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Impact of industrial toxins in Patacheru by Dr. Kishan Rao

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Presentation on adverse impacts of Pharma pollution in Patancheru of Hyderabad

Presentation on adverse impacts of Pharma pollution in Patancheru of Hyderabad

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  • 1. IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL TOXINS Presented by Dr. A. Kishan Rao, MBBS President, PAPC Patancheru, Medak District – 502319
  • 2. IntroductionNature is beautiful, but fragile and vulnerable. Nature can survivewithout human being, but without nature human being cannot.Every unit of this nature. Whether it is plant or animal,compliments each other and live in harmony and maintainequilibrium, except human being, who is intelligent thinkshimself as Buddiman. As long as he was nearer to nature, he washealthy, happy and was master of the nature. Human body cansustain certain amount of pollution and recover back tonormality, but if exceeds man becomes sick. We have only one planet to live in, let us save it
  • 3. Patancheru a HELL
  • 4. IMPACT OF POLLUTIONDegradation of Land & Loss of CropsLoss of CattleSocio Economic ImpactDeterioration of Health
  • 5. How Pollution is Created ?
  • 6. SEMIOTICS OF WASTE PRODUCTION HIGH CONSUMPTION EXCRETION DISOWN NUANCE WASTETHROWN IN TO ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
  • 7. Isnapur Cheru
  • 8. Kazipalli Industrial Toxins entering into Gandi Cheru
  • 9. Impact on Water Bodies
  • 10. Asani Kunta, Bollaram
  • 11. Kazipalli Industrial Effluents entering into Kazi Cheru
  • 12. Solid Waste Dumping at Pashamailaram
  • 13. A.P. Met. Lagoons
  • 14. Nakka Vagu, Patancheru
  • 15. Solid Waste Dumping at Kazipally
  • 16. Polluted Open Well
  • 17. IMPACT OF WASTE WATER DISCHARGE INCREASE OF SALINITY ACIDIC WATER HIGH TDS EFFLUENT ORGANIC BEARING WASTE INCREASE OF DECREASE OF DISSOLVED SALINITYACIDIFICATION OF OXYGEN IN SURFACE CHERU WATER DIVOID OF LIFE RELEASE OF WASTE WATER STATUS OF IMPACT ON CHERUS
  • 18. INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT DISCHARGE DISCHARGE PERCOLATIONSURFACE WATER GROUND WATER SOIL SURFACE RUN-OFF INFILTRATION NAKKAVAGU CHERU MANJIRA GODAVARI RIVER IMPACT OF WASTE WATER DISCHARGE
  • 19. Map Showing Cherus
  • 20. Polluted Lakes / DrainsKhazipally Cheruvu Bollaram near Sultanpur villageGandigudam cheruvu Isakavaagu drain U/s CETPNaguial cheruvu Isakavaagu D/s outfall nearKrishna reddypeta Pocharam cheruvu Isakavaagu at bridgeMukta kunta cheruvu Nakkavagu at bachuguda afterAminpur cheruvu confluence with PamlaBolaram cheruvu vaghuKhazipalli village Nakavagu at bridge cheruvu Manjeera U/s NakavaguSaka cheruvu confluenceMutangl cheruvu Manjeera D/s NakavaguIsnapur cheruvu confluenceChitkul cheruvu Nakavagu before ManjeeraLakdaram cheruvu confluence
  • 21. LIST OF VILLAGES EFFECTED BY INDUSTRIAL POLLUTIONS.No Name Industrial area 1 Gandigudam Bollaram 2 Sultanpur Bollaram 3 Kistareddlpeta Bollaram 4 Patancheru Patancheru 5 Pocharam - DO - 6 Ganapathigudanam - DO - 7 Lakadaram - DO - 8 Byathde - DO - 9 Aratla - DO - 10 Chiduruppa - DO - 11 Ismailkhanpet - DO - 12 Inole - DO - 13 Bacchuguda - DO - 14 Padakanjalla - DO - 15 Kazipalli Village Kazipalli
  • 22. Crop of Shri Mallareddy of Bachugudem before Industrialisation
  • 23. Effects on Crops
  • 24. Effluents entering into Agricultural Fields
  • 25. Brinjal Crop of Mallaiah, Pocharam
  • 26. Crop of Rahimuddin, Peddakanjarla
  • 27. Effluents in the Agricultural Field
  • 28. Paddy Crop at Sultanpur, 2004
  • 29. Socio Economic Impacts
  • 30. CULTIVABLE LAND DECREASED Change in the Size of Land Holdings among the Households Size of Land in Acres Before Now Frequency % Frequency %No Land 16 17.6 19 20.8Upto 1 Acre 41 45.0 41 45.01.1 to 2 Acre 12 13.2 14 15.42.1 to 3.0 Acre 9 9.9 6 6.63.1 to 4.0 Acre 5 5.5 4 4.44.1 to 5.0 Acre 3 3.3 4 4.45.1 + 5 5.5 3 3.3Total 91 100.0 91 100.0 Source: Department of Sociology, Hyderabad University
  • 31. Changes in the yield per Acre of Land among the Household Yield per Acre Before Now F % F %Below 10 Bags 16 21.3 48 6711-20 28 37.7 22 30.621-30 27 36 1 1.331-40 2 2.6 - -40 + 1 1.3 - -No Yield 1 1.3 1 1.3Total 75 100.0 72 100.0 1 Bag = 75 Kgs. F = Families Source: Department of Sociology, Hyderabad University
  • 32. Entry of Toxins into Food Cycle
  • 33. TOXIC CONTAMINATION Wide Range of Industrial including Pesticide Units, Bulk Irrigating soil with Drug Industries, etc polluted water has resulted SOIL Mercaptans, Particulate in toxins entering the soil AIR Matter, Chlorine and and thereby the food cycle other bulk intermediaries, Hydrogen SulphidePOLLUTION COCKTAIL OF POISONS HEALTH LIVESTOCK Community has been exposed to a Alarming number of Livestock cocktail of poisons for 20 years. deaths. Humans dependent on the Health complaints reported from produce public – still born and neo-natal deaths, respiratory disorders, cancers, paraplegia…. Underground Water High Lakes and the streams – Bore well abnormally concentrations of heavy High concentrations of high levels of metals, chemicals, phenols, heavy metals and toxic BOD/TDS / COD and pesticides, were found in chemicals. Toxic chemicals the Patancheru Mandal WATER CHEMICALS OUT OF CONTROL
  • 34. Symptoms of Toxicity by Body System Body system SymptomsCentral Nervous System Cognitive problems, poor memory, numbness in the extremitiesImmune System Frequent colds, night sweats, sudden onset of allergiesGastrointestinal System Bloating, pain, diarrhea, belching, unpleasant smelling gasMusculoskeletal System Paresthesia (numbness or tingling), pain, weakness, fatigueSensory Vertigo, extreme sensitivity to odorsSkin Hives, eczema, itching
  • 35. Common Health Problems and Their Toxic TriggersDisease Trigger Disease TriggerAlzheimer’s Aluminum, lead Autoimmune Disease MercuryDisease Pesticides Metals Silicone breast implantsMetals Formaldehyde Chemicals Nutritional deficienciesChemicals Wheat, dairy products, yeast, and FoodsAllergies any other foods that cause negative Behavior Disorders Food intolerance, sugar intolerance,Chemicals reactions Foods sensitivity to food dyesFoods Smoking Colitis Any foods that cause allergicLifestyle habits Lead poisoning reactions FoodsAnemia Any foods that cause negative Pesticides, radiation, low-frequency CancerMetals reactions, electromagnetic fields Chemicals Nutrient deficiencies Overconsumption of meats cookedFoods Alcohol on a charcoal fire Foods Lead Smoking , alcoholLifestyle habits Lifestyle habitsAngina Any foods that cause allergic Cataracts reactions Over consumption of sugar Industrial pollutants, steroidsMetals Chemicals and unhealthy fatsFoods Antioxidant-deficient diet Foods Smoking Lifestyle habitsArthritis Coffee, chocolate, any foods that ColicFoods Lead cause Metals Any foods that cause negative Allergic reactions FoodsLifestyle habits reactions Smoking Coronary ArteryAsthma Lead DiseasesMetals Lead, cadmium Reaction to chemical odors and air MetalsChemicals Air pollution pollution Chemicals Alcohol, fried foods, excessive Milk products, any foods that cause Foods
  • 36. Continued……..Disease Trigger Disease TriggerDiabetes Allergic reactions to diary products Liver DisordersFoods gluten sensitivity Lifestyle habits AlcoholChronic Fatigue Macular DegenerationSyndrome Lead, mercury (impaired vision due toMetals Pesticides deterioration of the centralChemicals Any foods that cause negative portion of the retina) SmokingFoods reactions Lifestyle habitsLifestyle habits Overwork, persistent worry Multiple Sclerosis MercuryInfertility Metals Industrial pollutantsMetals Mercury Chemicals Any foods that causeChemicals Pesticides Foods allergic reactionsFibronmyalgiaChemicals Pesticides Parkinson’s Disease PesticidesFractures Chemicals SmokingChemicals Fluoride (causes “brittle bone Lifestyle habits syndrome”)HeadachesMetals Mercury Any foods that cause negativeFoods reactionsHigh CholesterolMetals Cadmium, leadFoods Caffeine, fried foodsLifestyle habits AlcoholHypertension Lead, cadmium, mercuryMetalsKidney Disease
  • 37. Water Samples (Bollaram) Source: N.G.R.I. Report of December, 1998. (Concentration in ppb)Be 0.72 0.72 0.72 1.16 0.34 0.4 0.95 0.29B 500 386 1116.5 1245 525.5 291 968 1384V 36.8 25.1 16.07 57.32 15.03 9.4 48.2 29Cr 3.77 6.31 7.43 1019 19.59 2.7 4.59 4.16Mn 226.1 181.0 212.4 4351 85.83 19.85 21.12 24.4Fe 130.6 118.4 94.5 3186 185.0 48.49 107.41 112.3Co 2.58 2.94 2.25 138.16 3.88 0.62 1.24 0.80Ni 518.1 489 361.1 1424 404.9 4.25 7.18 6.07Cu 30.25 24.81 117.1 638.9 158.3 10.77 20.73 47.53Zn 215.87 68.51 138.9 536.4 158.9 26.7 17.75 21.32As 22.88 58.76 57.6 99.14 26.67 47.47 8.58 20.63Se 19.91 22.53 26.95 34.8 37.63 5.57 12.09 16.71Sr 718.5 673.6 428.3 2599 844.1 248.6 128.7 459.0Mo 1.58 1.19 1.06 1.95 1.57 0.98 1.77 2.93Ag 8.29 10.72 13.51 16.75 9.46 4.54 2.75 2.85Cd 1.89 2.72 4.03 2.01 2.60 1.03 0.31 1.03Sb 0.64 2.30 2.16 0.54 0.44 1.94 0.59 0.44Ba 94.97 107.2 87.02 197.1 103.7 48.01 22.46 38.2Tl 0.09 0.06 0.06 0.13 0.05 0.03 0.04 0.02Pb 0.39 0.56 0.41 1.38 0.27 1.58 0.15 0.30Bi 0.10 0.16 0.06 0.27 0.05 0.07 0.05 0.02Th -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --U -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
  • 38. Soil Samples (Bollaram) Source: N.G.R.I. Report of December, 1998. (Concentration in ppm)Be 3.80 3.24 2.40 2.10 1.32 1.16 1.25B 138.4 130.0 215 8.11 8.65 99.43 100.5V 15.69 22.37 31.2 24.27 31.59 22.65 23.0Cr 113.92 175 306.7 106.2 40.11 121 105.5Mn 0.02 0.07 0.34 0.03 0.20 0.02 0.01Fe 2.71 2.60 3.06 4.88 2.49 1.45 1.55Co 4.88 5.33 35.67 9.97 13.06 3.34 34.56Ni 32.16 41.41 213.2 14.41 13.79 21.92 14.51Cu 29.39 44.68 512.5 68.00 7.94 48.07 51.25Zn 47.98 47.24 115.1 102.12 61.91 25.36 112.5As 0.79 1.63 2.84 0.78 1.21 1.43 2.14Se 0.06 0.06 0.08 0.02 0.02 0.07 0.02Sr 79.64 250.1 296.2 87.4 85.8 93.58 87.4Mo 6.84 8.97 97.44 2.72 1.52 6.15 98.5Ag 0.06 0.18 0.05 206.4 57.04 0.07 0.05Cd 0.42 0.46 0.53 216.1 111.9 0.79 0.79Sb 0.74 0.91 4.53 0.11 0.10 0.84 0.21Ba 308.8 412 270 333.0 610.2 292.2 415Tl -- -- -- 0.99 0.8 -- --Pb -- -- -- 121.9 107.8 -- --Bi 5.60 5.24 4.86 0.03 0.03 5.09 4.81Th 17.53 19.19 11.04 58.89 28.64 6.86 17.5U 2.43 4.74 2.58 7.51 3.85 1.54 16.5
  • 39. Blood Samples Analysis of Dayara Village Al As Cd Cr Cu Fe Hg Mn Ni Pb Sb Se ZnJ. Laxmamma Nf Nf Nf Nf 2.63 4.28 Nf 0.25 0.045 Nf Nf 0.241 3.62Abdul Rahim Nf Nf Nf Nf 0.522 3.50 Nf 0.149 0.030 Nf Nf Nf 2.04Y. Pochamma Nf 0.644 Nf Nf 2.079 3.85 Nf 0.209 0.046 Nf Nf Nf 2.0Baby K.Praveen Kumar Nf 0.320 Nf Nf 3.98 6.04 0.909 0.324 0.122 0.005 Nf Nf 2.66Y. Chinna Shankaraiah Nf 0.798 Nf Nf 2.07 3.44 Nf 0.100 0.041 Nf Nf 0.160 1.00 9D. Satyanarayana 0.354 0.472 Nf Nf 4.65 28.63 Nf 0.423 0.468 Nf Nf Nf 2.78K. Pentaiah 0.467 0.320 Nf 0.120 3.95 35.01 0.909 0.411 0.480 0.143 Nf Nf 1.09S.P. Ballaiah 0.415 1.40 Nf 0.089 7.24 24.9 Nf 0.523 0.421 0.023 Nf 0.751 3.58S. Yellaiah Nf 0.014 Nf Nf 2.81 6.60 Nf 0.096 0.110 1.27 Nf Nf 2.36Smt. D. Mallamma Nf 0.798 Nf Nf 2.47 3.31 Nf 0.309 0.046 Nf Nf 0.321 0.96Smt. Veeramma Nf 0.323 Nf Nf 3.42 4.38 Nf 0.083 0.051 0.111 Nf 0.160 2.96Smt. Bhagyamma Nf 1.40 Nf Nf 3.66 5.85 Nf 0.652 0.079 Nf Nf Nf 1.83Smt. S. Laxmamma Nf 0.928 Nf Nf 3.56 3.65 0.454 0.138 0.046 Nf Nf Nf 3.33Smt. K. Laxmamma Nf 0.793 Nf Nf 3.38 4.25 Nf 0.315 0.079 Nf Nf Nf 2.36Smt. B. Ramulamma Nf 0.641 Nf Nf 1.88 4.55 Nf 0.164 0.043 Nf Nf Nf 1.71Buffalo Milk – I Nf 0.311 Nf Nf 0.704 26.76 Nf 0.021 0.498 Nf Nf Nf 1.61Buffalo Milk – II Nf 0.541 Nf Nf 0.991 25.82 Nf 0.066 0.436 Nf Nf 0.120 1.91Dr. CSK (Control Sample) Nf 0.025 Nf Nf Nf 0.620 Nf Nf Nf Nf Nf Nf Nf Note: All Values are in ppm Source: Analyzed at I.I.C.T., Hyderabad
  • 40. Source : Ref Nos.: 18, 25, 26 Concentration of arsenic in different samplesS.N Sample Normal Control Our Datao range1 Soil (mg/kg) 5.0-7.5 0.11-0.31 0.87-12.82 Ground water 0.5-0.9 0.03-0.09 0.14-7.35 (mg/kg)3 Surface water 0.1-0.4 BDL 0.08-8.96 (mg/kg)4 Forage Grass 0.02-0.16 0.02-0.06 0.33-11.3 (mg/kg)5 Vegetables (mg/kg) 0.01-1.1 0.01-0.04 0.09-0.396 Milk (mg/L) NA BDL 0.02-0.297 Blood (mg/L) 0.03-0.20 0.006-0.01 0.4-1.48 Urine (mg/L) 0.02-0.05 0.006-0.01 0.06-0.169 Hair (mg/kg) 0.08-0.25 0.01-0.13 0.3-0.9410 Nail (mg/kg) 0.43-1.08 0.10-0.16 0.5-1.63
  • 41. Lakes effected by Industrial Pollution
  • 42. Effluents entering into Gandi Cheru
  • 43. A.P. Met Lagoons near Asani Kunta
  • 44. Polluted Gandi Cheru
  • 45. Effect on Cattle
  • 46. Death of Cattle
  • 47. Death of Cattle Worth Rs. 8,000/- (Only Source of Livlihood)
  • 48. Plenty of water for Live stock but toxic
  • 49. Loss of Cattle Village Shee OX Goat She- He-Buffalo Others Total p BuffaloPocharam -- 15 -- 21 -- 1 37Inole -- 8 -- 16 -- 1 25Chitkul -- 1 -- 3 -- -- 4Pedda 24 16 28 121 1 2 192KanjarlaSulthanpur -- 22 -- 48 6 2 78Erdanoor 555 49 239 96 3 41 983Lakdaram -- -- -- 4 -- -- 4 Grand Total 1323 Survey done in the year 1998 by P.A.P.C
  • 50. Effects on Human Health
  • 51. Neoflorises at Erraram Village
  • 52. Spinal Congenital Deformaty
  • 53. Skin Changes due to Arsenic
  • 54. Protruding Stomach tumor
  • 55. Epidemiological Survey Done by Green Peace in the year, 2004revealed alarming state of Health in Patancheru Area
  • 56. A population of 22 lakh lives under the threat of an unfoldingBhopal in slow motion. Primarily red-category industries inclusiveof pesticide manufacturing units, pharmaceuticals, chemicalindustries contaminate surface and groundwater with high levelsof heavy metals like arsenic, strontium, barium…. and residualpesticides like aldrin and endosulphan
  • 57. Illustration of Disease Occurrence potentially due to Pollution Disease Condition Relative Rate of Occurrence (in %)Epilepsy 247.49Paralysis 349.40Heart Disease 355.56Bronchitis 473.15Asthma 401.81Allergic Dermatitis 283.89Arthritis 311.36Skin Diseases 253.31Recurring Headaches 653.14High Blood Pressure 193.80 Source: Green Peace India Health Report
  • 58. MaleEpilepsy 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 study 0.6 control 0.4 0.2 0 1-5 years 6-12 13-19 20-35 36-60 61+ years years years years years Female Source: Green Peace India Health Report 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 study 0.3 control 0.2 0.1 0 1-5 years 6-12 13-19 20-35 36-60 61+ years years years years years
  • 59. Allergic MaleDermatitis 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 study 0.8 control 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 1-5 years 6-12 13-19 20-35 36-60 61+ years years years years years Female Source: Green Peace India Health Report 1.2 1 0.8 study 0.6 control 0.4 0.2 0 1-5 years 6-12 13-19 20-35 36-60 61+ years years years years years
  • 60. Skin MaleDiseases 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 study 0.6 control 0.4 0.2 0 1-5 years 6-12 13-19 20-35 36-60 61+ years years years years years Female Source: Green Peace India Health Report 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 study 0.6 control 0.4 0.2 0 1-5 years 6-12 13-19 20-35 36-60 61+ years years years years years
  • 61. Recurring MaleHeadaches 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 study 2 control 1.5 1 0.5 0 1-5 years 6-12 13-19 20-35 36-60 61+ years years years years years Source: Green Peace India Health Report Female 8 7 6 5 study 4 control 3 2 1 0 1-5 years 6-12 13-19 20-35 36-60 61+ years years years years years
  • 62. High Blood MalePressure 3.5 3 2.5 2 study 1.5 control 1 0.5 0 1-5 years 6-12 13-19 20-35 36-60 61+ years years years years years Female 4.5 Source: Green Peace India Health 4 3.5 3 2.5 study 2 control 1.5 1 0.5 0 1-5 years 6-12 13-19 20-35 36-60 61+ years years years years years
  • 63. Neoplasms Male 61+ years 36-60 years 20-35 years control 13-19 years study 6-12 years 1-5 years 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 Female Source: Green Peace India Health Report 61+ years 36-60 years 20-35 years control 13-19 years study 6-12 years 1-5 years 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3
  • 64. MaleDisease of Bloodand Blood 61+ yearsforming organs 36-60 years 20-35 years control 13-19 years study 6-12 years 1-5 years 0 2 4 6 8 10 Source: Green Peace India Health Report Female 61+ years 36-60 years 20-35 years control 13-19 years study 6-12 years 1-5 years 0 2 4 6 8 10
  • 65. Endocrine, MaleNutritional andMetabolic Diseases 61+ years 36-60 years 20-35 years control 13-19 years study 6-12 years 1-5 years 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Female Source: Green Peace India Health Report 61+ years 36-60 years 20-35 years control 13-19 years study 6-12 years 1-5 years 0 1 2 3 4 5
  • 66. Diseases of the MaleNervous System 61+ years 36-60 years 20-35 years control 13-19 years study 6-12 years 1-5 years 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Female Source: Green Peace India Health Report 61+ years 36-60 years 20-35 years control 13-19 years study 6-12 years 1-5 years 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
  • 67. Diseases of the MaleCirculatory 61+ yearsSystem 36-60 years 20-35 years control 13-19 years study 6-12 years 1-5 years 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Female Source: Green Peace India Health Report 61+ years 36-60 years 20-35 years control 13-19 years study 6-12 years 1-5 years 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
  • 68. MaleDiseases of theRespiratory 61+ yearsSystem 36-60 years 20-35 years control 13-19 years study 6-12 years 1-5 years 0 5 10 15 20 25 Female 61+ years Source: Green Peace India Health 36-60 years 20-35 years control 13-19 years study 6-12 years 1-5 years 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • 69. Diseases of the MaleDigestive System 61+ years 36-60 years 20-35 years control 13-19 years study 6-12 years 1-5 years 0 1 2 3 4 Female Source: Green Peace India Health Report 61+ years 36-60 years 20-35 years control 13-19 years study 6-12 years 1-5 years 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
  • 70. MaleDiseases of theSkin and 61+ yearsSubcutaneousTissues 36-60 years 20-35 years control 13-19 years study 6-12 years 1-5 years 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Source: Green Peace India Health Report Female 61+ years 36-60 years 20-35 years control 13-19 years study 6-12 years 1-5 years 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
  • 71. MaleDiseases of theMusculoskeletal 61+ yearssystem andConnective Tissue 36-60 years 20-35 years control 13-19 years study 6-12 years 1-5 years 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Source: Green Peace India Health Report Female 61+ years 36-60 years 20-35 years control 13-19 years study 6-12 years 1-5 years 0 20 40 60 80 100
  • 72. A child of washer woman-undeveloped eyeballs (Anophthalmia) [No eyeballs at birth]
  • 73. BLOOD SAMPLE OF MAMATA AND HER PARENTS FROM INOLE VILLAGE NAME ARSENIC MAMATA 0.0012 mg/KgSWAROOPA 0.02 mg/KgPENTAIAH 0.06 mg/Kg BLOOD SAMPLE OF MAMATA AND HER PARENTS FROM INOLE VILLAGE ARSENIC 0.11 mg/Kg
  • 74. STOLEN FUTUREIn the light of these facts, not only coming generation, but evertheir conception seems to be faced with uncertain future. Apolluted environment can actually take away the basic instinctfor mating. Studies have revealed that exposure to high levels ofmetals like lead and manganese reduces sexual urge in menand causes impotency by interfering with male reproductivesystem. A study revealed reduction of sperm count. On inevery six couples has trouble in conceiving. There is anincrease in cancer testese.
  • 75. CONCLUSIONEconomy and health are not two separate entities. Healthdepends on economy of an individual or a family, economydepends on environment. In the race of economic development,we forgot human factor, brought much more misery not only tothe present generation, but to the future generations too.
  • 76. Thank ‘Q’