. Dr. Land made a speech in defense of his action and presented this resolution: &quot;That the Michigan dental association, by their aims, purposes and acts, do invoke the aid of the very medium they so denounce -- the public press - - as an instrument of punishment, to publish the fact that one of their number has been branded as a quack , cheat, etc.” </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Land added: &quot;I request of the society that if this charge is to be sustained, to manifest it by a direct vote, so that it will be specific.&quot; </li></ul>
  22. 22. Taft: Case Study: Land 1d <ul><li>Drs. Taft and Dorrance were bitter in their attacks on Land. Dr. Taft, however, said he did not regard Land as a quack, but that he had violated the principles of the association. Dr. Dorrance said the action would be taken simply as a matter of discipline but he considered that Land was not a quack. Dr. Land said he wished his name to be stricken from the list and would be sorry if it was not. Dr. Metcalf moved to amend the report by referring the matter again to the board of directors, and to cite Land before them. Land objected, and Dr. Douglas moved to amend Dr. Metcalf's amendment so that Dr. Land's name be stricken from the roll, at Dr. Land's request, which was carried. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Land then bid the society good-bye and left. Land has evidently many friends in the convention and much heated argument followed. -- Detroit Evening Journal. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Taft: Case Study: Land 2 <ul><li>INVITATION. </li></ul><ul><li>International Medical Congress, Washington, 1887. </li></ul><ul><li>Section of Dental and Oral Surgery, Chillicothe, Ohio, March, 1887. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. C.H. Land, Detroit, Mich.: </li></ul><ul><li>Dear Sir: -- I herewith advise you that the Council of the Section of Dental and Oral Surgery of the Ninth International Medical Congress, to be held at Washington, D.C., September 5th. 1887, have suggested your name to its Executive Committee as one of those who should receive a special invitation to become a member of the Congress and take part in its proceedings. </li></ul><ul><li>Please inform me by enclosed postal card if such an invitation will be accepted by you. </li></ul><ul><li>F.H. Rehwinkel, Secretary Section XVII. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Taft: Case Study: Land 3 <ul><li>DISQUALIFICATION. </li></ul><ul><li>Section of Dental and Oral Surgery. </li></ul><ul><li>J. Taft, M.D., D.D.S., President, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.A. </li></ul><ul><li>Chillicothe, Ohio, USA, July 13, 1887. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. C.H. Land, Detroit Mich.: </li></ul><ul><li>Dear Sir: -- Dr. Taft, the President of Section 17, I.M. Congress, directs me to say to you that the enclosed advertisement disqualifies you to become a member of the Congress, such advertisement being a violation of the code of Ethics. </li></ul><ul><li>This, however, will not shut you out from exhibiting your furnace or demonstrating your work -- occupying the same position as other exhibitors do. </li></ul><ul><li>Very truly yours, F.H. Rehwinkel, Secretary Section XVII. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Taft: Case Study: Land 4 <ul><li>RESPECTFULLY DECLINED. </li></ul><ul><li>Detroit, Mich., July 15th, 1887. Dr. F.H. Rehwinkel. </li></ul><ul><li>Dear Sir: -- Referring to your favor of the 13th, I understand that the primary motive of the Code of Ethics is to prevent quackery, cheating, misrepresenting the truth, etc., and if I felt guilty of such proceedings your President's decision would be justified. On the contrary, if I am to infer that your Code of Ethics is so arbitrary as to prevent me from making a judicious use of the public press or any other legitimate way of disseminating the truth to the public, then my only resource will be to observe the rules of our profession as non-republican in spirit, and adverse to the best interests of progressive men. I regret exceedingly that such a fine line should be drawn in my case.Under the circumstances you cannot consistently expect me to take part in any of your sections or proceedings. </li></ul><ul><li>Yours truly, C.H. Land. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Taft: Case Study: Land: Discussion Questions <ul><li>Who was right, Taft or Land, and why? </li></ul><ul><li>What seemed to be Land's point of view? </li></ul><ul><li>What seemed to be the point of view held by Taft and Dorrance? </li></ul>
  27. 27. Taft: Case Study: Land: Michigan Code of Ethics <ul><li>[*** find original code text and date] </li></ul>
  28. 28. Taft: Case Study: Land: Code of Ethics: Discussion <ul><li>Code of Ethics says what? </li></ul><ul><li>Land did what? </li></ul><ul><li>How should the profession respond? </li></ul>
  29. 29. Taft: Case Study: Land: Money & Professionalism <ul><li>[*** quote from Taft re. money as the root of failure of professional concern for the patient] </li></ul>
  30. 30. Taft: Case Study: Land: Money & Professionalism <ul><li>[*** quote from business literature re. money as the root of failure of professionalism, courtesy of Kathleen Brennan] </li></ul>
  31. 31. Jonathan Taft: Finale <ul><li>“ He labored to make this a leading school for training men to the highest ideals of professional culture, that through its alumni professional standards might be upheld and public service of the highest grade secured. His personal efforts have ceased forever, but his spirit remains to complete the work he designed.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted October 23rd, 1903, by the Faculty of the College of Dental Surgery of the University of Michigan. Dental Register 57 (1903):586-587. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Jonathan Taft <ul><li>1820-1903 </li></ul><ul><li>“ His genial greeting and hearty handshake were a benediction. His friends were legion and his enemies few, if any. He was well called the Grand Old Man of Dentistry .” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Passing of a Great Man. Dental Digest 9 (1903): 1287-1290. </li></ul></ul>

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