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Bank Management
General Principles
Primary Concerns of the Bank
Manager
• Deposit outflows must match deposit
inflows.
– To keep enough cash on hand, the ban...
Primary Concerns of the Bank
Manager
• Funds must be acquired at low cost.
– To increase profits by acquiring funds at low...
Liquidity Management
• Financial institutions face liquidity
management problems because the volume
of cash flowing in rar...
Liquidity Management
• Financial institutions are sensitive to
interest rate movements, which affect the
flow of savings t...
Liquidity Management
• Liquidity managers usually meet their
institutions’ cash needs through two
methods:
– Asset managem...
Sources and Uses of Funds
Method
• To estimate the financial institution’s future
liquidity needs, the bank manager could ...
Sources and Uses of Funds
Method: Example
Planning
Interval
Tomorrow
Next Day

Estimated Change in
Funds Sources
+$25 mill...
The Structure of Funds Method
• To estimate the financial institution’s future
liquidity needs, the bank manager could use...
The Structure of Funds Method:
Example
• Some funds received may be “hot money”
that are highly sensitive to changes in
in...
The Structure of Funds Method:
Example

Estimated liquidity need = 0.90 x (“Hot money” funds) + 0.10 x (“Core” funds)
+ Es...
Liquidity Indicators
• Liquidity indicators supply bank managers
with signs that a liquidity problem is
developing. They i...
Liquidity Management and the
Role of Reserves
Assets
Reserves
Loans
Securities

$20
$80
$10

Liabilities
Deposits
Bank Cap...
Liquidity Management and the
Role of Reserves
Assets
Reserves
Loans
Securities

$10
$80
$10

Liabilities
Deposits
Bank Cap...
Liquidity Management and the
Role of Reserves
Assets
Reserves
Loans
Securities

$10
$90
$10

Liabilities
Deposits
Bank Cap...
Liquidity Management and the
Role of Reserves
Assets
Reserves
Loans
Securities

$ 0
$90
$10

Liabilities
Deposits
Bank Cap...
Liquidity Management and the
Role of Reserves
Assets
Reserves
Loans
Securities

$ 9
$90
$10

Liabilities
Deposits
Borrowin...
Liquidity Management and the
Role of Reserves
Assets
Reserves
Loans
Securities

$ 9
$90
$ 1

Liabilities
Deposits

$ 90

B...
Liquidity Management and the
Role of Reserves
Assets
Reserves
Loans
Securities

$ 9
$90
$10

Liabilities
Deposits
Discount...
Liquidity Management and the
Role of Reserves
Assets
Reserves
Loans
Securities

$ 9
$81
$10

Liabilities
Deposits

$ 90

B...
Liquidity Management:
Conclusion
• Excess reserves are insurance against the
costs associated with deposit outflows.
• The...
Bank Management II
General Principles
Asset Management
• To maximize profits, a bank must
simultaneously seek the highest returns
possible on loans and securiti...
Asset Management
• Four basic methods of asset management:
– Find borrowers who will pay high interest rates
and are unlik...
Liability Management
• Today, banks regularly engage in liability
management.
– When a bank finds an attractive loan
oppor...
Raising Funds for a Financial
Institution
• Factors to be considered:
– The relative cost of raising funds from each
sourc...
Relative Cost Factor
• The relative cost factor is important
because, other things remaining the same, a
financial institu...
Pooled-Funds Approach:
Example
Sources of New Funds

Volume of New
Funds Generated

Interest Costs & Other
Expenses

Incur...
Pooled-Funds Approach:
Example
If only $250 of the $300 in funds raised can be used to invest in new loans and
investments...
Capital Adequacy
• Functions of bank capital:
– Help to prevent bank failure
– Affects returns for equity holders
– Requir...
Capital and Bank Failure
High Capital Bank
Assets
Liabilities
Reserves $10
Loans
$90

Deposits $90
Bank K
$10

Low Capital...
Capital and Bank Failure
High Capital Bank
Assets
Liabilities
Reserves $10
Loans
$85

Deposits $90
Bank K
$ 5

Low Capital...
Bank Capital and Returns to
Owners
A basic measure of bank profitability is return on assets = ROA
ROA = Net profit after ...
Bank Capital and Returns to
Owners
Another measure of bank profitability is return on equity = ROE
ROE = Net profit after ...
Bank Capital and Returns to
Owners
There is a direct relationship between the return on assets and the
return on equity. T...
Bank Capital and Returns to
Owners
We can use the ROE formula to examine what happens to the return
on equity when a bank ...
Trade-off between Safety and
Return
• Bank capital reduces the likelihood of
bankruptcy, but it is costly because as bank
...
Bank Capital and Returns to
Owners
Another commonly watched measure of bank performance is called
the net interest margin ...
Bank Capital Requirements
• Basle Agreement
– An agreement among the central banks of
leading industrialized nations, incl...
Basle Agreement
• The Basle Agreement (1998) stipulates that banks
in all participating nations must have a minimum
ratio ...
Basle Agreement: Example

Total risk-weighted assets
on a bank’s balance sheet

=

0 x (Cash and U.S. government securitie...
Basle Agreement
• The Basle Agreement was unique in also
including off-balance sheet commitments that
banks make to their ...
Basle Agreement: Example

Total risk-weighted assets
on and off a bank’s balance
sheet

=

Total risk-weighted
assets on a...
Basle Agreement
• To determine a bank’s total capital, its longermaturity liabilities and its equity are classified into
t...
Basle Agreement
• The Basle Agreement requires each bank in all
participating countries to achieve and hold the
following ...
Basle Agreement
• In the U.S. and selected other countries, a
bank that holds more than the required
minimum amounts of ca...
Off Balance-Sheet Activities
• Loan sales or secondary loan participation
– A contract that sells all or part of the cash
...
Off Balance-Sheet Activities
• Generation of Fee Income
– Banks charge fees for specialized services such
as:
• Making for...
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  1. 1. Bank Management General Principles
  2. 2. Primary Concerns of the Bank Manager • Deposit outflows must match deposit inflows. – To keep enough cash on hand, the bank manager must engage in liquidity management. • Risk levels must be acceptably low. – To keep risk low, the bank manager must engage in asset management by acquiring assets that have a low rate of default and by holding a portfolio that is well diversified.
  3. 3. Primary Concerns of the Bank Manager • Funds must be acquired at low cost. – To increase profits by acquiring funds at low cost, the bank manager engages in liability management. • Capital must meet regulatory standards. – To maintain and acquire capital, the bank manager engages in capital adequacy management.
  4. 4. Liquidity Management • Financial institutions face liquidity management problems because the volume of cash flowing in rarely matches exactly the volume of cash flowing out. • In addition, some liabilities are payable immediately upon demand, resulting in the outflow of cash with little or no notice. And...
  5. 5. Liquidity Management • Financial institutions are sensitive to interest rate movements, which affect the flow of savings they attract from the public and the earnings from the loans and securities they acquire.
  6. 6. Liquidity Management • Liquidity managers usually meet their institutions’ cash needs through two methods: – Asset management or conversion; ie., the selling of selected assets. – Liability management; ie., the borrowing of enough liquidity to cover a financial institution’s cash demands as they arise.
  7. 7. Sources and Uses of Funds Method • To estimate the financial institution’s future liquidity needs, the bank manager could use the sources and uses of funds method. – The institution’s estimated liquidity deficit or surplus equals the estimated change in liquidity sources minus the estimated change in liquidity uses.
  8. 8. Sources and Uses of Funds Method: Example Planning Interval Tomorrow Next Day Estimated Change in Funds Sources +$25 million -$10 million Estimated Change in in Funds Uses +$20 million +$10 million Estimated Surplus/ Deficit +$5 million -$20 million The bank manager could invest the $5 million surplus overnight in order to earn interest income, and then the next day must borrow $20 million from some other institution.
  9. 9. The Structure of Funds Method • To estimate the financial institution’s future liquidity needs, the bank manager could use the structure of funds method. – The institution’s liabilities are divided into categories based on their estimated probability of leaving the institution. Funds are then allocated to cover those liabilities according to the likelihood that they will leave.
  10. 10. The Structure of Funds Method: Example • Some funds received may be “hot money” that are highly sensitive to changes in interest rates. – 90% or more of these funds should be covered with holdings of liquid assets or borrowings. • Other funds are “core” funds that are highly stable. – Only 10% of these funds might be covered 10%.
  11. 11. The Structure of Funds Method: Example Estimated liquidity need = 0.90 x (“Hot money” funds) + 0.10 x (“Core” funds) + Estimated new loan demand from customers = 0.90 x ($60 million) + 0.10 x ($100 million) + $36 million = $100 million The liquidity manager would want to make sure that $100 million was available in some combination of holdings of liquid assets and borrowing capability.
  12. 12. Liquidity Indicators • Liquidity indicators supply bank managers with signs that a liquidity problem is developing. They include: – Ratio of cash to total assets. – Ratio of “hot money” assets to “hot money” liabilities. – Cost of borrowing for liquidity needs relative to the cost other institutions face. – Monitoring the intentions of the bank’s biggest customers.
  13. 13. Liquidity Management and the Role of Reserves Assets Reserves Loans Securities $20 $80 $10 Liabilities Deposits Bank Capital $100 $ 10 Let the bank’s reserve requirement be 10% of deposits or $10. Under these circumstances, an unexpected deposit outflow of $10 presents no problems for the bank. Why?
  14. 14. Liquidity Management and the Role of Reserves Assets Reserves Loans Securities $10 $80 $10 Liabilities Deposits Bank Capital $ 90 $ 10 The bank loses $10 of deposits and $10 of reserves, but since required reserves are now 10% of $90, it still has $1 in excess reserves. If a bank has ample reserves, a deposit outflow does not necessitate changes in other parts of its balance sheet.
  15. 15. Liquidity Management and the Role of Reserves Assets Reserves Loans Securities $10 $90 $10 Liabilities Deposits Bank Capital $100 $ 10 Let the bank’s reserve requirement be 10% of deposits or $10. Under these circumstances, an unexpected deposit outflow of $10 does present a problem for the bank. Why?
  16. 16. Liquidity Management and the Role of Reserves Assets Reserves Loans Securities $ 0 $90 $10 Liabilities Deposits Bank Capital $ 90 $ 10 After the withdrawal of $10 in deposits, the bank needs $9 in reserves, but it has none. To eliminate the shortfall, the bank could sell assets or borrow
  17. 17. Liquidity Management and the Role of Reserves Assets Reserves Loans Securities $ 9 $90 $10 Liabilities Deposits Borrowings Bank Capital $ 90 $ 9 $ 10 If the bank borrows $9 from other banks or corporations, the bank incurs the cost associated with the borrowing.
  18. 18. Liquidity Management and the Role of Reserves Assets Reserves Loans Securities $ 9 $90 $ 1 Liabilities Deposits $ 90 Bank Capital $ 10 If the bank sells securities, the bank incurs the costs associated with the sale. These costs include brokerage and other transactions costs as well as the loss of future income.
  19. 19. Liquidity Management and the Role of Reserves Assets Reserves Loans Securities $ 9 $90 $10 Liabilities Deposits Discount Loan Bank Capital $ 90 $ 9 $ 10 If the bank borrows from the Federal Reserve, it also incurs costs. The bank must pay the discount rate charged on Fed loans, and the bank risks losing its privilege of borrowing from the Fed, if it borrows too often.
  20. 20. Liquidity Management and the Role of Reserves Assets Reserves Loans Securities $ 9 $81 $10 Liabilities Deposits $ 90 Bank Capital $ 10 If the bank calls or sells some loans, the bank incurs the costs associated with the reduction of loans. This is the costliest way of acquiring reserves.
  21. 21. Liquidity Management: Conclusion • Excess reserves are insurance against the costs associated with deposit outflows. • The higher the costs associated with deposit outflows, the more excess reserves banks will want to hold.
  22. 22. Bank Management II General Principles
  23. 23. Asset Management • To maximize profits, a bank must simultaneously seek the highest returns possible on loans and securities, reduce risk, and make adequate provisions for liquidity by holding liquid assets.
  24. 24. Asset Management • Four basic methods of asset management: – Find borrowers who will pay high interest rates and are unlikely to default. – Purchase securities with high returns and low risk. – Lower risk by diversifying. – Manage the liquidity of its assets so that it can satisfy its reserve requirements without incurring large costs.
  25. 25. Liability Management • Today, banks regularly engage in liability management. – When a bank finds an attractive loan opportunity, it can acquire funds by selling negotiable CDs. – If it has a reserve shortfall, it can borrow from other banks in the federal funds markets.
  26. 26. Raising Funds for a Financial Institution • Factors to be considered: – The relative cost of raising funds from each source. – The risk (volatility or dependability) of each fund’s source. – The length of time (maturity) for which a source of funds will be needed. – The size and market access of the financial institution attempting to raise funds. – Laws and regulations that limit access to funds.
  27. 27. Relative Cost Factor • The relative cost factor is important because, other things remaining the same, a financial institution would prefer to borrow from the cheapest sources of funds available. • Also, if an institution is to maintain consistent profitability, its cost of fund raising must be kept below the returns earned on the sales of its services.
  28. 28. Pooled-Funds Approach: Example Sources of New Funds Volume of New Funds Generated Interest Costs & Other Expenses Incurred Deposits Money Market Borrowing Equity Capital $200 $ 50 $ 50 $20 $ 5 $ 5 Total New Funds $300 $30 Estimated overall cost of funds for the institution is: Pooled Fund Raising = All Expected Fund Raising Costs = $30 = 10%
  29. 29. Pooled-Funds Approach: Example If only $250 of the $300 in funds raised can be used to invest in new loans and investments, the estimated overall cost of funds changes. Estimated overall cost of funds for the institution is: Pooled Fund Raising Expense = All Expected Fund Raising Costs Total New Funds = $30 = $250 12% Now the bank must earn at least 12% on its loans and other earning assets just to cover its fund-raising costs. When it could use all the funds raised for loans and other investments, it only needed to earn 10% to cover the fund-raising costs.
  30. 30. Capital Adequacy • Functions of bank capital: – Help to prevent bank failure – Affects returns for equity holders – Required by regulatory authorities
  31. 31. Capital and Bank Failure High Capital Bank Assets Liabilities Reserves $10 Loans $90 Deposits $90 Bank K $10 Low Capital Bank Assets Liabilities Reserves $10 Deposits Loans $90 Bank K $96 $ 4 Assume that both banks write off $5 of their loan portfolio. Total assets decline by $5, and bank capital, which equals assets minus liabilities, also declines by $5.
  32. 32. Capital and Bank Failure High Capital Bank Assets Liabilities Reserves $10 Loans $85 Deposits $90 Bank K $ 5 Low Capital Bank Assets Liabilities Reserves $10 Deposits $96 Loans $85 Bank K - $ 1 After the write-off, the high capital bank still has a positive net worth, but the low capital bank is insolvent. It does not have sufficient assets to pay off its creditors. Regulators will now close the bank and sell its assets. A bank maintains bank capital to lessen the chance that it will become insolvent.
  33. 33. Bank Capital and Returns to Owners A basic measure of bank profitability is return on assets = ROA ROA = Net profit after taxes/assets. This measure provides information on how efficiently a bank is being run because it indicates how much profit is generated on average by each dollar of assets.
  34. 34. Bank Capital and Returns to Owners Another measure of bank profitability is return on equity = ROE ROE = Net profit after taxes/Equity capital. This measure provides information on how much the bank is earning on the investors’ equity investment.
  35. 35. Bank Capital and Returns to Owners There is a direct relationship between the return on assets and the return on equity. This relationship is determined by the equitymultiplier (EM). EM is the amount of assets per dollar of equity capital. EM = Assets/equity capital Net profit after taxes Net profit after taxes = Equity capital Assets ROE = ROA x EM x Assets equity capital
  36. 36. Bank Capital and Returns to Owners We can use the ROE formula to examine what happens to the return on equity when a bank holds a smaller amount of assets per dollar of capital. Let each bank receive a return on assets equal 1%. ROE = ROA x EM High Capital Bank ROE = 1% x 100/10 = 10% Low Capital Bank ROE = 1% x 100/4 = 25% Given the return on assets, the lower the bank capital, the higher the return for the owners of the bank.
  37. 37. Trade-off between Safety and Return • Bank capital reduces the likelihood of bankruptcy, but it is costly because as bank capital rises, return on equity falls. • Bank managers must determine how much safety they are willing to trade off against the lower return on equity. • The more uncertain the times, the larger the amount of capital held.
  38. 38. Bank Capital and Returns to Owners Another commonly watched measure of bank performance is called the net interest margin (NIM), the difference between interest income and interest expenses as a percentage of total assets. NIM = interest income - interest expenses assets If a bank manager has done a good job, the bank will have high profits and low costs. This is reflected in the spread between interest earned and interest costs.
  39. 39. Bank Capital Requirements • Basle Agreement – An agreement among the central banks of leading industrialized nations, including the nations of Western Europe, the United States, and Japan, to impose common capital requirements on all their banks in order to control bank risk exposure and avoid giving one nation’s banks an unfair advantage over another nation’s banks. It provides minimum capital standards.
  40. 40. Basle Agreement • The Basle Agreement (1998) stipulates that banks in all participating nations must have a minimum ratio of total capital to risk-weighted assets and other related risk-exposed items of 8 percent. • Risk weighted assets are determined by classifying each of the bank’s assets listed on its balance sheet into categories based on risk exposure and then multiplying each category by a fractional risk weight ranging from 0 for cash and government securities to 1 for commercial loans and other high risk assets.
  41. 41. Basle Agreement: Example Total risk-weighted assets on a bank’s balance sheet = 0 x (Cash and U.S. government securities) + 0.2 x (Other types of government securities and interbank deposits) + 0.5 x (Residential mortgage loans, government revenue bonds and selected types of mortgage backed securities) + 1 x (Commercial and consumer loans and other assets of the highest risk exposure).
  42. 42. Basle Agreement • The Basle Agreement was unique in also including off-balance sheet commitments that banks make to their largest customers, as well as commitments banks make to hedge themselves against risk. • The amount of each off-balance sheet item is multiplied by a fractional amount know as its “credit-equivalent” value, which is, in turn, multiplied by a fractional risk weight based on its assumed degree of risk exposure.
  43. 43. Basle Agreement: Example Total risk-weighted assets on and off a bank’s balance sheet = Total risk-weighted assets on a bank’s balance sheet Total risk-weighted x off-balance sheet items
  44. 44. Basle Agreement • To determine a bank’s total capital, its longermaturity liabilities and its equity are classified into two broad categories: – Tier-one or permanent core bank capital which includes: • Tangible equity including common stock + perpetual preferred stock + retained earnings + capital reserves less intangibles. – Tier-two or supplemental capital which includes: • Subordinated capital notes and debentures over 5 years to maturity +limited-life preferred stock + loan loss reserves.
  45. 45. Basle Agreement • The Basle Agreement requires each bank in all participating countries to achieve and hold the following capital minimums: – Tier-one capital divided by total risk-weighted on and off balance sheet items must equal at least 4%. – Total tier-one plus tier two capital divided by total riskweighted on and off balance sheet items must equal no less than 8%. • A bank with a 4% tier-one capital ratio and a 5% tier-two capital ratio would have a ratio of total capital to risk-weighted on and off balance sheet items of 9%.
  46. 46. Basle Agreement • In the U.S. and selected other countries, a bank that holds more than the required minimum amounts of capital is allowed to expand its services and service facilities with few or no regulatory restrictions imposed. • But, if bank capital drops below the minimum percentage, regulatory restrictions become increasingly stiff.
  47. 47. Off Balance-Sheet Activities • Loan sales or secondary loan participation – A contract that sells all or part of the cash stream from a specific loan and thereby removes the loan from the bank’s balance sheet. • Banks earn profits by selling loans for an amount slightly greater than the amount of the original loan. – Institutions are willing to buy them at the high price because of the high interest rates associated with the loans.
  48. 48. Off Balance-Sheet Activities • Generation of Fee Income – Banks charge fees for specialized services such as: • Making foreign exchange trades • Servicing a mortgage-backed security by collecting interest and principal payments and then paying them out, and providing lines of credit.
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