Mobbing merlone

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I show how the systemic approach may help to analize complexity in organizations.

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Mobbing merlone

  1. 1. A Systemic Approach to Understand and Anticipate Misbehaviors in Organizations. An Example of Bullying. Ugo Merlone Department of Psychology, University of Torino CIPESS Seminar Torino, Italy, June, 26, 2012Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 1 / 77
  2. 2. Outline1 Motivation2 Common Paradigms System Dynamics Socio-psychological approach3 A Case Study4 A Preliminary Model5 A Model of Authority6 A Refined Model7 Conclusion Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 2 / 77
  3. 3. Outline1 Motivation2 Common Paradigms System Dynamics Socio-psychological approach3 A Case Study4 A Preliminary Model5 A Model of Authority6 A Refined Model7 Conclusion Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 2 / 77
  4. 4. Outline1 Motivation2 Common Paradigms System Dynamics Socio-psychological approach3 A Case Study4 A Preliminary Model5 A Model of Authority6 A Refined Model7 Conclusion Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 2 / 77
  5. 5. Outline1 Motivation2 Common Paradigms System Dynamics Socio-psychological approach3 A Case Study4 A Preliminary Model5 A Model of Authority6 A Refined Model7 Conclusion Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 2 / 77
  6. 6. Outline1 Motivation2 Common Paradigms System Dynamics Socio-psychological approach3 A Case Study4 A Preliminary Model5 A Model of Authority6 A Refined Model7 Conclusion Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 2 / 77
  7. 7. Outline1 Motivation2 Common Paradigms System Dynamics Socio-psychological approach3 A Case Study4 A Preliminary Model5 A Model of Authority6 A Refined Model7 Conclusion Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 2 / 77
  8. 8. Outline1 Motivation2 Common Paradigms System Dynamics Socio-psychological approach3 A Case Study4 A Preliminary Model5 A Model of Authority6 A Refined Model7 Conclusion Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 2 / 77
  9. 9. Motivation MotivationUgo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 3 / 77
  10. 10. MotivationOrganizational BehaviorAccording to Robbins and Judge (2010, p. 26)Organizational behavior (often abbreviated as OB) studies theinfluence that individuals, groups, and organizational structure have onbehavior within organizations. The chief goal of OB is to apply thatknowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness. Andbecause OB is concerned specifically with employment-relatedsituations, it emphasizes behavior related to jobs, work, absenteeism,employment turnover, productivity, human performance, andmanagement. Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 4 / 77
  11. 11. MotivationSome images for Organizational Behavior Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 5 / 77
  12. 12. MotivationThe other side of Organizational BehaviorYet in real organizations sometimes something else also happens Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 6 / 77
  13. 13. MotivationThe other side of Organizational Behavior 1 An Introduction to the Dark Side. 2 Workplace Aggression and Violence: Insights from Basic Research. 3 Injustice, Stress, and Aggression in Organizations. 4 When the Dark Side of Families Enters the Workplace: The Case of Intimate Partner Violence. 5 Subtle (and Not So Subtle) Discrimination in Organizations. 6 Sexual Harassment as Dysfunctional Behavior in Organizations. 7 Out of the Closet and Out of a Job? The Nature, Import, and Causes of Sexual Orientation Discrimination in the Workplace. 8 The Dark Side of Politics in Organizations. Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 7 / 77
  14. 14. MotivationThe other side of Organizational Behavior 9 Under-the-Table Deals: Preferential, Unauthorized, or Idiosyncratic? 10 Extreme Careerism: The Dark Side of Impression Management. 11 Psychological Contract Breach and Violation in Organizations. 12 Alcohol and Drug Use in the Workplace. 13 Broadening Our Understanding of Organizational Retaliatory Behavior. 14 On Incivility, Its Impact, and Directions for Future Research. 15 The Methodological Evolution of Employee Theft Research: The DATA Cycle. 16 Dark Side Issues: Concluding Observations and Directions for Future Research. Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 8 / 77
  15. 15. MotivationThe other side of Organizational BehaviorAmong all kinds of misbehaviors MobbingSome data: Norway (Einarsen & Skogstad, 1996): 8.6% of 7986 respondents had been bullied at work during the previous last months Europe (Zapf et Al. 2003): serious bullying (weekly or daily episodes): between 1 and 4% of employees occasional episodes: between 8 and 10% of employees UK (Hoel & Cooper, 2000): 10.5% of 5288 respondents had some experience with bullying US (Keashly & Jagatic, 2): sample of 1836 adults in Michigan 27% reported mistreatment at work during the previous twelve-month period 42% indicated that mistreatment had occurred at some point during their working career Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 9 / 77
  16. 16. MotivationThe other side of Organizational BehaviorAmong all kinds of misbehaviors MobbingSome data: Norway (Einarsen & Skogstad, 1996): 8.6% of 7986 respondents had been bullied at work during the previous last months Europe (Zapf et Al. 2003): serious bullying (weekly or daily episodes): between 1 and 4% of employees occasional episodes: between 8 and 10% of employees UK (Hoel & Cooper, 2000): 10.5% of 5288 respondents had some experience with bullying US (Keashly & Jagatic, 2): sample of 1836 adults in Michigan 27% reported mistreatment at work during the previous twelve-month period 42% indicated that mistreatment had occurred at some point during their working career Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 9 / 77
  17. 17. MotivationA definitionMobbing (Continental European Countries) or workplace bullying (US),is defined by Einarsen et Al., 2003) as follows Bullying at work means harassing, offending,socially excluding someone or negatively affectingsomeone’s work tasks. In order for the labelbullying (or mobbing) to be applied to a particularactivity, interaction or process it has to occurrepeatedly and regularly (e.g. weekly) and over aperiod of time (e.g. about six months). Bullyingis an escalating process in the course of which theperson confronted ends up in an inferior positionand becomes the target of systematic negative socialacts. A conflict cannot be called bullying if theincident is an isolated event or if two parties ofapproximately equal ’strenght’ are in conflict. Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 10 / 77
  18. 18. MotivationStereotypic course over time, Leymann, 1996Stereotypic course over time 1 Critical incidents. The triggering situation is most often a conflict. Mobbing can, therefore, be seen as an escalated conflict. 2 Mobbing and stigmatizing. All of the observed behaviours, regardless of their normal meaning in normal daily comunications, have the common denominator of being based on the intent to “get at a person” or punish him or her. 3 Personnel management. Due to previous stigmatization, it is very easy to misjudge the situation as being the fault of the subject person. 4 Expulsion. As far as the mobbing scenario at the workplace is concerned the social effects of expelling people from working are well known. Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 11 / 77
  19. 19. Common Paradigms Common ParadigmsUgo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 12 / 77
  20. 20. Common ParadigmsSystem Theory: a brief historyChen and Stroup (1993) provide some milestones Aristotele “The whole is more than the sum of parts” A. J. Lotka’s Elements of Mathematical Biology provided an articulation the priciples of what would become modern system theory. Wiener’s Cybernetics: Control of Man and the Machine discussed organized complexity. Ludwig Bertalanffy established the field of general system theory. Jay Forrester, using availability and increased power of computers, used the very same principle to explain the dynamic behavior of governements, business systems and human behavior. Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 13 / 77
  21. 21. Common ParadigmsSystem Theory: basic notionsAccording to Chen and Stroup (1993, p.448-449) the notions at thebase of system theory are 1 A “system” is an ensemble of interacting parts, the sum of which exhibits behavior not localized in its constituent parts. [. . . ]. 2 A system can be physical, biological, social, or symbolic; or it can be comprised of one or more of these. 3 Change is seen as a transformation the of system in time, which, nevertheless, conserves its identity. [. . . ]. 4 Goal-directed behavior characterizes the changes observed in the state of the system. [. . . ]. Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 14 / 77
  22. 22. Common ParadigmsSystem Theory 5 “Feedback ” is the mechanism that mediates between the goal and system behavior. 6 Time is a central variable in system theory. It provides a referent for the very idea of dynamics. 7 The “boundary ” serves to delineate the system from the environment and any subsystems from the system as a whole. 8 System-environment interactions can be defined as the input and output of matter, and information, energy. The system can be open, closed, or semipermeable to the environment. Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 15 / 77
  23. 23. Common Paradigms System DynamicsSystem DynamicsAccording to Forrester (2010), System dynamics is a professional field that deals with the complexity of systems. System dynamics is the necessary foundation underlying effective thinking about systems. System dynamics deals with how things change through time, which covers most of what most people find important. System dynamics involves interpreting real life systems into computer simulation models that allow one to see how the structure and decision-making policies in a system create its behavior. Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 16 / 77
  24. 24. Common Paradigms System DynamicsSystem DynamicsAccording to Sterman (2000), System Dynamics is interdisciplinary mathematics, physics and engineering: as it is grounded on nonlinear dynamics and feedback control; cognitive psychology, social psychology and economics: as it is applied to the behavior of human as well as physical and technical systems; policy making: as model are builded to solve important real world problems. Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 17 / 77
  25. 25. Common Paradigms System DynamicsSome System Dynamics modelsAt least two models are worth mentioning Gilbert Low’s model of the Zimbardo prison experiment;source: J. K. Doyle, K. Saeed, J. Skorinko (2008) Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 18 / 77
  26. 26. Common Paradigms System DynamicsSome System Dynamics modelsand Barry Richmond’s model of the classic Milgram obedience study.source:http://www.systemswiki.org/index.php?title=Milgram_Experiment Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 19 / 77
  27. 27. Common Paradigms Socio-psychological approachSocio-psychological approachAt the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations and the Tavistock Clinicseveral consultants have been working on unconscious aspects oforaganizational life.They developed the socio-psychological approach which draws from psychoanalysis; Wilfred Bion’s Theory of Groups; open systems theory; group relations training. Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 20 / 77
  28. 28. Common Paradigms Socio-psychological approachThe common paradigm informs the approach Miller & Rice (1967, p.9) J. Sterman (2000, p.193) Basic stocks and flows Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 21 / 77
  29. 29. A Case Study A Case StudyUgo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 22 / 77
  30. 30. A Case StudyLocalization in G.A.S. MetaphorThorngate (1976) states that it is impossible to develop a socialbehavior theory, which is at the same time: general accurate simple Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 23 / 77
  31. 31. A Case StudyLocalization in G.A.S. MetaphorWeick (1979) illustrates this tradeoff Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 24 / 77
  32. 32. A Case StudyThe case of Eve (Leymann, 1996)A canteen supervisor at a large prison retired and a successor wasneeded. The employer and the personnel department were of thesame opinion, that the opportunity should be used to bring aboutcertain changes. The canteen needed to economize and at the sametime offer healthier food. An individual with suitable training was found.She was employed and assigned to the kitchen where six femalecooks –who all knew how to prepare a thick cream sauce but knewnothing about the impending changes– were standing in front of theirovens. An inevitable conflict soon broke out. Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 25 / 77
  33. 33. A Case StudyThe case of EveHow was the new manager in the kitchen going to pursue the desiredchanges without the support of her employer? Nobody had informedthe cooks of any planned change. The new methods for preparing foodwere totally alien to them. The idea of making provision for a relevanttraining course had never dawned on the employer. The cooksbelieved that all these new ideas came personally from Eve, their newsupervisor. This caused them to turn against her. They started togossip and counteract her instructions. Even the fact that she had amentally handicapped child was held against her, as if her owncharacter were responsible for this. There were continuous heateddiscussions. The cooks did not listen to Eve and ignored herdelegation of tasks, regularly doing things that led to differences ofopinion. It was maintained that Eve went far beyond the scope of herresponsibility, which in fact was not true. Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 26 / 77
  34. 34. A Case StudyThe case of EveOn a number of occasions. Eve tried to obtain descriptions of herresponsibilities from the prison authorities. Top management refusedher requests. Her continual requests were interpreted asinsubordination. Here we should bear in mind that such jobdescriptions are in fact a method through which top management canexpress its leadership at all levels; by defining institutional hierarchy ata central level, and defining various areas of competence, an employeris provided with an indispensable control mechanism through whichthe various areas of responsibility can be effected. In Eve’s case, theonly thing that happened was that top management felt attacked by herrequests and defended themselves. This legitimized the cooks’harassment of Eve as they interpreted the situation as if the topmanagement were "on their side". Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 27 / 77
  35. 35. A Case StudyThe case of EveThe harassment continued and developed into a mobbing process,through which Eve eventually lost her authority completely. Harsharguments took place on a daily basis. One of the top managers whoaccidentally overheard such an argument summoned Eve for a report.She noticed, as she entered the meeting room, that she was standingin front of some kind of court, she was given no chance to explain thesituation but was heavily criticized. Top management ordered (!!) herto take sick leave, which the prison’s own physician validated (!!). Afterhaving been on sick leave for more than two years (!!), Eve eventuallylost her job. She never found another job again. Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 28 / 77
  36. 36. A Preliminary ModelA preliminary model Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 29 / 77
  37. 37. A Preliminary ModelEve’s orders= ARCTAN(Uncompleted orders-Acceptable Backlog)/3.1415+0.5 +Arrival rate Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 30 / 77
  38. 38. A Preliminary ModelA note about modeling detailsSterman (2000) suggests to “Avoid IF. . . THEN . . . ELSE formulations”as they introduces sharp discontinuities in the model (actually, bordercollisions.)Rather use min or max functions or even better “Fuzzy min” or “Fuzzy max”ARCTAN solves this problem as arctan (]−∞, +∞[) = ]−π/2, +π/2[ . Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 31 / 77
  39. 39. A Preliminary ModelArctan y = arctan x Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 32 / 77
  40. 40. A Preliminary ModelNormalized Arctan arctan x y= π Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 33 / 77
  41. 41. A Preliminary ModelNormalized and Adjusted Arctan arctan x 1 y= π + 2 Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 34 / 77
  42. 42. A Preliminary ModelGraphic table function (Lookup) Eve’s orders=f (Uncompleted orders) Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 35 / 77
  43. 43. A Preliminary ModelExample: Eve’s ordersIF Tasks to Below > Acceptable BacklogTHEN Eve’s orders= Tasks to Below - Acceptable BacklogELSE Eve’s orders=0should be replaced by Eve’s orders= MAX (Tasks to Below - Acceptable Backlog,0)yet with MAX and MIN discontinuities remain.ARCTAN solves this problem asEve’s orders= ARCTAN(Tasks to Below-Acceptable Backlog)/3.1415+0.5 Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 36 / 77
  44. 44. A Preliminary ModelExample: Eve’s ordersIF Tasks to Below > Acceptable BacklogTHEN Eve’s orders= Tasks to Below - Acceptable BacklogELSE Eve’s orders=0should be replaced by Eve’s orders= MAX (Tasks to Below - Acceptable Backlog,0)yet with MAX and MIN discontinuities remain.ARCTAN solves this problem asEve’s orders= ARCTAN(Tasks to Below-Acceptable Backlog)/3.1415+0.5 Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 36 / 77
  45. 45. A Preliminary ModelExample: Eve’s ordersIF Tasks to Below > Acceptable BacklogTHEN Eve’s orders= Tasks to Below - Acceptable BacklogELSE Eve’s orders=0should be replaced by Eve’s orders= MAX (Tasks to Below - Acceptable Backlog,0)yet with MAX and MIN discontinuities remain.ARCTAN solves this problem asEve’s orders= ARCTAN(Tasks to Below-Acceptable Backlog)/3.1415+0.5 Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 36 / 77
  46. 46. A Preliminary ModelExample: Eve’s ordersIF Tasks to Below > Acceptable BacklogTHEN Eve’s orders= Tasks to Below - Acceptable BacklogELSE Eve’s orders=0should be replaced by Eve’s orders= MAX (Tasks to Below - Acceptable Backlog,0)yet with MAX and MIN discontinuities remain.ARCTAN solves this problem asEve’s orders= ARCTAN(Tasks to Below-Acceptable Backlog)/3.1415+0.5 Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 36 / 77
  47. 47. A Preliminary ModelWork completion rate= Eve’s orders*Cooks’ rate of completion* *2/3.1415*ARCTAN(Uncompleted orders) Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 37 / 77
  48. 48. A Preliminary ModelEve’s Frustration= ARCTAN(Uncompleted orders-Acceptable Backlog)/3.1415+0.5 Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 38 / 77
  49. 49. A Preliminary ModelManagerial support to Eve= Initial support to Eve-Eve’s Frustration Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 39 / 77
  50. 50. A Preliminary ModelThe preliminary modelCooks’ obedience to Eve’s orders= ARCTAN(Managerial support to Eve-Eve’s Frustration)/3.1415+0.5 Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 40 / 77
  51. 51. A Preliminary ModelCooks’ rate of completion= Cooks’ obedience to Eve’s orders*Cooks training Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 41 / 77
  52. 52. A Preliminary Model ResultsUgo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 42 / 77
  53. 53. A Preliminary ModelResults: full support and full training (Backlog=20.25) t = 40: backlog is reachedAs the backlog limit is reached the system collapses: man. sup., cook’s obedience and rate of compl. drop Eve’s frustration raises rate of uncompleted orders increases Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 43 / 77
  54. 54. A Preliminary ModelResults: full support and full training (Backlog=40.5) backlog limit is not reachedThe system remains under control Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 44 / 77
  55. 55. A Preliminary ModelResults: half support and full training (Backlog=40.5) t ≈ 50: backlog is reachedAfter a long delay the system collapses: man. sup., cook’s obedience and rate of compl. drop Eve’s frustration raises rate of uncompleted orders increases Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 45 / 77
  56. 56. A Preliminary ModelResults: full support and half training (Backlog=40.5) t ≈ 85: backlog is reachedWell before the backlog is reached the system collapses: man. sup., cook’s obedience and rate of compl. drop Eve’s frustration raises rate of uncompleted orders increases Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 46 / 77
  57. 57. A Preliminary ModelThe preliminar model: analysisFirst results backlog limit seems to be important when cook’s training is adeguate when too low the system collapses cook’s training seems to be more important than managerial support when cook’s training is low, the disfunctional dynamics between management, cooks and Eve, is not evident from the uncompleted orders Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 47 / 77
  58. 58. A Model of Authority A Model of AuthorityUgo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 48 / 77
  59. 59. A Model of AuthorityObholzer contributionAccording to Obholzer (1994):Authority refers to the right to make an ultimate decision, and in anorganization it refers to the right to make decisions which are bindingto others.He considers: authority from “above” authority from “below” authority from “within” Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 49 / 77
  60. 60. A Model of AuthorityAuthority from “above”Formal authority is a quality that is derived from one’s’ role in a systemand is exercised on its behalf. (Obholzer 1994, p.39). Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 50 / 77
  61. 61. A Model of AuthorityAuthority from “below”“Members who voluntarily join an organization are, by definition,santioning the system. By the act of joining, they are, at least implicitly,delegating some of their personal authority to those in authority, and inso doing confirming the system.” (Obholzer 1994, p.40). Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 51 / 77
  62. 62. A Model of AuthorityAuthority from “within”“[. . . ] there is the vital issue of authorization or confirmation of authorityfrom within individuals. This largely depends on the nature of theirrelationship with the figure of their inner world.” (Obholzer 1994, p.41).Two extremes undermining self-in-role by inner world figures inner world figures playing into a state of psychopatological omnipotenceImportant difference authoritative: a depressive position state of mind authoritarian: a paranoid-schizoid position state of mind Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 52 / 77
  63. 63. A Model of AuthorityAuthority from “within”“[. . . ] there is the vital issue of authorization or confirmation of authorityfrom within individuals. This largely depends on the nature of theirrelationship with the figure of their inner world.” (Obholzer 1994, p.41).Two extremes undermining self-in-role by inner world figures inner world figures playing into a state of psychopatological omnipotenceImportant difference authoritative: a depressive position state of mind authoritarian: a paranoid-schizoid position state of mind Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 52 / 77
  64. 64. A Model of AuthorityAuthority from “within”“[. . . ] there is the vital issue of authorization or confirmation of authorityfrom within individuals. This largely depends on the nature of theirrelationship with the figure of their inner world.” (Obholzer 1994, p.41).Two extremes undermining self-in-role by inner world figures inner world figures playing into a state of psychopatological omnipotenceImportant difference authoritative: a depressive position state of mind authoritarian: a paranoid-schizoid position state of mind Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 52 / 77
  65. 65. A Model of AuthorityLevels of authority: modelization Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 53 / 77
  66. 66. A Model of AuthorityA preliminary model Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 54 / 77
  67. 67. A Refined ModelA model with levels of authority Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 55 / 77
  68. 68. A Refined ModelEve’s orders= ARCTAN(Tasks to Below-Acceptable Backlog)/3.1415+0.5 +Arrival rate Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 56 / 77
  69. 69. A Refined ModelBelow Authority Rate= Eve’s orders*Cooks’ rate of completion* *2/3.1415*ARCTAN(Tasks to Below) Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 57 / 77
  70. 70. A Refined ModelWithin Authority Rate= (1-Eve’s Frustration)*2/3.1415*ARCTAN(Tasks from Above) Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 58 / 77
  71. 71. A Refined ModelAbove Authority Rate=Managerial support to Eve*2/3.1415*ARCTAN(Tasks to be completed) Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 59 / 77
  72. 72. A Refined ModelEve’s Frustration= ARCTAN(Tasks to Below-Acceptable Backlog)/3.1415+0.5 Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 60 / 77
  73. 73. A Refined ModelManagerial support to Eve= Initial support to Eve-Eve’s Frustration Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 61 / 77
  74. 74. A Refined ModelCooks’ obedience to Eve’s orders= ARCTAN(Managerial support to Eve-Eve’s Frustration)/3.1415+0.5 Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 62 / 77
  75. 75. A Refined ModelCooks’ rate of completion= Cooks’ obedience to Eve’s orders*Cooks training Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 63 / 77
  76. 76. A Refined ModelDefault Rate1=Def Rate 1*2/3.1415*ARCTAN(Tasks to be completed)Default Rate2=Def Rate 2*2/3.1415*ARCTAN(Tasks from Above/1)Default Rate3=Def Rate 3*2/3.1415*ARCTAN(Tasks to Below) Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 64 / 77
  77. 77. A Refined Model ResultsUgo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 65 / 77
  78. 78. A Refined ModelResults: full support and full training (Backlog=10.0) t ≈ 70: backlog is reachedThe system remains under control Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 66 / 77
  79. 79. A Refined ModelResults: half support and full training (Backlog=10.0) t ≈ 30: backlog is reachedThe system remains roughly under control Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 67 / 77
  80. 80. A Refined ModelResults: full support and half training (Backlog=10.0) t ≈ 30: backlog is reachedAs the backlog limit is reached the system collapses: man. sup., cook’s obedience and rate of compl. drop Eve’s frustration raises rate of uncompleted orders increases Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 68 / 77
  81. 81. A Refined ModelThe model with levels of authority: analysisFirst results backlog limit seems to be important only when cook’s training is not adeguate cook’s training seems to be more important than managerial support Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 69 / 77
  82. 82. A Refined ModelComparing the two models. cook’s training seems to be the most important variable the model with authority levels seems to be less dependent on the backlog limit when considering the authority levels the dynamics between management, cooks and Eve seem to be less dysfunctional in both models, Leymann’s stereotypic course over time is roughly followed Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 70 / 77
  83. 83. Conclusion ConclusionUgo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 71 / 77
  84. 84. ConclusionConclusionBullying and other dysfunctional dynamics at the workplace can bequite complex approaching such problems from a systemic point of view can help to understand some of the interaction between parts putting together different approaches which are based on system theory may provide a wider perspective the modeling process and the simulation results allow us to understand how feedback may cause reinforcing loops in some cases reaching the backlog limit causes the dysfunctional dynamics but this is not a sufficient condition Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 72 / 77
  85. 85. ConclusionConclusionA systemic approach may obtain a deeper changement in the system Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 73 / 77
  86. 86. ConclusionConclusionAn ambitious analogy about computer modeling Vygotsky described developmental changes in children’s thinking in terms of the cultural tools they use to make sense of their world similarly the computational tools (models) we use–to make sense of the world–allow changes in our thinking about complex systems. Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 74 / 77
  87. 87. ConclusionConclusionAn ambitious analogy about computer modeling Vygotsky described developmental changes in children’s thinking in terms of the cultural tools they use to make sense of their world similarly the computational tools (models) we use–to make sense of the world–allow changes in our thinking about complex systems. Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 74 / 77
  88. 88. ConclusionConclusionAn ambitious analogy about computer modeling Vygotsky described developmental changes in children’s thinking in terms of the cultural tools they use to make sense of their world similarly the computational tools (models) we use–to make sense of the world–allow changes in our thinking about complex systems. Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 74 / 77
  89. 89. Appendix For Further ReadingMain References I J. W. Forrester System Dynamics: the Foundation Under Systems Thinking Sloan School of Management, MIT, 2010. J. D. Sterman Business Dynamics, McGraw-Hill, Boston, 2000. Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 75 / 77
  90. 90. Appendix For Further ReadingMain References I E. J. Miller & A. K. Rice Systems of Organization, Tavistock Publications, London., 1967. A. Obholzer Authority, power and leadership: contributions from group relations training, in The Unconscious at Work, Routledge, London,pp.39-47 UK, 1994. D. Chen & W. Stroup General System Theory: Toward a Conceptual Framework for Science and Technology Education for All, Journal of Science Education and Technology , 2(3) pp.447-459, 1993. Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 76 / 77
  91. 91. Appendix For Further ReadingMain References I S. P. Robbins, T.A. Judge Essentials of Organizational Behavior (Tenth Edition), Pearson, Upper Saddle River, 2010. R. W. Griffin, A. M. O’Leary-Kelly (eds.) The Dark Side of Organizational Behavior, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 2004. H. Leymann The Content and Development of Mobbing at Work European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology , 5(2):165–184, 1996. U. Merlone Il mobbing e la System Dynamics, Personale e Lavoro, 493, pp 19-26, 2006. Ugo Merlone (2012) A Systemic Approach to Understand Bullying June, 26th 2012 77 / 77

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