Elements of mining


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Elements of mining

  1. 1. Elements of mining •Mine
  2. 2. Elements of mining • Mining • Mining engineering Geological definition • Mineral • Rock
  3. 3. Elements of mining Economic definition of minerals • Ore • Gangue • Common gangue minerals in gold ores include quartz, fluorite, calcite and pyrite, but many others can be found in smaller amounts.
  4. 4. Elements of mining • Mineral deposit • Ore deposit
  5. 5. Elements of mining • Three categories of commercial minerals 1. Metallic ores(ferrous,base,radioactive) 2. Non metallic ores 3. Mineral fuels
  6. 6. Elements of mining • base metal is used to refer to a metal that oxidizes or corrodes relatively easily, and reacts variably with diluted hydrochloric acid (HCl) to form hydrogen.
  7. 7. Elements of mining Two type of mining is done depending upon geologic , environmental,economic and legal conditions. 1. Surface mining 2. Under ground mining
  8. 8. Elements of mining • Before mining geological investigations • After mining mineral processing(e.g gravity separation). • Smelting • Refining • marketing
  9. 9. Elements of mining • • • • Civil and military excavations Vehicular tunnels Storage reservoirs Military installations
  10. 10. Elements of mining • Geology deals with locating and exploring mineral deposit • Mining Proving,planning,developing and exploiting of ore • Metallurgy Processing ,smelting, refining
  11. 11. Development of mining technology • The long period of prehistoric times is divided into different ages which are named from the material which man used in the manufacture of his weapons and tools. The earliest time is known as the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age; the following one as the Neolithic or New Stone Age; and the later period as the Age of Metals.
  12. 12. definitions • prehistoric times refers to all the time preceding human existence and the invention of writing • Paleo- lithic, old-stone • Old stone age Paleolithic is the period during which human beings lived entirely by hunting • Neolithic is the following interval during which plant and animal domestication started
  13. 13. Development of mining technology • Mining starts 450,000 years ago. • Flint (or flintstone) is a hard, sedimentary form of the mineral quartz categorized as a variety of chert. • Flint was used for the manufacture of flint tools during the Stone Age as it splits into thin, sharp splinters called flakes or blades (depending on the shape) when struck by another hard object.
  14. 14. Development of mining technology • In beginning only surface mining • First underground mine in old stone age 40000 years ago.(hematite,swaziland) • Systematic opening in new stoneage 2-3 ft high 30 feet deep. • Depth 800 feet egyptian time.
  15. 15. Development of mining technology • Initially metals used in native form, by washing. • In bronze and iron age smelting. Rock breakage • By bones wood or stone tools.(wedging) • Then by fire setting • In 17th century black powder.
  16. 16. Development of mining technology • • • • • Firstly slaves andconvicts Egyptians organised mining Romans industrialised it Mining suffered dark age 1185 A.D bishop of trent
  17. 17. Development of mining technology • 18th century industrial revolution • 20 th century mechanized mining, computerization. • Low grade deposits can be mined
  18. 18. definitions • Dark age a period of intellectual darkness 6th to 13th centuries. It came after fall of roman empire. • New world, america is regarded as new world
  19. 19. Development of mining technology Chronological Development of Mining Technology • 450,000 First mining (at surface),by Paleolithic humans for stone implements. • 40,000 Surface mining progresses underground, in Swaziland, Africa. • 30,000 Fired clay pots used in Czechoslovakia. • 18,000 Possible use of gold and copper in native form. • 5000 Fire setting,used by Egyptians to break rock. • 4000 Early use of fabricated metals; start of Bronze Age.
  20. 20. • Video stone cutting • Turquoise is an opaque, blue-to-green mineral that is a hydrous phosphate of copper and aluminium
  21. 21. Development of mining technology • 3400 First recorded mining,of turquoise by Egyptians in Sinai. • 3000 Probable first smelting,of copper with coal by Chinese; first use of iron implements by Egyptians. • 2000 Earliest known gold artifacts in New World,in Peru. • 1000 Steel used by Greeks. • 100 A.D Thriving Roman mining industry. • 122 Coal used by Romans in present-day United Kingdom. • 1185 Edict by bishop of Trent gives rights to miners
  22. 22. Development of mining technology • 1524 First recorded mining in New World,by Spaniards in Cuba. • 1550 First use of lift pump,at Joachimstal, Czechoslovakia. • 1556 First mining technical work, De Re Metallica,published in Germany by Georgius Agricola. • 1585 Discovery of iron ore in North America,in North Carolina. • 1600s Mining commences in eastern United States (iron,coal, lead,gold ). • 1627 Explosives first used in European mines,in Hungary (possible prior use in China).
  23. 23. Development of mining technology • 1646 First blast furnace installed in North America,in Massachusetts. • 1716 First school of mines established,at Joachimstal, Czechoslovakia. • 1780 Beginning of Industrial Revolution; pumps are first modern machines used in mines.
  24. 24. Development of mining technology • 1800s Mining progresses in United States; gold rushes help open the West. • 1815 Sir Humphrey Davy invents miner’s safety lamp in England. • 1855 Bessemer steel process first used,in England. • 1867 Dynamite invented by Nobel,applied to mining.
  25. 25. • A gold rush is a period of migration of workers into the area of dramatic discovery of gold.
  26. 26. Development of mining technology • 1903 Era of mechanization and mass production opens in U.S. mining with development of first low-grade copper porphyry,in Utah; although the first modern mine was an open pit,subsequent operations were underground as well. • 1940 First continuous miner initiates the era of mining without explosives. • 1945 Tungsten carbide bits developed by McKenna Metals Company (now Kennametal)