Qualitative Research


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Qualitative Research

  1. 1. In the name of Allah Kareem, Most Beneficent, Most Gracious, the Most Merciful !
  2. 2. SUPERIOR GROUP OF COLLEGES Qualitative research is “an informal, subjective, semi systematic research approaches that usually emphasizes words rather than numbers in the collection and analysis of data” and that is inductive in nature. In other words it generates theory. Qualitative Research General Aims Of Qualitative Research: 1- Views of participants 2- It does not claim to generalize 3- Theory generation
  3. 3. THE MAIN PREOCCUPATIONS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCHER These preoccupations reflect epistemologically grounded believes about what constitutes acceptable knowledge. The qualitative researchers are more influenced by interpretivism. In this section five different pre- occupations among qualitative researchers will be outlined and examined 1. See through the eye of the people been studied 2. Emphasis on process of social life 3. Description and the emphasis on contexts 4. Flexibility and limited structure 5. Concept and theory grounded in data
  4. 4. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH PROCESS 1. General Research Question 2. Selecting Relevant Site(s) and Subjects 3. Collection or Relevant Data 4. Analyze and Interpretation of Data 5. Conceptual and Theoretical Work 6. Writing up Findings/Conclusions 5a. Collection of Further Data 5b. Tighter Specification of the Research Question (s)
  5. 5. Reliability and Validity Validity refers to the issues of whether or not an indicator really measures the concept that it is devised to measure whereas Reliability is the stability or the consistency of measurement. 1. Member Checking 2. Triangulation 3. Self-Reflection and Rich thick description 4. External audit 5. Authenticity
  6. 6. Qualitative Sampling In qualitative research researcher preferably uses non probability sampling that includes: 1. Convenience sampling 2. Snow ball sampling 3. Quota sampling Qualitative Methods In qualitative research four methods are used for data collection that is as follows: 1. Interview 2. Focus group 3. Document analysis 4. Unstructured observation
  7. 7. SUPERIOR GROUP OF COLLEGES “A person to person interaction or debate between two or more individual with a specific purpose in mind.” What is Interview? Types of interviews: There are several types of interviews that are as follows 1. Telephone Interview 2. Email Interview 3. Ethnographic Interview 4. One-on-one interview 5. Group Interview
  8. 8. Modes OF INTERVIEWS 2- Unstructured Interview: The interviewer is free to move the conversation in any direction of interest that may come up. Constantly, unstructured interviewing is particularly useful for exploring a topic broadly. SUPERIOR GROUP OF COLLEGES 3- Semi structured Interview: In this interview we have a list of questions on fairly specific topics to be covered, often referred to as an interview guide, but the interviewee has a great deal of flexibility in how to reply 1- Structured Interview: This is a fixed format interview in which all questions are prepared beforehand and put in the same order to each interviewee.
  9. 9. Comparison Chart (Nature of Interviews) Structure Interviews Un Structure Interviews Semi Structure Interviews b It provides the precision and reliability required in certain situations 1- This interview is useful for exploring a topic broadly 1- The same questions are asked of all those involved 2- This type of interview is easy to code and enter in the software to get the findings. 2- Each interviewee is asked a different series of questions 2- The kind and form of questions go through a process of development to ensure the their topic focus 3- This type of interview took less time so in less span of time more interviews can be conducted. 3- This style lacks the reliability and precision of structure interview 3- To ensure equivalent coverage 4- This interview lacks the free flow of a friendly conversation 4- Some times interviewer and interviewee are diverted from their discussion objective. 4- Equivalent interview time is allowed in each case
  10. 10. Interview procedure Interview procedure is the set of sequential interdependent activities that results in collection of comprehensive information regarding the research topic. It consists of following steps 1. Interview objectives 2. Methodology 3. Interview composition and screening Geographical coverage: Lahore, Karachi, Islamabad, , Gender: -Males & Females Age: - 25 plus Job Tenure: - Minimum 3 years Positions in organizations - faculty members (minimum lecturer) Usage Pre-requisites: - 20% Inter level - 30% Bachelors level - 50% Masters level Organization type -Private or Public - (Private must be affiliated educational institute, college, University(HEC recognized)
  11. 11. Interview procedure 4. Interview schedule S.No. Activity Dates 1 Objective setting and Screener development 14th Nov’08 2 Approval of objectives and screener 15th Nov’08 3 Selection of sites and respondents 16th – 20th Nov’08 4 Development of guidelines and arrangements 16th – 20th Nov’08 5 05- interviews (A) 22nd – 28th Nov' 08 6 05- interviews (B) 24th – 28th Nov' 08 7 05- interviews (C) 24th – 28th Nov' 08 8 Transcripts 24th – 8th Dec’08 9 Analysis and Report writing 15th Dec’08 10 Report submission 17th Dec’08 5. Deciding about the ethical issues I. Identifying yourself as researcher II. Developing respondent consent form defining i. the research purposes ii. types of information required iii. confidentiality and anonymity statement iv. surety of security, summary publicity, fair uses of information and wastage of data after due time period
  12. 12. Interview procedure 6. Discussion guide 7. Questions preparation i. Pruning and revising possible questions ii. Trailing iii. Piloting and pre-piloting iv. Prompts and probing 8. Conducting the interview i. Preparation phase 1. Research area office to be in upright condition (illumination, seating arrangement, noise free, etc) 2. Walkman with new batteries (verified twice). 3. Required documents (screener summary sheets) designed and ready 4. Cassettes (new) to be ready with tags and coding 5. Board markers, plain papers, pencils and other stationary items 6. Moderator guidelines printed and set on the table 7. Refreshment for the interviewee 8. Pick n drop facility for the interviewees 9. Gifts for the interviews as thanks for sparing time 10 . Interviewee dress code suitability, matching, colour choice etc
  13. 13. Interview procedure ii. Initial contact phase iii. Orientation phase iv. Substantive phase v. Closure phase 09- Transcribing the interviews 10. Analyzing the data i. First Stage Analysis ii. Thematic analysis iii. Stage-structure analysis 11. Coding the data 12. Analysis grid 13. Writing up interview data
  14. 14. SUPERIOR GROUP OF COLLEGES 'Soft„, Nonnumeric, textual intangible or subjective data that describes but not measure the attributes, characteristics, properties, etc., of a thing or phenomenon. Example Conversation, text, audio, video colors, smells, tastes, textures, or sounds, Qualitative Data
  15. 15.  Qualitative Data analysis is a process of gathering, modeling, and transforming qualitative data with the goal of  highlighting useful information  suggesting conclusions, and  supporting decision making. Qualitative Data Analysis: what & why
  16. 16. SUPERIOR GROUP OF COLLEGES How to conduct QDA: a step by step process 1.Get to know your data 2.Analyze your data 3.interpret your findings 4.prepare your report
  17. 17. SUPERIOR GROUP OF COLLEGES • read and re-read the text. • listen to the tape recordings several times. • Write down any impressions you have. These impressions may be useful later. • Before beginning any analysis, consider the quality of the data and proceed accordingly 10.i. Get to know your Data Good analysis depends on understanding the data.
  18. 18. SUPERIOR GROUP OF COLLEGES Before proceeding to analysis, review the purpose of the evaluation and what you want to find out. Identify a few key questions that you want your analysis to answer. Write down these questions. These will help you decide how to begin. The full process of analyzing a transcription can be split into different stages that were discussed one by one: 1. The first step is just to read each transcription, go through them and highlighting the important statements from each portion as called substantive statements 2. Analyze your data
  19. 19. EXAMPLE Excerpt First of all I would like to say few things before I give an answer to it. This is an organization which gives you a plenty of (0.2) you see! Opportunities in which you can participate in decision making. I always:::: been allowed by top management to participate in decision making. Like (0.2) if there are anything regarding hiring faculty or there is any matter regarding curriculum improvement. They have always asked me to participate in decision making and I have always give then decisions and they have always cater those decisions implemented in their systems. Substantive Statement This is an organization which gives you a plenty opportunities in which you can participate in decision making. I always:::: been allowed by top management to participate in decision making. [For example] if there are anything regarding hiring faculty or there is any matter regarding curriculum improvement. [The management] always asked me to participate in decision making and then decisions and they have always catered those decisions implemented in their systems.
  20. 20. SUPERIOR GROUP OF COLLEGES 2. After identifying the substantive statements you should conduct thematic analysis; that is the process of deriving themes out of the substantive statements. Themes can be of two categories. I. Preset Themes II. Emergent Themes i. Basic Theme ii. Organizing Theme iii. Global Theme 10.ii.Thematic analysis
  21. 21. EXAMPLE (Basic themes) (organizing themes) (global themes) 1. Plenty of opportunities regarding decision 2. decision acceptable by top management 3. decision regarding hiring faculty and curriculum improvement 4. ideas , suggestions are taken when hire any person and implementing any system 5. decision to have powers and authority regarding the ideas are so much considered by the organization Participation in decision making Supportive HR practices 1. reward is one thing which has made this organization a singular success 2. when the rewards compare with any competitive institution, I feel myself lucky to be a part of this organization 3. the rewarded ratio is quite high as compare to been unrewarded 4. The effort has been appreciated and they ((management)) have pat on the back, that well done and keep up the good work. Fairness of rewards 1. growth in my career, the maximum skills and knowledge are gained ((by me)) IN THIS ORGANIZATION 2. knowledgeable, up-to-date information Growth Opportunities
  22. 22. SUPERIOR GROUP OF COLLEGES It is the process of identifying the stages or levels of the themes while working on the successive interview transcripts, in order to develop the general flow of different stages in the narrative to show the progression. 10.iii.Stage-Structure analysis
  23. 23. HR PRACTICES Recruitment and selection Participation in decision making Training and development Compensation and reward Job commitment Job Satisfaction Performance
  24. 24. SUPERIOR GROUP OF COLLEGES It is the process of developing a code book for being able to refer to certain respondents‟ words in transcription. In this process the researcher will define codes for each interviewee, category, subcategory, question, and substantive statement. 11.Coding the Data
  25. 25. Code: aA1.2 i Global theme Code: Numbers (1,2,3 …...) Organizing theme Code: Decimals (.1,.2,.3,….) Basic theme Code: Roman Numbers (I,ii,iii…..) Question Code: Small letters (a,b,c…..) Interviewee Code: Capital letters (A,B,C…..)
  26. 26. SUPERIOR GROUP OF COLLEGES After having done all the analysis and the code book the researcher will develop an analysis grid (spreadsheet) manually or using Microsoft excel integrating all major categories taking interviewees at one side and the categories at top. Then reviewing all the transcripts the researcher will fill in all the statements with coded reference against each statement 12.Analysis Grid
  27. 27. Interpret your findings On getting completed the analysis grid as outcome of the analysis process the researcher needs to explain his finding using the themes, categories and the connections between them. Interpreting the data involves attaching meaning and significance to the analysis. How to interpret • Read through the grid • Develop a list of key points or findings • Think about what have you learned; the major lessons • Develop an outline for presenting your findings • Write down the meanings you derive as per your understanding from the set of categories and the quotes from the edited version of transcripts. Stress on the more significant findings with the help of excerpts with proper coding.
  28. 28. SUPERIOR GROUP OF COLLEGES Finally the researcher will write down a report on the outcomes of the data debating on the key themes, and categories derived from the interview process using analysis grid. 13.Writing up the report How to write report • Explain the background and objectives of your work with the justification of topic, and the interview method you selected supported of literature. • Brief about the step by step process of interview and the rationale for the selection of interviewee • Elaborate the qualitative analysis done on the basis of transcripts and the interpretation. • Give references both in-text and end-list to authenticate your report.
  29. 29. Focus Group “A focus group discussion is a tool in which a small group of people (8-10 individuals) engages in a roundtable discussion of selected topics of interest in an informal setting” it can be 1. Group focused 2. Content focused
  30. 30. Document Analysis It is a systematic process of gathering analyzing, evaluating and using a very heterogeneous set of documents including i. Personal documents (Diaries, letters, and autobiographies etc), ii. Public documents (Public inquiry transcripts, magazines, newspaper, TV programs etc) iii. Organizational documents (Memos, minutes of meeting, daily reports etc)
  31. 31. Unstructured Observation Unstructured observation is the unplanned, informal, watching and recording of behaviors as they occur in a natural environment. How to conduct Take a notebook and pen: 1. Note down when you see something interesting. 2. Write down theories as you form them. 3. Don‟t jump to conclusions straight away. 4. Look for more evidence. 5. Ask people to confirm things