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Alkenes part 2 addition reactions

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  • Boardworks AS Chemistry Alkenes
  • Boardworks AS Chemistry Alkenes
  • Boardworks AS Chemistry Alkenes Teacher notes See the ‘ Bonding and Intermolecular Forces ’ presentation for more information about co-ordinate bonds.
  • Boardworks AS Chemistry Alkenes Photo credit: JoLin / shutterstock.com
  • Boardworks AS Chemistry Alkenes Photo credit: Jerry Mason / Science Photo Library Experiment demonstrating an addition reaction. In the flask at left is bromine water, with a characteristic orange colour. When added to cyclohexene, the bromine water loses its colour. This is because the bromine attacks and breaks the double bond of cyclohexene, bonding with it and forming the colourless 1, 2- dibromocyclohexane.
  • Boardworks AS Chemistry Alkenes
  • Boardworks AS Chemistry Alkenes Teacher notes In the reaction between ethene and sulfuric acid, ethyl hydrogen sulfate is sometimes written as CH 3 CH 3 OSO 2 OH or CH 3 CH 2 HSO 4 .
  • Boardworks AS Chemistry Alkenes Teacher notes The major product can be predicted using Markovnikov’s rule. This states that when a substance H–X reacts with an alkene by electrophilic addition, the major product is the one in which the hydrogen atom is bonded to the carbon atom to which the greatest number of hydrogen atoms were initially bonded. This rule was established in 1870 by the Russian chemist Vladimir Markovnikov (1837–1904). Students could be asked to draw the reaction mechanisms for this reaction, showing the carbocation intermediates for both the major and minor products. Likewise, if propene reacts with concentrated sulfuric acid followed by warm water, the major product is propan-2-ol, with propan-1-ol being a minor product.
  • Boardworks AS Chemistry Alkenes
  • Boardworks AS Chemistry Alkenes
  • Boardworks AS Chemistry Alkenes
  • Transcript

    • 1. 1 of 13 © Boardworks Ltd 2009
    • 2. 2 of 13 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 Double bonds and electrophiles The double bond of an alkene is an area of high electron density, and therefore an area of high negative charge. The negative charge of the double bond may be attacked by electron-deficient species, which will accept a lone pair of electrons. Alkenes undergo addition reactions when attacked by electrophiles. This is called electrophilic addition. These species have either a full positive charge or slight positive charge on one or more of their atoms. They are called electrophiles, meaning ‘electron loving’.
    • 3. 3 of 13 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 Electrophilic addition mechanism: 1 In the first stage of electrophilic addition, the positive charge on the electrophile is attracted to the electron density in the double bond. As the electrophile approaches the double bond, electrons in the A–B bond are repelled towards B. The pi bond breaks, and A bonds to the carbon, forming a carbocation – an ion with a positively-charge carbon atom. The two electrons in the A–B bond move to B forming a B- ion. δ+ δ- →
    • 4. 4 of 13 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 Electrophilic addition mechanism: 2 In the second stage of electrophilic addition, the B- ion acts as a nucleophile and attacks the carbocation. The lone pair of electrons on the B- ion are attracted towards the positively- charged carbon in the carbocation, causing B to bond to it. → Because both electrons in the bond that joins B- to the carbocation ion come from B- , the bond is a co-ordinate bond.
    • 5. 5 of 13 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 What is hydrogenation? Hydrogen can be added to the carbon–carbon double bond using a nickel catalyst in a process called hydrogenation. C2H4 + H2 → C2H6 Vegetable oils are unsaturated and may be hydrogenated to make margarine, which has a higher melting point. As well as a nickel catalyst, this requires a temperature of 200°C and a pressure of 1000kPa.
    • 6. 6 of 13 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 Testing for alkenes The presence of unsaturation (a carbon– carbon double bond) can be detected using bromine water, a red/orange coloured solution of bromine. A few drops of bromine water are added to the test liquid and shaken. If a carbon–carbon double bond is present, the bromine adds across it and the solution turns colourless.
    • 7. 7 of 13 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 More on the bromine water test A simple equation for the bromine water test with ethene is: However, because water is present in such a large amount, a water molecule (which has a lone pair) adds to one of the carbon atoms, followed by the loss of a H+ ion. CH2=CH2 + Br2 + H2O → CH2BrCH2Br + H2O CH2=CH2 + Br2 + H2O → CH2BrCH2OH + HBr The major product of the test is not 1,2-dibromoethane (CH2BrCH2Br) but 2-bromoethan-1-ol (CH2BrCH2OH).
    • 8. 8 of 13 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 Electrophilic addition reactions
    • 9. 9 of 13 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 Addition to unsymmetrical alkenes When an electrophile (e.g. HBr) attacks an alkene with three or more carbon atoms (e.g. propene), a mix of products is formed. This is because these alkenes are unsymmetrical. Unequal amounts of each product are formed due to the relative stabilities of the carbocation intermediates. minor product: 1-bromopropane major product: 2-bromopropane HBr
    • 10. 10 of 13 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 A chain of carbon atoms can be represented by R when drawing organic structures. This is an alkyl group (general formula CnH2n+1).  Primary (1°) carbocations have one alkyl group attached to the positively-charged carbon.  Secondary (2°) carbocations have two alkyl groups attached to the positively-charged carbon.  Tertiary (3°) carbocations have three alkyl groups attached to the positively-charged carbon. Structure of carbocations
    • 11. 11 of 13 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 The stability of carbocations increases as the number of alkyl groups on the positively-charged carbon atom increases. The stability increases because alkyl groups contain a greater electron density than hydrogen atoms. This density is attracted towards, and reduces, the positive charge on the carbon atom, which has a stabilizing effect. Stability of carbocations increasing stability tertiaryprimary secondary
    • 12. 12 of 13 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 Structure of carbocations
    • 13. 13 of 13 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 Electrophiles: true or false?

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