In the name of Allah Kareem,Most Beneficent, Most Gracious,the Most Merciful !
RESEARCH PARADIGMS/ WORLD VIEWS Positivism Interpretivism PragmatismDetermination Understanding Consequences ofReductionism Multiple participant actionsEmpirical meanings Problem centeredobservation and Social and historical Pluralisticmeasurement construction Real-worldTheory verification Theory generation practice oriented
RESEARCH PARADIGMS & PHILOSOPHICAL ASSUMPTIONSSr. Philosophical Positivism Interpretivism Pragmatism# Assumption 1 Ontology: - Singular reality existing Multiple realities Singular and multiple apart from researcher’s shaped by researcher’s realities. perception and cultural prior understanding e.g. researchers test What is the nature of biases. (Objectivism) (constructionism). hypothesis and provide reality? e.g. researchers reject or fail e.g. researchers multiple perspectives. OR to reject hypothesis. provides quotes to what is knowledge? illustrate different perspectives. 2 Epistemology: - Distance and impartiality Closeness (e.g. Practicality (e.g. What is the relationship (e.g. researchers objectively researchers visit researchers collect data between the researcher collect data on participants at their by “what work” to and that being instruments.) sites to collect data) address research researched? Acceptable knowledge is It is cased on the question). What is regarded as gained through sense and is perceptions of the Objective + Subjective acceptable knowledge objectively real. (Objective) individuals about the and how we know it? world. (Subjective) 3 Axiology: - Unbiased (e.g. researchers Biased (e.g. researchers Multiple stances. (e.g. What is the role of use checks to eliminate actively talk about their researchers include values? bias) biases and both biased and interpretations) unbiased perspectives)
4 Rhetoric: - Formal style (e.g. Informal style. (e.g. Formal or informal What is the language of researchers use agrees on researchers write in s (e.g. researchers may research? definitions of variables) literary, informal style) employ both formal and informal styles of writing).5 Methodology: - Deductive (e.g. researchers Inductive (e.g. Combining (e.g. What is the process of that an a priori theory) researchers start with researchers collect research? participants views and both Quantitative an build “up” to patterns, Qualitative data and theories and mix them ) generalizations)6 Strategies of Surveys, experiments and Grounded theory, Sequential, concurrent field work ethnography, case and transformative. Inquiry study and narratives7 Methods Close ended questions, Open ended questions, Both open and close predetermined approaches emerging approaches, ended questions; both numerical data, statistical and text and image emerging and analysis (Quantitative) analysis. (Qualitative) predetermined approaches; both quantitative and qualitative data and analysis.
WHAT IS QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH?Quantitative Research Is "a formal, objective, systematic process in whichnumerical data are utilised to obtain information about the world“. It is inclined tobe deductive. In other words it tests theory.GENERAL AIMS OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH? To Generalize To Be Objectives To Test Theories or Hypotheses
STRATEGIES ASSOCIATED WITH QUANTITATIVE APPROACHEXPERIMENTAL Experimental research provides a framework for establishing a relationship between causes and effects. In experimental the researcher acts as a inactive agent and use deductive reasoning to prove or falsify hypothesis. This involves manipulating an independent variable (cause) and observing the outcome on dependent variable (effect) while controlling the extraneous variables. Moreover, random sampling, manipulation and control are the characteristics of the true experiments.SURVEYS Surveys include cross-sectional and longitudinal studies using questionnaires or structured interviews for data collection, with the intent of generalizing from a sample to a population
PROCESS OF QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH 1- THEORY 2- HYPOTHESIS 3- RESEARCH DESIGN 4- DEVISE MEASURES OF CONCEPTS 5- SELECT RESEARCH SITE 6- SELECT RESEARCH SUBJECT/ RESPONDENTS 7- ADMINISTER RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS/ COLLECT DATA 8- PROCESS DATA 9- ANALYZE DATA 10- FINDINGS/ CONCLUSIONS Adapted from: Bryman, A. and Bell, E. (2003) ‘ Business Research Methods’, second edition, Oxford University 11- WRITE UP FINDINGS/ CONCLUSIONS Press. Pp. 155
WHAT IS QUALITATIVE RESEARCH? Qualitative Research Is “an informal, subjective research approach that usually emphasizes words rather than numbers in the collection and analysis of data” and that is inductive in nature. In other words it generates theory.GENERAL AIMS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH? To add understanding to a phenomenon or the complexities of human behavior It does not claim to generalize To generate theory therefore it is inductive rather than deductive
STRATEGIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE QUALITATIVE APPROACH? Attempts to shed light on a phenomenon by studying in depth a singleCase Study case example of the phenomena. The case can be an individual person, an event, a group, or an institution.Grounded Theory is developed inductively from a corpus of data acquired by aTheory participant-observer. Describes the structures of experience as they present themselves toPhenomenology consciousness, without recourse to theory, deduction, or assumptions from other disciplines Focuses on the sociology of meaning through close field observation ofEthnography socio-cultural phenomena. Typically, the ethnographer focuses on a community. A from of inquiry in which the researcher studies the lives of individual and ask one or more to provide stories about their lives and in the end, theNarrative narrative combine views from the participants’ life with those of researcher’s life in a collaborative narrative.
MAIN STEPS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH? 1. General Research Question 2. Selecting Relevant Site(s) and Subjects 3. Collection or Relevant Data 5a. Collection of Further Data 4. Interpretation of Data 5. Conceptual and Theoretical Work 5b. Tighter Specification of the Research Question (s) 6. Writing up Findings/Conclusions
THE BASIC PROCESS OF QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE RESEARCH? Another preliminary consideration before designing and conducting research is to review and know the basic elements of both quantitative and qualitative research so that to choose an appropriate approach. These elements are discussed in the next table.
Elements of Qualitative Research Tend Process of Elements of Quantitative Research Trend Toward….. Research Toward…Interpretivism Paradigm Positivism•Point on view of participants Intent of the •Point of view of researcher Understand meaning individuals give to research •Test a theory deductively to support or refute it a phenomenon inductively •Generalization Contextual understanding•Minor role How literature •Major role Justifies problem is used Justifies problem Identifies questions and hypotheses•Ask open-ended questions How intent is •Ask closed-ended questions Understand the complexity of a single focused Test specific variables that form hypotheses or idea questions•Words and images How data are •Numbers From a few participants at a few collected From many participants at many research sitesresearch sites Sending or administering instruments to Studying participants at their location. participants Natural setting Artificial setting Data is collected at Micro level Data is collected at Macro level
•Text or image analysis How data are •Numerical statistical analysis Themes analyzed Rejecting hypotheses or determining effect sizes Larger patterns or generalizations.•Using validity procedures that rely on How data are •Using validity procedures based on external the participants, the researcher, or the validated standards, such as judges, past research, statistics reader•Researcher is close Role of the •Researcher is distant Identifies personal stance researcher Remains in background Reports bias Take steps to remove bias
MIXED METHODS APPROACHA mixed methods approach is one in which the researcher tends to base knowledgeclaims on pragmatic grounds (e.g., consequence-oriented, problem-centered, andpluralistic). It employs strategies of inquiry that involve collecting data eithersimultaneously or sequentially to best understand research problem. The datacollection also involve gathering both numeric information (e.g., on instruments) aswell as text information (e.g., on interview) so that the final database representsboth quantitative and qualitative information.
STRATEGIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE MIXED METHODS APPROACH Sequential procedures, in which the researcher seeks to elaborate on or expand the findings of one method with another method. This may involve beginning with a qualitative method forSequential Procedures exploratory purposes and following up with a quantitative method with a large sample so that the researcher can generalize results to a population. Alternatively, the study may begin with a qualitative method involving detailed exploration with a few cases or individuals. Concurrent procedures, in which the researcher converges quantitative and qualitative data in order to provide a comprehensive analysis of the research problem. In this design, the investigator collects both forms of data at the same time during the study and then integrates the informationConcurrent Procedures in the interpretation of the overall results. Also, in this design, the researcher nests one from the data within another, larger data collection procedure in order to analyze different questions or levels of units in an organization. This strategy involve the data collection either through sequential or a con-current approach, butTransformative after the initial analysis, there searcher uses procedure to transform one data type into the otherProcedures data type. This is accomplishing result which facilitates comparison, interrelation and further analysis of two data sets.
QUALITATIVE, QUANTITATIVE AND MIXED METHODS APPROACH TEND TO OR QUALITATIVE QUANTITATIVE MIXED METHODS TYPICALLY APPROACHES APPROACHES APPROACHESUse these philosophical Interpretatism Paradigms Positivist Paradigms Pragmatic Paradigmsassumptions Phenomenology. Grounded theory,Employ these strategies Sequential, concurrent, and ethnography, case study, and Surveys and Experimentsof inquiry transformative narrative Both open and closed-ended Closed-ended questions, questions, both emerging and Open-ended questions, emergingEmploy these methods predetermined approaches, predetermined approaches, and approaches , text or image data numeric data both quantitative and qualitative data and analysis. Positions himself or herself Tests or verifies theories or Collects participant meanings explanations Collects both quantitative and Focuses on a single concept or Identifies variables to study qualitative data phenomenon Relates variables in questions Develops a rationale for mixing Brings personal values into this or hypothesis integrates the data at different studyUse these practices of Uses standards of validity stages of inquiry Studies the context or setting ofresearch, as the researcher and reliability Present visual pictures of the participants Observe and measures procedures in the study Validates the accuracy of findings information numerically Employs the practices of both Makes interpretation of the data Uses undecided approaches qualitative and quantitative Creates on agenda for change or Employs statistical research reform procedures Collaborates with the participants