National and Organisational Culture


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A brief presentation done by Umesh, Raksha and Baoping. Presentation is about National and Organisational Culture based in works done by Hoftede and other scholars.

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National and Organisational Culture

  1. 1. National and Organisational Culture<br />Group presentation<br />Baoping, Raksha & Umesh<br />
  2. 2. Culture<br />‘the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another.’<br /> --- Hofstede (2001)<br />‘Culture consists in patterned ways of thinking, feeling and reacting, acquired and transmitted mainly by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievements of human group, including their embodiments in artifacts; the essential core of culture consists of traditional ideas and especially their attached values.’<br /> --- Kluckhohn, 1951<br />
  3. 3. Specific to individual<br />Inherited and learned<br />PERSONALITY<br />Specific to group or category<br />Learned<br />CULTURE<br />Universal<br />HUMAN NATURE<br />Inherited<br />Three levels of uniqueness in human mental programming<br />
  4. 4. Hofstede’s Dimensions in culture<br />Power Distance<br />Uncertainty Avoidance<br />Individualism Vs Collectivism<br />Masculine Vs Feminine<br />Short term Vs Long Term<br />
  5. 5. Layers of Culture<br />National Level<br />Regional-Ethnic-Religious-Linguistic Level<br />Gender Level<br />Generation Level<br />Social Class Level<br />Organisational / Corporate Level<br />
  6. 6. National Culture<br />Culture, in this sense, includes systems of values; and values are among the building blocks of culture.<br />Although national culture grows with generations, but still stabilising in patterns across generations using some mechanisms<br />
  7. 7. Outside Influences<br />Nature<br />Man<br /> - trade<br />- scientific discovery<br /> - dominations<br />Social norms<br />Value systems of major groups of population<br />Consequences<br />Structure and functioning of institutions:<br />-family patterns<br />-role differentiation<br />-educational systems<br />-religion<br />-political systems<br />Origins<br />Ecological factors<br />-geography<br />-history<br />-demography<br />-economy<br />-technology<br />-urbanisation<br />The Stabilizing of Culture Patterns<br />
  8. 8. Models of National culture:<br />Single Dimension models<br />Countries are classified culturally on the basis of one variable<br />Multiple Dimension models<br />Nationalities are classified on the basis of more than one varilable<br />Historical-social models<br />
  9. 9. Organisational Culture<br />“an objective entity, consisting a set of behavioural and cognitive characteristics” <br /> – Schein<br />includes the organizational structure and rules, values, feelings, norms, the organizational ‘climate.’<br /> - Lewis(1998) <br />Why is it required?<br />How it is dependent on National Culture?<br />
  10. 10. Brown’s model divides organisational culture into three layers:<br />Outer layer: values about the strategies, mission and objectives of organisation<br />Middle layer: beliefs and issues of the organisation which employees talk about<br />Inner Layer: things which people find it difficult to talk about<br />
  11. 11. 3 aspects of organizational culture<br />The general relationship between employees and their organization;<br />The vertical or hierarchical system of authority defining superiors and subordinates;<br />The general views of employees about the organization’s destiny, purpose and goals and their place in it.<br />
  12. 12. Hofstede defines six dimensions to differentiate between organizational cultures that have similarities with the dimensions of Schein: <br />Process Vs results-oriented; <br />Employee Vs joboriented;<br />Parochial Vs professional dependent;<br />open Vs closed systems of communication;<br />loose Vs tight control; <br />normative Vs pragmatic organization<br />
  13. 13. Differences in national and organisational culture<br />‘A nation is not an organisation’<br />External signs are usually considered and people think that National cultures are becoming same as Organisational cultures<br />National cultures and Organisational cultures are two different phenomena<br />
  14. 14. Symbols<br />Heroes<br />Rituals<br />PRACTICES<br />Values<br />
  15. 15. Place of socialisation<br />Level<br />Family<br />Nation<br />Values<br />Social Class<br />School<br />Occupation<br />Industry<br />Practices<br />Workplace<br />Organisation<br />
  16. 16. National Culture<br />Shared meanings<br />Unconditional relationship<br />Born into it<br />Totally immersed<br />Organisational Culture<br />Shared behaviours<br />Conditional relationship<br />Socialized into it<br />Partly involved<br />
  17. 17. Questions for discussion<br />Share an example where national culture have impacted the organisational culture of a company and in what way.<br />Share an example where organisational culture has diluted the national culture.<br />What influence the values and behaviour of employees more in an organisation – National Culture or Organisational Culture?<br />