Communication

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Communication

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Communication

  1. 1. Chapter Five Communication© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Functions of Communication Functions of Communication Communication The transference and the understanding of meaning. Communication Functions Communication Functions 1. Control member behavior. 1. Control member behavior. 2. 2. Foster motivation for what is to be done. Foster motivation for what is to be done. 3. 3. Provide a release for emotional expression. Provide a release for emotional expression. 4. Provide information needed to make 4. Provide information needed to make decisions. decisions.© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. The Communication Process The Communication Process Channel – The medium selected by the sender through which the message travels to the receiver. Types of Channels – Formal Channels • Are established by the organization and transmit messages that are related to the professional activities of members. – Informal Channels • Used to transmit personal or social messages in the organization. These informal channels are spontaneous and emerge as a response to individual choices.© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. Elements of the Communication Process Elements of the Communication Process The sender Encoding The message The channel Decoding The receiver Noise Feedback© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. The Communication Process Model The Communication Process Model Communication Process The steps between a source and a receiver that result in the transference and understanding of meaning. E X H I B I T 11–1 E X H I B I T 11–1© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. Direction of CommunicationUpward Downward Lateral
  7. 7. Interpersonal Communication Interpersonal Communication Oral Communication – Advantages: Speed and feedback. – Disadvantage: Distortion of the message. Written Communication – Advantages: Tangible and verifiable. – Disadvantages: Time consuming and lacks feedback. Nonverbal Communication – Advantages: Supports other communications and provides observable expression of emotions and feelings. – Disadvantage: Misperception of body language or gestures can influence receiver’s interpretation of message.© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal Communication Body Movement Intonations Facial Expressions Physical Distance© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rightsreserved.
  9. 9. Intonations: It’s the Way You Say It! Intonations: It’s the Way You Say It!Change your tone and you change your meaning:Placement of the emphasis What it meansWhy don’t I take you to dinner tonight? I was going to take someone else.Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight? Instead of the guy you were going with.Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight? I’m trying to find a reason why I shouldn’t take you.Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight? Do you have a problem with me?Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight? Instead of going on your own.Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight? Instead of lunch tomorrow.Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight? Not tomorrow night.Source: Based on M. Kiely, “When ‘No’ Means ‘Yes,’ ” Marketing, October 1993, pp. 7–9. Reproduced in A. Huczynski E X H I B I T 11–2and D. Buchanan, Organizational Behaviour, 4th ed. (Essex, England: Pearson Education, 2001), p. 194. E X H I B I T 11–2© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. Three Common Formal Small-Group Networks Three Common Formal Small-Group Networks E X H I B I T 11–3 E X H I B I T 11–3© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. Small-Group Networks and Effectiveness Small-Group Networks and Effectiveness Criteria Criteria TYPES OF NETWORKS Criteria Chain Wheel All Channel Speed Moderate Fast Fast Accuracy High High Moderate Emergence of a leader Moderate High None Member satisfaction Moderate Low High E X H I B I T 11–4 E X H I B I T 11–4© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. Grapevine Grapevine Social network of communication that helps employees to translate management formal messages into “employee language” Grapevine Characteristics – Informal, not controlled by management. – Perceived by most employees as being more believable and reliable than formal communications. – Largely used to serve the self-interests of those who use it. – Results from: • Desire for information about important situations • Ambiguous conditions • Conditions that cause anxiety© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. The Grapevine Control Reliability Self- Interests
  14. 14. Suggestions for Reducing the Negative Suggestions for Reducing the Negative Consequences of Rumors Consequences of Rumors 1. Announce timetables for making important decisions. 2. Explain decisions and behaviors that may appear inconsistent or secretive. 3. Emphasize the downside, as well as the upside, of current decisions and future plans. 4. Openly discuss worst-case possibilities—it is almost never as anxiety-provoking as the unspoken fantasy.Source: Adapted from L. Hirschhorn, “Managing Rumors,” in L. Hirschhorn (ed.), E X H I B I T 11–5 E X H I B I T 11–5Cutting Back (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1983), pp. 54–56. With permission.© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. Computer-Aided Communication Computer-Aided Communication E-mail – Advantages: quickly written, sent, and stored; low cost for distribution. – Disadvantages: information overload, lack of emotional content, cold and impersonal. Instant messaging – Advantage: “real time” e-mail transmitted straight to the receiver’s desktop. – Disadvantage: can be intrusive and distracting.© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. Computer-Aided Communication (cont’d) Computer-Aided Communication (cont’d) Intranet – A private organization-wide information network. Extranet – An information network connecting employees with external suppliers, customers, and strategic partners. Videoconferencing – An extension of an intranet or extranet that permits face- to-face virtual meetings via video links.© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  17. 17. Knowledge Management (KM) Knowledge Management (KM) Knowledge Management A process of organizing and distributing an organization’s collective wisdom so the right information gets to the right people at the right time. Why KM is important: Why KM is important: Intellectual assets are as important as physical assets. Intellectual assets are as important as physical assets. When individuals leave, their knowledge and experience When individuals leave, their knowledge and experience goes with them. goes with them. A KM system reduces redundancy and makes the A KM system reduces redundancy and makes the organization more efficient. organization more efficient.© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. Choice of Communication Channel Choice of Communication Channel Channel Richness The amount of information that can be transmitted during a communication episode. Characteristics of Rich Channels Characteristics of Rich Channels 1. Handle multiple cues simultaneously. 1. Handle multiple cues simultaneously. 2. 2. Facilitate rapid feedback. Facilitate rapid feedback. 3. 3. Are very personal in context. Are very personal in context.© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. Information Richness of Communication Information Richness of Communication Channels Channels Low channel richness High channel richness Routine NonroutineSource: Based on R.H. Lengel and D.L. Daft, “The Selection of Communication Media as an Executive Skill,”Academy of Management Executive, August 1988, pp. 225–32; and R.L. Daft and R.H. Lengel, “OrganizationalInformation Requirements, Media Richness, and Structural Design,” Managerial Science, May 1996, pp. 554–72. E X H I B I T 11–7 E X H I B I T 11–7Reproduced from R.L. Daft and R.A. Noe, Organizational Behavior (Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt, 2001), p. 311.© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  20. 20. Barriers to Effective Communication Barriers to Effective Communication Filtering A sender’s manipulation of information so that it will be seen more favorably by the receiver. Selective Perception People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience, and attitudes. Information Overload A condition in which information inflow exceeds an individual’s processing capacity.© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  21. 21. Barriers to Effective Communication (cont’d) Barriers to Effective Communication (cont’d) Emotions How a receiver feels at the time a message is received will influence how the message is interpreted. Language Words have different meanings to different people. Communication Apprehension Undue tension and anxiety about oral communication, written communication, or both.© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  22. 22. Communication Barriers Between Men and Communication Barriers Between Men and Women Women Men talk to:  Women talk to: – Emphasize status, – Establish connection power, and and familiarity. independence. – Criticize men for not – Complain that women listening. talk on and on. – Speak of problems to – Offer solutions. promote closeness. – To boast about their – Express regret and accomplishments. restore balance to a conversation.© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  23. 23. Silence as Communication Silence as Communication Absence of speech or noise – Powerful form of communication – Can indicate • Thinking • Anger • Fear – Watch for gaps, pauses, & hesitations in conversations© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. “Politically Correct” Communication “Politically Correct” Communication Certain words stereotype, intimidate, and insult individuals. In an increasingly diverse workforce, we must be sensitive to how words might offend others. – Removed: handicapped, blind, and elderly – Replaced with: physically challenged, visually impaired, and senior. Removing certain words from the vocabulary makes it harder to communicate accurately. – Removed: garbage, quotas, and women. – Replaced with terms: postconsumer waste materials, educational equity, and people of gender.© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  25. 25. Word Semantics implication Barriers to Effective Cross-Cultural Communication Tone Perception Differences Differences2007 ©‫ ﴀ‬Prentice Hall Inc. All rightsreserved.
  26. 26. Hand Gestures Mean Different Things in Hand Gestures Mean Different Things in Different Countries Different Countries E X H I B I T 11–9 E X H I B I T 11–9© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  27. 27. Hand Gestures Mean Different Things in Hand Gestures Mean Different Things in Different Countries (cont’d) Different Countries (cont’d) E X H I B I T 11–9 (cont’d) E X H I B I T 11–9 (cont’d)© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  28. 28. Communication Barriers and Cultural Context Communication Barriers and Cultural Context High-Context Cultures Cultures that rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues to communication. Low-Context Cultures Cultures that rely heavily on words to convey meaning in communication.© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  29. 29. High- High- vs. vs. Low- Low- Context Context Cultures Cultures E X H I B I T 11–10 E X H I B I T 11–10© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  30. 30. A Cultural Guide Assume EmphasizeDifferences DescriptionDevelop a CultivateHypothesis Empathy

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