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Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
Test cracker's clat crasher
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Test cracker's clat crasher

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  • Hello guys...
    Came across this beautiful article on Tips to crack an Entrance Exam. You should definitely give this a read ....
    Will help you gain a few points here and there...and a new way to put yourself to discipline while preparing for the competitive exams.
    http://www.gyancentral.com/forum/getting-started-gyanforums/announcement-suggestions-feedback/8696-10-tips-prepare-competitive-exams.html#post21946
    Goodluck...Cheers!!!!
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
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  • As all the entrances approach we need to make the base of each of our section strong...
    Sectional test available free for practice... Lets make the best use of it..
    Here's the link
    http://www.gyancentral.com/testcentral/
    All Best guys!!!!
       Reply 
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    Your message goes here
  • AILET with just a couple of days away on 4th May, Revising last year papers becomes highly important...

    Here is a link for your convenience.... Giving you the pdf's of last year AILET exam...

    http://www.gyancentral.com/forum/law-exams/ailet-set-lsat-other-law-exam-related-discussion/7381-past-year-ailet-papers.html
       Reply 
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    Your message goes here
  • As the days for CLAT come closer... practicing English forms a very important part of the curriculum.. high on scoring..

    So here's free mock available ...

    Must task for all CLAT aspirants.. ... cheers!! Good luck :0

    https://www.facebook.com/events/134149050093582/?ref=3&ref_newsfeed_story_type=regular
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • A wonderful article read online... for maximizing score in CLAT....
    Must read... help you develop the art..
    http://www.gyancentral.com/forum/law-exams/clat-related-discussions/8686-how-maximize-your-score-clat-201-a.html#post21918
       Reply 
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  • 1. Want to crack CLAT?30 - 150 – 150 – 8 - 1000. Remember the code.Equality ends at birth. The world is merciless, asymmetric and unequal. TestCracker’s CLAT Crasher– the most powerful intervention in CLAT training – propagates and perpetuates this inequality byproviding an unfair advantage to those who believe in us. At the end of our power packed program(refer our planner on the next page) you will be an outlier, much above the pack.No condition and no assumptions. It is designed for performance – to help you master the syllabus,test you on each topic, each sub-topic, provide you the smartest full length mock tests and tons oftricks and tips so that you can peak in time for the real test. Even a cursory look at our Planner willconvince you that this is no ordinary module – powerful content, powerfully delivered. CLAT Crasherhas the backing of those who have sent hundreds of CLAT aspirants to the hallowed portals of lawschools.At the end of each session of any section you have to compulsorily take the test on the session to goto the next session of the same section. In just 30 days, you complete the entire 150 sessions andthe 150 session based tests along with 8 full length tests. The 150 sessions which you take arecarefully designed to cover the exhaustive list of topics in the most intensive manner. After the testyou get the analysis in the most comprehensive manner you can imagine. These sessional tests alsoact as a bridge between the concepts learnt in the daily sessions and their applications in full lengthtests. Our 8 full length tests are smartly and crisply designed to ensure your smooth movement tothe peak of your preparation just in time for the CLAT day. Towards the end of the sessions, the1000 question supplement will almost ensure that you will have a deja-vu feeling while attemptingyour CLAT paper. Yes, you would have seen those questions in our sessions! (Refer to our planner)Our CLAT Crasher program is meant to be a one stop window for you CLAT preparation.If you are convinced about our intent and want to be a participant in our supercharged CLATCrasher, you can register with us by visiting www.testcracker.in/clat or calling us on 08103331238.To top it all, we don’t even charge much – we are here for the itch, for the cause.Just Rs 4,200 to gatecrash and crack CLAT! Scroll down to have a look at the 30 day planner. 30 - 150 – 150 – 8 – 1000 is the code for cracking CLAT.©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 2. SESSION PLANNEROur sample sessions below (one on each section of CLAT) are present for your perusal. We hopeyou will be convinced about our superiority and sincerity in CLAT training. If you are convincedabout our intent and want to be a participant in our supercharged CLAT Crasher, you can registerwith us by visiting www.testcracker.in/clat or calling us up on +91 8103331238.©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 3. Session 1 - LEGAL TORTS 1What is you course of action if your neighbour empties his daily trash bin just in front of your house? a) You live by Newton’s third law. b) You live by the principle of Gandhigiri c) You live by ignoring your neighbour. d) You live by seeking to the law of the land.Do you even know that option D is available at your disposal?At the end of this session you shall not only know about your legal rights but you shall also play thejudge for such tort feasors!!Torts are civil wrongs for which the injured party can seek compensation or unliquidated damages.To understand the definition let us look at the ingredients. TORT comes from the 1) Civil Wrong Latin word Tortum which 2) Injured means Twisted. So Law 3) Damages of Torts, basically deals with twisted behaviour! Plaintiff and Defendant: Plaintiff is the party who files the lawsuit and defendant is the party who is charged with commitment of tort. In simpler words, plaintiff is the one who alleges some wrong doing against him by the defendant and hence files the complaint against the defendant and seeks compensation. 1. Civil Wrong:Civil wrongs are those wrong actions that are not recognized by the state as being criminal in nature.Bit Confused? Let us understand the difference between Civil and Criminal Wrong.  Public Vs Private wrong: A criminal wrong is a wrong which is against the public or society (even though victims can be few or even a single person) and civil wrong is the violation of private or individual’s right.  Initiating the legal proceedings: Since criminal wrong is against the public, anyone from public even police can initiate the prosecution. However, in case of civil wrong only the affected party (plaintiff) can file the lawsuit. Criminal wrongs are more serious in nature than civil wrongs. Murder, Theft, Rape etc. are crimes of serious nature. Although, victim could be few or one, anyone from the society could initiate the legal proceedings against the wrong doer because if the wrong doer is not stopped and punished then he might commit another such crime and is a threat to the entire society.©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 4.  Redressal: In criminal wrong the guilty either has to compensate the victim or is punished by law and sometimes both follows. However, in case of civil wrong the plaintiff is rewarded compensation by the defendant and sometimes court orders injunction to the defendant. Injunction: A court order by which an individual is required to perform, or is restrained from performing, a particular act. 2. Injury: To understand the meaning of injury more clearly we need to understand the difference between injury and damage. Injury is a harm or infringement of any right for which one can seek legal remedy. Damage is simply a loss and which may result in injury. From now whenever we speak of injury it implies legal injury. Example of Injury (Legal Injury): If someone trespasses upon your property he can be held responsible, even if his trespass did not cause you any harm because you enjoy a legal right to protect the bounds of your property. Similarly if someone slaps you he can be held liable even if you do not suffer any physical injury because you have the right to protect your body. However, if you suffer some financial loss in business due to competitive market then there is no legal right to protect you from financial loss and law will not hold your competitors responsible for your loss. 3. Unliquidated Damages: Damage simply means compensation which defendant has to pay to the plaintiff in case of some tort. Unliquidated damages are those damages which are not fixed in nature and vary from case to case. Liquidated damages are those which are fixed in nature and will remain same in all circumstances. A negligently throws a stone at the crowd and injures two people X & Y. It also happens so that both X & Y sustain similar injury. X happens to be the sole earning member of the family and Y is a student and has no dependants. Due to injury X and Y both had to take rest for 7 days. While deciding the compensation (damages) to be paid by A, the judge may look into several factors like loss of pay in case of X and suffering of the dependents of X due to his loss of pay and can ask A to pay a greater amount to X than to Y. So even though both X & Y suffered to same extent physically the living condition of X can prompt the judge to award him more compensation. So, it means unliquidated damages require consideration on several factors. On the other hand if A, B &C travel without ticket in a train from Delhi to Mumbai then the fine each one has to pay is same irrespective of their personal©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 5. Torts in India:  Law of Torts is not codified in India. Tort law is a relatively young area of law in India, apart from referring to local judicial precedents; courts have readily referred to case law from other common law jurisdictions.  People do not resort to Law of Torts in India because of the lack of awareness about the legal rights. Also, contesting a court case in India is often tedious process and is another reason for people not taking tort claims to court.When Is Tort Committed?For commission of Tort two conditions are necessary and sufficient:  The performance or omission of an act on part of defendant. It means a person has performed some act which he was not suppose to, for example, trespassing or the person has omitted to do an act which he was suppose to, for example, not maintain the windowpanes properly.  The performance or omission should result in legal injury. Legal injury is committed when a person legal right is infringed. As explained before legal injury may or may not result in any harm or damage. - Damnum Sine Injuria (Damage without Injury ) – It means there is a harm but no legal injury. QUICK RECAP - Injuria Sine Damnum ( Injury without Damage ) – It means Injury – Violation of right there is injury but no harm. Damage – Harm Pulse Check Damages - Compensation When is tort committed? a) Damnum Sine Injuria b) Injuria Sine Damnum c) In both the cases d) In none of the above casesDefences In TortsDefence is an argument which is presented by the defendant. There can be numerous kinds ofdefences but few are common and are used widely. It is to be noted that defences are just thearguments used by defendant against the allegations made. We will discuss few common defencesin Torts: 1) Volenti Non Fit Injuria: Volenti non fit injuria is a latin phrase meaning ‘to one who volunteers, no harm is done. This defence absolves defendant of all the liabilities. If plaintiff voluntarily agrees for an act being completely aware about the risk involved then any the defendant can use VNFI as a defence if plaintiff suffers some injury on account of the act.©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 6. The requirements of the defence are thus: a. Voluntary Agreement – Plaintiff should have wishfully done the act. If theplaintiff is not in a position to exercise free choice, the defence will not succeed. This element is most commonly seen in relation to employment relationships. b. Knowledge -. It means that plaintiff is aware of and has agreed to bear the consequences of the risk associated with the act. a. Bharat goes to watch a cricket match. During the match batsman hits the ball for a six and ball lands up on Bharat’s head thus injuring him. Bharat sues the batsman and seeks compensation. b. Bharat goes to watch a cricket match. During the match, due to short circuit fire breaks out and Bharat sustains injury. Bharat sues the stadium authorities and seeks compensation. In a. Bharat will not succeed because he voluntarily went to watch the match and it is common knowledge that there is a chance (although minor) of one getting injured by the ball. Also it is understood that when one goes to watch a match or to do any activity wilfully he is ready to bear any consequences pertaining to sports or that activity and hence in this case batsman can successfully use VNFI as a defence. In b. Bharat will succeed because although he voluntarily went to watch the match and it is also a common knowledge that there is a chance (although minor) of fire or stampede one never agrees to bear the consequences pertaining to such issues. So unless the short circuit or stampede is due to Act of God stadium authorities cannot use defence of VNFI. All ingredients holding good defence of VNFI will not work in following cases Master –Servant Relationship – Because it is assumed that servant does not do act wilfully Rescue Cases- Because the rescuer does the act for greater good..2. Act of Self Defence: If the Defendant uses the force which is necessary for self-defence, he willnot be liable for the harm caused thereby. Two important ingredients are:a. Use of force which is necessary – One cannot use a sword for pin and the force used in act of selfdefence should be proportionate and reasonable.b. Justification for use of force – It means the threat should be imminent. Reasonable according to a normal individual of a society and not according to the wrong doer.©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 7. a) Ram and Ravana are two childhood enemy. One fine morning Ram decides to teach Ravana lesson. Ram hurls abuses at Ravana and swirls his hockey stick to hit Ravana. Ravana takes out pistol and shoots at Ram thus killing him. Ravana uses act of self defence. b) Ram and Ravana are two childhood enemy. One fine morning Ram says to Ravana ‘Watch out of tomorrow, it is going to be your last day’. Ravana retaliates and makes the same day as Ram’s last day. Ravana uses act of self defence. c) Ram and Ravana are two childhood enemy. Ram with his gang hits Ravana badly last Tuesday. Ravana seething with revenge decides to settle score with Ram and kills him on Friday. Ravana uses act of self defence. In a) Ravana cannot use act of self defence because the force which he used was not proportionate. In b) Ravana cannot use act of self defence because the danger to him was not immediate. In c) Ravana cannot use act of self defence because this defence does not work in case of revenge. 3. Inevitable accident: An unexpected and unavoidable injury that happened in spite of reasonable care taken by the Defendant. The ingredients defence are: a) Unexpected and Unavoidable: If something is expected then it could be avoided. b) Reasonable care: Defendant should have taken reasonable care despite which something unexpected and hence unavoidable take place. a) Chhabbisgarh is a newly formed state of Khalistan. The state is naxilite affected and the rural and interior areas regularly witness the gory violence between police and naxalites often killing innocent villagers. Hoshpur, the capital has never witnessed any naxalite attack but naxals have attacked a police station not far from the Hoshpur recently. It happens that naxals attack Hoshpur and kills several innocent people. The civil society of Hoshpur sues the state government and state government seeks the defence of Inevitable accident. State government cannot use the defence of inevitable accident because under given circumstances anyone could expect the naxalite attack in the capital and it was the duty of authorities to take reasonable care. 4. Act of God: This is also a kind of inevitable accident except instead of human intervention some natural forces of extraordinary proportions are involved. The important ingredients for this defence are: a) Natural Forces: There should not be any human intervention involved. If there is any human hand involved then it is not act of God although it may classify as inevitable accident.©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 8. b) Extraordinary Proportions: This involves the occurrence of natural phenomenon which has never been experienced before. A phenomenon which is Extraordinary for one place could be ordinary for other. a) Chhabbisgarh is a newly formed state of Khalistan. The state has moderate climate and has never witnessed flood or famine. However, one year heavy monsoon lashes the state resulting in continuous torrential rainfall. The rainfall results in flood causing loss of life and property. The civil society sues the state government and state government seeks the defence of Act of God. Yes, the state government can use this defence because as mentioned the history of the place suggest that it has never witnessed such heavy rainfalls resulting in flood. The event is extraordinary and hence unavoidable. Pulse Check What will be your answer if the above mentioned event takes place in the city of Mumbai which has a history of heavy rains? Can Act of God be used as a defence? 5. Plaintiff is the wrong doer: In such cases it is plaintiff who does some illegal act and suffers injury. The important ingredients for this defence are: a. Plaintiff was performing some illegal act b. Injury inflicted by the defendant a. Ram trespasses into Ravana’s house. Ravana’s pet dog severely injures Ram. Ram sues Ravana. Ravana seeks defence of plaintiff is the wrong doer. Yes, Ravana can seek the defence provided that he has not let the dog loose on Ram without any warning. Note that defendant cannot do anything just because the plaintiff is wrongdoer. 6. Necessity: If a person commits an act causing damage in order to prevent a greater harm, he is not liable. Important ingredients for this defence: a. Act caused injury b. Act was done to prevent greater harm a. Ram trespasses into Ravana’s house get water from his well as Laxman was burning in fire. . Ravana sues Ram for trespassing. Ram can use the defence of necessity because he did the act (though wrong) to prevent greater harm.©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 9. 7. Statutory Authority: This defence is used by government or legislature bodies when while performing any authorized act someone is injured. It should be noted that act resulting in injury should only be an authorized act. A statutory authority is a body set up by law which is authorised to enforce legislation on behalf of the relevant country or state. The municipal corporation decides to lay the optical fiber cables in the city. After the entire days work the laborers forget to cordon off or fill up the road dug to lay the cables. Ram met an accident due to this and he sues the municipal corporation. Municipal Corporation was doing an authorized act but there was negligence on their part and so they cannot use the defence of statutory authority. Note that this defence will not work if there is any negligence on part of the authorities. PRACTICE TEST[Every session will have a practice test immediately following the session.These 150 session-based-tests will be in addition to 8 Full Length Mocks. Theanalysis of these tests (session based as well as Full Length Mocks) will bestate-of-the-art, providing computer generated feedback on your strengthsand weaknesses] 1) Principle: A person has no remedy against an injury caused by an act to which he has voluntarily consented (VNFI). Facts: A building of a renowned hotel caught fire due to short circuit. Nitin, a bystander, saw this and jumped into the well in order to save Rohan, a child who was stranded inside the building. In trying to save Rohan, Nitin sustained injuries. Nitin afterwards claim compensation from the hotel management. Hotel Management seeks to use principle of VNFI. a) Hotel Management can successfully use the defence of VNFI. b) Hotel Management was negligent because of which short circuit happened and so they are entitled to compensate Nitin. c) Nitin should seek compensation from Rohan’s parent and not Hotel Management. d) Hotel Management cannot use the defence of VNFI as Nitin was acting to rescue a life and in such cases the principle of VNFI do not apply. 2) Principle: A person has no remedy against an injury caused by an act to which he has voluntarily consented (VNFI).©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 10. Explanation: Voluntarily consent is considered for the actions or consequences which one can reasonably foresee. Facts: Gita underwent a surgery for removal of stones in her kidney. Gita signed a document stating that she acknowledges the risk associated with the operation and so will bear the consequences accordingly. The Surgeon Amit, who performed the surgery, left a piece of gauze in the abdominal cavity during the operation. Geeta developed infection and had to undergo second operation. She sues Amit for compensation. Amit seeks defence of VNFI. a) It was Geeta who voluntarily consented by signing the document and so she cannot seek any compensation b) Although, Geeta consented to the risk associated with the operation she never agreed to bear consequences arsing out of the carelessness of the surgeon which cannot be reasonably foreseen. And so Surgeon cannot use VNFI as a defence. c) Amit will have to compensate Geeta. d) None of the above 3) Principle: If plaintiff himself is the wrong does then there is no legal remedy available to him. However, merely because plaintiff is the wrong doer defendant cannot take extend his measures to any proportion. Facts: Poisonous berries were grown in the private garden of Mr. Dar. Shrub bearing the berries was neither fenced nor a notice regarding its poisonous character was displayed. Children often use to play in the adjacent ground and once it so happened that few mischievous children trespassed into Mr. Dar’s garden. Berries in the garden looked like cherries. A child, aged seven, ate those berries and died. Would Mr. Dar be held liable for the tort of negligence? a) No, it was the negligence of child’s parents due to which child consumed the berries b) No, since Mr. Dar can do anything in his private garden. c) Yes, Mr. Dar ought to have foreseen that such incident is possible. Merely because it is his private garden he cannot do anything. Yes, although the child was himself a wrongdoer but Mr. Dar’s measure was also disproportionate. d) No, the child himself was a wrong doer. 4) Principle: An act of good is an operation of natural forces so unexpected that no human foresight or skill could reasonably be expected to anticipate it. Facts: The New Friends Association was celebrating its 10th Anniversary and arranged for a concert by a leading musical group. The event was organized in one of the best auditoriums and all the tickets were sold out. On the day of the event, an earthquake destroyed many building including the auditorium. People who had purchased the tickets asked for refund from the New Friends Association as the show could not take place. a) The New Friends Association must refund the cost of tickets.©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 11. b) The management of the auditorium must refund the cost of the tickets c) The New Friends Association or anyone else need not refund the cost of tickets as it is an act of God d) The ticket holders can demand the show to be organized at a later point of time. 5) Facts: Hanuman Stores sent certain items in a horse carriage to a customers house, which happened to be by the side of a main road and near a school zone. The driver of the carriage delivered the items to the customers and went inside the house to collect the receipt, leaving the carriage unattended on the road. Some naughty children of nearby school threw stones at the horses. The horses ran in confusion and they were about to run over an old woman. A traffic police, at great risk to his life, somehow seized the horses and stopped the carriage. He suffered serious personal injuries in the process. The policeman and the old woman seeks compensation from Hanuman Stores. Principles: 1. Whoever is under a duty of care to another shall be liable for any injury to the latter directly resulting from the breach of that duty. (2) Injury suffered voluntarily does not constitute legal injury. a) Hanuman Stores is not liable, because they do not owe a duty of care to the old woman or policeman b) Hanuman Stores is not liable because some naughty children scared away their horses c) The policeman cannot succeed, because he suffered injury voluntarily d) None of the above 6) Principle: Every person has a right to defend his own person, property or possession against an immediate harm, and to that end, may use reasonable amount of force. Facts : - Mr. Kaul was passing by Mrs. Mattoos house. At that time, Mrs. Mattoos dog ran out and bit Mr. Kauls overcoat. Mr. Kaul turned around and raised the pistol he was carrying in the pocket of his overcoat. The dog ran away, and Mr. Kaul shot the dog as it was running away. Mr. Kaul knew that the dog had attacked so many other people in that locality of Jammu. Mrs. Mattoo claims that her dog was of a rare breed and it was worth Rs.5000/-. She is planning to bring a legal action against Mr. Kaul for compensation. a) She will succeed in getting compensation from Mr. Kaul because he killed the dog which was not actually attacking him at the time of shooting. b) She will not succeed because Mr. Kaul was justified in shooting the dog to protect himself. c) She will not succeed because Mr. Kaul took the action to protect himself as well as many other members of public in future. 7) 7. Principle: Tort is said to arise only when there is legal injury. Facts: A group of transporters joined hands and offered reduced rates of transportation and lucky draw in order to induce customers to transport goods only through them. In consequence of this, a company B which was kept out of the combination suffered trade©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 12. losses. B sues for damages alleging that defendants maliciously formed the group to kick him out of the trade. a) No, B cannot claim any damages that there is no legal injury. b) Yes, B can claim damages from the defendants because their act was out of malice. c) No, B cannot claim any damages as he should have been smart enough to come up with attractive schemes for the customers. d) Yes, B seek the remedy under competition protection law. 8) Principle: An act of God is an operation of natural forces so unexpected that no human foresight or skill could reasonably be expected to anticipate it. Facts: Robertss airplane was parked approximately 200 feet from the Mona’s plane. Mona failed to secure her plane by tying it down or setting the brakes. A strong windstorm caused Mona’s plane to roll into the Robert’s plane. Robert sues Mona for the damages. a) Robert cannot get the compensation as it was an act of God. b) Robert can get the compensation as Mona negligently parked her plane with no precautionary measures. c) It was Robert who parked his plane later and he should have maintained proper distance. d) None of the above. SOLUTIONS: 1) Answer a. If you look at the facts presented all the ingredients of the principle are satisfied. Nitin’s although act was although humanitarian was voluntary and he knew the risk associated with jumping to a building caught in fire. And so Hotel Management can claim VNFI as a defence. Remember that normally VNFI does not apply in rescue cases but in the given principle nothing has been mentioned about rescue cases and so we will not consider anything while deciding the answer. B) cannot be the answer as again my principle does not talk about negligence and also from facts we cannot gather if at all there was negligence on the Hotel Management’s part. 2) Answer b. It is easy as the option is in complete accord with the given principle and the explanation. In VNFI it also important that someone who is injured should have voluntarily given agreement for that injury only. 3) Answer c. The principle talks that defendant cannot take disproportionate measure simply because the plaintiff wrong doer. In this case Mr. Dar should have had some precautionary measures in place. 4) Answer c. In any reasoning question it is very important for the answer to have elements of principle in it. Only option c has the principle in it. All others answer choice are not in accordance with the principle.©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 13. 5) Answer d. The first thing to establish is whether Hanuman store owed duty of care towards old woman Yes they owed duty of care not only towards old woman but also towards every individual present in the road side and so horses should not have been left unattended. It does not matter then that the horses were provoked by some children. Hanuman stores was liable towards old woman. Policeman will succeed as he owed duty of care towards the woman. 6) Answer a. Mr. Kaul did not act in self defence here as he shot the dog when it was running away and there was no imminent danger to Mr. Kaul. 7) Answer a. The principle says that Tort only arises if there is any legal injury. But in this case company B has suffered financial losses and financial losses cannot be considered as legal injury. Malice and intention becomes irrelevant in such tort cases. D) is not the answer because principle does not talk about the competition protection law. C) is also not in accordance with the principle 8) Answer b. The principle has two ingredients a) unexpected event by natural forces. b) no reasonable foresight could have prevented the action. After reading the facts it is clear that the strong windstorm can be attributed to act of God. But it is also clear that Mona didn’t apply the reasonable foresight and skill while parking her plane so she cannot use the defence of Act of God. Also it does not matter who was the first to park the plane as principle does not give any preference in that regard.©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 14. Session 2 - ENGLISH Topic - Subject verb agreement Each of the following sentences is divided into four parts. One of the parts may contain a mistake. Identify that part and shade the appropriate oval. (NLSUI 2007) 1. Five prototype (a) / of each device(b) / are now being tested(c) / In hospitals in South Africa. (d) 2. Either the chairman (a)/ of the cricket board (b)/ or the players (c)/ is lying (d).Subject verb agreement is among the most commonly tested topics in grammar. The topic is simpleif few simple rules are kept in mind.The fundamental concept states that singular subject takes a singular verb, while a plural subjecttakes plural verb. Some Points to remember: - The trick is in knowing whether the subject is singular or plural. The next trick is recognizing a singular or plural verb. - Verbs do not form their plural by adding a‘s’ as nouns do. To determine which verb is singular and which one is plural, think of which verb you would use with ‘he’ or ‘she’ and which verb you would use with ‘they’. - The verb agrees with the subject and not with the noun. The people who listen to music -- -- few. (is/are). Here right answer is are because subject is people and verb has to agree with subject and not with noun which is music here. -Let us now look at a few important rules to be followedRule 1: The indefinite pronouns anyone, everyone, someone, noone, nobody, each are alwayssingular and, therefore, require singular verbs. - Everyone selected to serve on this jury _____ to be willing to give up a lot of time. (has/have). The correct answer is ‘has’ because everyone is a singular subject referring to each individual. - Each of the boys ------- dancing. (is/are). The correct answer is ‘is’. Look at the subject which is ‘each boy’ and not ‘boys’ Some indefinite pronouns — such as all, some — are singular or plural depending on what theyre referring to i.e countable or uncountable noun. - Some of the toys are missing. - Some of the milk is gone©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 15. Rule 2: Two singular subjects connected by either/or or neither/nor or either or neither requires a singular verb. - Neither Ram nor Rahim ------ going to play for india(is/are) - Either Ram or Rahim --------- helping today with stage decoration. (is/ are) - Either ------- fine with me(is/are) In all of the above the subject is singular and hence the verb will take singular form ‘is’ Rule 3: Two singular subjects connected by ‘or’ will always take singular verb. - Football or cricket -------- my favourite game. (is/are) The usage of ‘or’ signifies that any one of the two is true and hence the verb will take singular form ‘is’ Rule 4: When a singular subject is connected by ‘or’ or ‘nor’ to a plural subject, the verb takes form of the subject to which it is closer. - The book or the pens ------- in the bag. (was/were) - The pens or the book ----------in the bag. (was/were) The answer to first example is ‘were’ because verb has to placed closer to a plural subject ‘pens’. In the second example though the meaning remains same the verb assumes singular form because of singular subject near it. Rule 5: A plural rule verb is used with two or more subject connected by ‘and’. - Rahul -------- Anjali are best friend.(is/are) The answer is ‘are’ because two subjects are connected by ‘and’. Rule 6: Phrases such as together with, as well as, and along with are not the same as and. The phrase introduced by as well as or along with will modify the earlier subject, but it does not compound the subjects (as the word and would do) and hence the verb used should be singular. - The teacher as well as disciples -------- here. (Was/were) - Captain together with the team -------- present. (was/were) In both the examples ignore words ‘as well as’ and ‘together with’ and the subject following them as if they were never part of the sentence to determine the verb form. Rule 7: Sometimes modifiers will get between a subject and its verb, but these modifiers must not confuse the agreement between the subject and its verb.©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 16. - The mayor, who has been convicted along with his four brothers on four counts of various crimes, ---------finally going to jail. (is/are) Here main subject is mayor and ‘four brothers’ and ‘various crimes’ are acting as modifiers and so verb will take form of main subject. So answer is ‘is’. Rule 8: A collective noun is taken as singular subject when it is treated as a whole and plural when the components of the noun are treated individually. - The jury --------- unanimously decided to consider the case (has/have) - The jury ---------- divided on the issue (is/are) In the first example jury will be treated as a singular subject. The word unanimous itself suggest that collective and singular decision has been taken. In the second example the talk is on division among the jury and the noun sounds plural hence verb will take plural form. Rule 9: A noun which is plural in form but singular in nature (Politics, Civics etc.) will always take singular verb. On the other hand, some words ending in -s refer to a single thing but are nonetheless plural (assets, thanks etc.) and require a plural verb.- Civics ------- interesting subject. (Is/are)- Our thanks ---------- to the workers who supported the union. (Go/goes) The correct answers are ‘is’ and ‘go’ respectively. Rule 10: When the plural noun denotes some specific quantity or amount considered as a whole the verb is generally singular. - Fifty rupees -------- meagre amount (is/are) The correct answer is ‘is’. Rule 11: A plural countable subject takes plural verb and a plural uncountable subject takes singular verb. - A high percentage of the students ------- against price hike. (Is/are) - A high percentage of the student union------ against price hike. (Is/are)The answer to the first question is ‘are’ because A high percentage is mathematical expressionrepresenting plural countable subject and students make it countable. In the second blank answer is‘is’ because A high percentage is mathematical expression, student union makes it a lump sumquantity. Usage Note: - Words such as glasses, pants, pliers, and scissors are regarded as plural (and require plural verbs) unless theyre preceded the phrase ‘pair of’ (in which case the word pair becomes the subject). Example: Scissors are use to cut paper. A pair of scissors is used to cut paper. - The expression "more than one" (oddly enough) takes a singular verb: Example: More than one student has tried this." - Sums and products of mathematical processes are expressed as singular and require singular verbs©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 17. PRACTICE TEST[Every session will have a practice test immediately following the session.These 150 session-based-tests will be in addition to 8 Full Length Mocks. Theanalysis of these tests (session based as well as Full Length Mocks) will bestate-of-the-art, providing computer generated feedback on your strengthsand weaknesses]98924670211. Either the father or the mother ____ going to have to make a decision. (is/are)2. ______ leader or management going to win this grievance? (is/are)3. Some of the votes __________ to have been miscounted. (seem/seems)4. The tornadoes that tear through this county every spring _____ more than just a nuisance.(is/are)5. Everyone selected to serve on this jury _____ to be willing to give up a lot of time.(have/has)6. Three fourths of the population _________ voting for the new school. (Is/are).7. Mukesh as well as Tom --------------attended the meeting (has, have)8. It is not students but the principal who ------------- present. (was/were)9. A pair of sunglasses (is/ are) just for Rs100 here in this new shopping center.10. Three fourths of the people _________ voting for the new school. (is/are) SOLUTIONS 1) Answer - is. The rule applied is ‘ Two singular subjects connected by either/or or neither/nor or either or neither requires a singular verb’. Here father and chief mother both are singular subjects and hence verb will also be singular. 2) Answer is – The rule applied is ‘the subject closer to the verb (my boss) determines the number of the verb’. The verb has to be placed near singular subject leaderand hence it will take singular form. 3) Answer – appear – The rule applied is – ‘A plural countable subject takes plural verb’ Some votes is plural countable subject and hence verb will be plural. 4) Answer- are. The subject is ‘tornadoes’ which is plural and hence verb will take plural form. The rule applied is ‘Sometimes modifiers will get between a subject and its verb, but these modifiers must not confuse the agreement between the subject and its verb’. 5) Answer – has. The rule applied is – ‘The indefinite pronouns anyone, everyone, someone, no one, no body, each are always singular and, therefore, require singular verbs. ‘©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 18. 6) Answer – is. The rule applied is – ‘A plural countable subject takes plural verb and a plural uncountable subject takes singular verb.’ Here three fourths of the population is lump sum entity and hence singular in nature. 7) Answer- has. The rule applied is –‘ Words such as as well as are only modifiers to the subject and not the subject’ . Mukesh is the main subject here and since subject is singular verb used is also singular. 8) Answer – was. The rule applied is – ‘Sometimes modifiers will get between a subject and its verb, but these modifiers must not confuse the agreement between the subject and its verb’. The main subject here is principal and hence verb used will be singular. 9) Answer- is. Refer the usage notes at the end of the topic. A pair of sunglasses is a singular subject. 10) Answer- are. The rule applied is –‘ A plural countable subject takes plural verb and a plural uncountable subject takes singular verb.’ Here three fourths of people is countable plural subject hence verb used is plural in nature.©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 19. Session 3 – LOGICAL REASONINGThe term ‘syllogism’ comes from the Greek language which means ‘to say together’, or in otherwords a deductive logic where a conclusion is derived from two premises. Hence, a typical syllogismconsists of two parts: Premises and a Conclusion. The structure of a syllogism can be represented as:Now let us look at a valid syllogism: Premise 1: All buses have tyres. Premise 2: All buses are automobiles. Conclusion: All that have tyres are automobiles.The best way to validate if the above is a valid syllogism is by using a Venn Diagram. The VennDiagram for the above syllogism is given as follows: TYRES BUSES AUTOMOBILESNow, let us see another similar syllogism and check if it is valid or not using a Venn Diagram.©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 20. Statement 1: All that have tires are automobiles.Statement 2: All buses are automobiles.Conclusion: All buses have tires.The Venn diagram drawn above is also applicable for the above syllogism. But it is just one case, andthere is also another case which is possible. BUSES TYRES AUTOMOBILESIn the above case, the conclusion deduced from the two premises is not valid. So, the syllogism issaid to be invalid. For a syllogism to be valid, the conclusion should be valid for all the Venn Diagrams possible for the given syllogism.But most of the students fail to figure out all the Venn Diagrams for a given syllogism, thus ending upwith wrong answers. But if you always remember the following rules of making Venn Diagrams, youcan ensure that you never miss any.©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 21. RULE 1 All A are BThese types of statements are called affirmative statements. There are two possible Venn Diagramsfor such a stament, as shown below. A=B A B CASE 1 CASE 2The commonest mistake made by students in interpreting the above statement is to assume thatthere are no B which are not A. However, this is just a possibility as depicted in case 1 and thecontrary is also possible as in case 2. Hence, from the above statement we cannot conclude that all Bare A, as there is a possibility of some B not being A.RULE 2 No A are BThis statement is self explanatory and the easiest of the lot. It means that there is no element in Athat is also an element of B, or we can say that the Venn Diagrams of A and B do not intersect eachother. A B CASE 1From the above Venn Diagram, it can be logically concluded that ‘No B are A’.©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 22. RULE 3 Some A are BThis is the most important rule for the students to crack syllogisms. This particular statementappears in most of the syllogisms questions and the students also commit maximum mistakes ininterpreting such statementsThis statement means that there is atleast one element of A which is also an element of B. Theimportant thing to note here is the word ‘atleast’. There is a general misconception that ‘Some A areB’ means that ‘Some A are not B’; however this is not true because the statement ‘there is atleastone element of A which is also an element of B’ also includes that ‘all elements of A are the elementsof B’. Hence, there are four possible Venn Diagrams in this case: A B B A CASE 1 CASE 2 A=B A B CASE 3 CASE 4©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 23. RULE 4 Some A are not BThis statement is very different from the previous one. It means that there is atleast one element ofA which is not an element of B. Again, the word atleast plays an important role here and it can belogically concluded that ‘No A are B’ (however it is just a possibility).But the conclusion ‘Some A are B’ or ‘Some B are not A’ will be completely wrong and illogical. It canbe easily verified by looking at all the possible Venn Diagrams: B A B A CASE 1 CASE 21 A B CASE 3©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 24. 4 Steps to crack syllogisms  Go through the premises and identify their type among the given four.  Draw all the cases possible for each premise.  Using the Venn Diagrams, try to prove the conclusion wrong.  If you are unable to prove the conclusion wrong using all the cases at your disposal, the conclusion is valid; however if you are successful to prove it wrong, it is considered invalid. PRACTICE TEST[Every session will have a practice test immediately following the session.These 150 session-based-tests will be in addition to 8 Full Length Mocks. Theanalysis of these tests (session based as well as Full Length Mocks) will bestate-of-the-art, providing computer generated feedback on your strengthsand weaknesses] 1. All contracts are agreements. All agreements are accepted offers. Which of the following derivation is correct? (a) All accepted offers are contracts (b) All agreements are contracts (c) All contracts are accepted offers (d) None of the above. 2 . No minor can enter into a contract of work.Working in a shop can be done only by a contract.Which of the following derivation is correct? (a) A minor cannot work in a shop (b) A shop cannot contract with a minor (c) There cannot be a contract to which minor is a party (d) None of the above. 3. All motor vehicles are required to have third party insurance.Any vehicle not using mechanical device is not a motor vehicle.Which of the following is correct derivation from the above?(a) All Third Party Insurances relate to motor vehicles(b) Vehicles not using mechanical device need not have Third Party Insurance(c) All vehicles must have Third Party Insurance(d) None of the above. 4. All couples who have children are happy.©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 25. All couples either have children or are happy.Assuming the above to be true, which of the following CANNOT be true?i. Some couples are not happy.ii. Some couples who are happy have childreniii. Some couples who have children are not happy.a) i onlyb) ii onlyc) iii onlyd) i and iii onlye) ii and iii.onlyInstructions for question 5-10Shade (a) if only Conclusion I follows, or(b) if only Conclusion II follows, or(c ) if either Conclusion I or II follows or(d) if neither Conclusion I nor II follows.5. Statements I All rocks are caves II All caves are hotelsConclusions I All rocks are hotels II All caves are rocks III All hotels are caves IV The hotels that are caves are not rocks(a) Only I follows(b) Only II follows(c) Only II & III follows(d) Only IV follows(e) None of the above6. Statement I - All fat persons are doctorsStatement II - Some doctors are baldConclusions I. Some fat persons are bald II. Some bald persons are not doctors III No bald person is fat IV. All doctors are fat.(a) Only I & II follow(b) Either I or III follows(c) Only IV follows(d)Either III or IV follows(e) All the four follow 7. Statements I All men are dogs II All dogs are cats©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 26. Conclusions I All men are cats IIAll cats are men8. Statements I All coins are crows II Some crows are pensConclusions I No pen is coin II Some coins are pen9. Statements: I No women can vote II Some women are politiciansConclusions: I No politicians can vote II Some politicians can vote10. Statements I All teachers are good II Some women are teachersConclusions.: I All good teachers are women II Some women are good teachers SOLUTIONS1) Correct option: (C)The following Venn Diagram can be made using the above statements Contracts Agreements Accepted offersHence, the right answer is option c, i.e. all contracts are accepted offers.2) Correct option: (A)©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 27. Let C denote the people who can get into a contract of work, and let W denote the people who canwork in a shop. The Venn diagram will be given as: W Minors CHence, it is clear that no minor can work in a shop.3) Correct option: (d)Let M denote all motor vehicles, 3P denote all the vehicles that need to have a 3rd Party insurance,and Mech denote the vehicles having mechanical devices. 3P M Mech VehiclesFrom the above Venn Diagram we cannot be sure if all 3rd party insurances relate to only motorvehicles, however that may be a possible case. So, option a can be eliminated. Similarly, we canprove the converse of option b using the above Venn diagram. And we also have some vehicles –according to the Venn diagram –which do not require 3rd party insurance, so option c is alsoeliminated. So, option d is the right choice.4) Correct option: (d)©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 28. Children Couples HappyIn the above Venn diagram Children denotes the set of couples who have children and Happydenotes the people who are happy.Statement (i) is false, as all the couples are happy. Satement (ii) is true from the venn diagram. Againstatement (iii) is false, because all couples who have children are happy. So, correct choice is optiond.5. Correct option: (a) Caves Rocks HotelsOnly conclusion I is valid, and all others are refuted. Option a is the right choice.6. Correct option: (b)©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 29. Case 1 Case 2 Doctors Doctors Bald Fat Fat BaldCase 3 Doctors Fat BaldCase 1 refutes conclusion I, case 2 refutes conclusion III, and case 3 refutes conclusion II. ConclusionIV is not valid for all the cases as we cannot say that all the doctors are fat, however that may be apossible scenario. Also, conclusion I and III are self complementary, i.e. if one is false the other istrue and vice versa. Hence, the correct choice is option b.7. Correct option: (a) Dogs Cats Men©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 30. From the above Venn diagram, conclusion I is valid whereas Conclusion II is invalid. Option a is thecorrect choice.8. Correct option: (c) Crows Crows Pens Coins Pens CoinsThe above are two cases which are possible. The first one refutes conclusion I and the second onerefutes the second conclusion II. But, they are self complementary in nature. Hence, option c will bethe right choice.9. Correct option: (c) Women Vote Women Politicians Vote PoliticiansThe Venn diagrams above represent two possible cases where 1st case refutes conclusion I while the2nd case refutes conclusion II. But, they are self complementary in nature; hence either of thestatements must be true. Option c is the right choice.10. Correct option: (b)©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 31. Good Teacher Women sWe cannot say that all good teachers are women, because it is said that ‘some teachers are women’.So statement I is invalid. But statement II is valid, because there will be a few women who are goodteachers. So, option b is the right answer. Session 4 - MATHEMATICSPercentage : The percentage has been the most frequently tested area of Mathematics in CLAT.And the topic is simple too, if one understands the basic concepts. The idea of this session is toexplain the basic concepts of percentages.What is Percentage?Percentage is nothing but ‘per’ & ‘cent’ i.e. for every hundred. Anything which we can express as‘per 100’ can be termed as percentage.  ‘Cent’ stands for 100.Percentages are all around us. 4 friends with a delicious chocolate cake when equally divide the cakein 4 parts (so that they do not fight over who got more and who got less of the cake), each friendgets: 100% (the whole cake) / 4 = 25% of the cake  A fraction whose denominator is 100 is called percentage.  The numerator of that fraction is called the rate per cent.Percentage of a numberStep 1: Convert the per cent into a fraction.Step 2: Multiply the resulting fraction with the number.Example: 50% of 200 = (50/100) x 200 = 100Percentage EquivalentsPercentage, fractions and decimals are all one and the same thing.©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 32. To find the % equivalent of a fraction:Step 1: Express the fraction with a denominator 100. [Multiply & divide the fraction with such anumber so that the denominator becomes 100]Step 2: The numerator, then, is the required percentage equivalent.Example: [1 / 5] = [1 x 20] / [5 x 20] = [20 / 100] = 20% Work to do:To find the fraction equivalent of a %: Memorize –Step 1: Remove the % sign with ‘/ 100’. 1/2 = 50%Step 2: Simplify the fraction. 1/3 = 33 1/3%Example: 40% = [40 (/ 100)] = 2 / 5 1/4 = 25% 1/5 = 20%To increase a number by a given x%: 1/6 = 16 2/3%Step 1: Find the factor [100 + x]/100 1/8 = 12 1/2%Step 2: Multiply the number with the factor. 1/9 = 11.11%Example: Increase 30 by 50% 1/10 = 10%Factor = [100 + 50]/100 = 3/2 1/20 = 5%30 x 3/2 = 45 2/3 = 66 1/3%OR 2/5 = 40%30 x 1.5 = 45 3/4 = 75%To decrease a number by a given x%: 3/5 = 60%Step 1: Find the factor [100 - x]/100 3/8 = 37 1/2%Step 2: Multiply the number with the factor. 4/5 = 80%Example: Decrease 50 by 50% 7/8 = 87 1/2%Factor = [100 - 50]/100 = 1/250 x 1/2 = 25OR50 x 0.5 = 25Percent of a percent10% of 20% will be nothing but©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 33. 10/100 x 20/100 = 0.02 = 2%Base of a percentageIf I say that I have 20% of money left with me then which is the right infer about the money which Iam left with? a) I have 20 rs. Left with me b) I have 20 rs. Left with me provided I started with 100 rs.Obviously answer is b. Percentage cannot be equated to absolute values. We can derive absolutevalue only of we know that against what quantity percentage is defined. The quantity against whichpercentage is defined is called as the base of percentage.If we had a cake with 4 slices, then each slice would have corresponded to 1/4 or 25% of the cake.But if we were talking about the same slice and there were 2 cakes, the slice would have been only12.5% of the total amount of cake. If A’s salary is 10% less than B’s salary then by how much is B’salary more than A’s salary? a) 10% or b) 11.11% Let us assume that B’salary is 100 rs then A’s salary will be 100 - .1*100 = 90 rs. Here the base is B’ salary. But when B’s salary is asked with respect to A’ salary then A’s salary becomes the base. So B’ salary is 10/90 = 1/9 = 11.11% more than A’salary. *  It is critical to examine what base we are using to calculate the percentage values.©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 34. PRACTICE TEST[Every session will have a practice test immediately following the session.These 150 session-based-tests will be in addition to 8 Full Length Mocks. Theanalysis of these tests (session based as well as Full Length Mocks) will bestate-of-the-art, providing computer generated feedback on your strengthsand weaknesses]Q.1 12.5% of 80 is equal to:(a) 8 (b) 20 (c) 40 (d) 10Q.2 A man spends 80% of his income. His income is increased by 20% and he increased hisexpenditure by 10%. His savings are increased by: [NLSU 2006](a) 50% (b) 37.5% (c) 60% (d) 62.5%Q.3 The wages of an employee was first reduced by 40% and then increased by 60%. The employeeis put to: [NLSU 2006](a) 4% gain (b) 8% loss(c) 4% loss (d) 10% gainQ.4 In an examination, a candidate must get 33% marks to pass. A candidate who gets 220marks fails by 11 marks. What is the maximum number of marks in the examination?(a) 900 (b) 600 (c) 700 (d) 500Q.5 Raman spends 30% of his income on house rent, 1/4 of the remaining on transport and thebalance on food. If he spends Rs. 300 on house rent, what is his expenditure on food?(a) 525 (b) 620 (c) 675 (d) 175Q.6 A student has to secure 40% to pass. He gets 178 marks and fails by 22 marks. The maximummarks are:(a) 200 (b) 800 (c) 500 (d) 1000Q. 7 A reduction of 12.5% in the price of sofa brought down the price to 4375. The original price ofsofa was:(a) 6000 (b) 5400 (c) 5000 (d) 5200Q.8 If the sides of a square are increased by 50%, its area is increased by:(a) 75% b) 100% (c) 150% (d) 125%Q.9 Sumeet gets 10% more marks than Akbar. What percentage less marks does Akbar get whencompared to Sumit? [NUJS 2001]©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 35. (a) 10% (b) 9% (c) 9.09% (d) 11.11%Q.10 If x is 80% of y, then what percent of 2x is y? [NLSIU 2005](a) 40% (b) 621/2% (c) 80% (d) 160% Solutions 1. 12.5% of 80 = [12.5 / 100] x 80 = [1 / 8] x 80 = 10 Answer: (d) 10 2. Let us assume that the income of the man = 100x Man spends 80% of his income hence, Expenditure of the man = 80x Therefore, Savings of the man = 20x Now, income of the man has been increased by 20% i.e. New income = 100x [old income] + 20% [increase in the income] of 100x = 120x Also, the expenditure of the man has been increased by 10% i.e. New expenditure = 80x [old expenditure] + 10% of 80x = 88x Therefore, New savings = 120x – 88x = 32x [Income = Expenditure + Savings] % increase in the savings = [{New saving – Old saving} / Old saving] 100% = [{32x – 20x}/20x] 100% = 60% Answer: (c) 60% 3. If a number is changed (increased or decreased) by a% and then again changed by b%, then, Net per cent change = [a + b + a x b/100] % The net increase/decrease in the income of the employee = [-40 + 60 – (40 x 60)/100] = - 4% = 4% loss Answer: (c) 4% loss 4. Let us assume the maximum number of marks in the examination = 100x Then, 33% of 100x = 220 + 11 33x = 231 x = 231/33 = 21/3 = 7 Hence, 100x = 700 Answer: (c) 700 5. Let the income of Raman be 100x Rs. Expenditure on house rent = 30x = 300 [Given that spending on house rent = 300 Rs.] x = 10 Therefore the total income of Raman = 100x = 1000 Rs.©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 36. Remaining income = 100x – 30x = 70x Also, 3/4th of the remaining income = Expenditure on food Therefore, Expenditure on food = 3/4 [70x] = 2100/4 = 525 Rs. Answer: (a) 525 6. Let us assume the maximum number of marks in the examination = 100x Then, 40% of 100x = 178 + 22 40x = 200 x=5 Hence, 100x = 500 Answer: (c) 500 7. A reduction of 12.5% in the price means the new price is 7/8 th of the original price. Say, the original price be x Rs. Then, 7/8 of x = 4375 x = 4375 x 8 / 7 = 625 x 8 = 5000 Answer: (c) 5000 8. Let the original side of the square be a unit. Then, the increased side will be [a + 50% of a] unit = 1.5a unit. Original area = a x a New area = 1.5 a x 1.5 a = 2.25 a x a The increase in the area = [{2.25 – 1} a x a / a x a] x 100% = 1.25 x 100 % = 125% Answer: (d) 125% 9. If X gets r% more marks than that of Y, then Y will get less marks than that of X by [(r/100+r) x 100] % = [(10/100+10) x 100] % = 9.09% Answer: (c) 9.09% 10. x = 80 % of y = 0.8 y Let us say that a % of 2x = y Then, (a/100) 2x = y (a/100) 1.6y = y a = 100/1.6 a = 62.5% Answer: (b) 62 1/2%©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 37. Session 5 – GENERAL KNOWLEDGE EMERGENCE OF EAST INDIA COMPANY AS A MAJOR POWER BLOCK IN INDIA• 1803- East India Company captured Delhi• Mughal king Shah Alam II under East India Company• The Mughals were given fixed pensions by the company during 1803 to 1857INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION• Began post 1750• Changed economic and political system of Europe, Asia and Africa• Mainly required 1. Raw materials to produce goods 2. Big markets to sell their finished products,European countries started to look for more colonies for markets and better political power in thecolonies for acquiring raw materialANNEXATION PERIOD of British in India: 1757-1856Important Wars(a) Against Bengal (Anglo-Bengal wars)• Battle of Plassey (1757)• Battle of Buxar (1764)(b) Against Mysore (Anglo Mysore wars)• These were 4 wars 1st war - 1767-69 2nd war - 1780-92 3rd War - 1790-92 4th war – 1799 (defeat and death of Tipu Sultan)(c) Against Marathas (Anglo-Maratha wars)• These were 3 wars 1st war - 1775-82 2nd war - 1803-06 3rd War - 1817-18• It is the third war which completely defeated the Marathas(d) Against Punjab• These were two wars 1st war - 1745-46 2nd war - 1748-49• By the end of the second war East India Company was able to annex PunjabBritish Rule Timelime©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 38.  From 1757 till 1856, India was ruled by the East India Company  After the revolt of 1857, Government of India Act was enacted and the government of India became the responsibility of the British Crown Stablishment Of British Rule In India • In the 18th century, India consisted of many princely states • The British 1st defeated the Europeans (French, Dutch and Portuguese) in the coastal areas • The British established a foothold in India through the first Anglo Bengal war in 1757 First Anglo-Bengal War: Battle Of PlasseyFIRMAN: order The Battle of Plassey on 23 June 1757 was a decisive British East India Company victory overissued by a Mughal the Nawab of Bengal and his allies, establishing Company rule in South Asia. The battle took placeking at Palashi, Bengal (Plassey is the anglicized version of Palashi), on the banks of the Bhagirathi River,DASTAK: a free pass near Murshidabad, then capital of undivided Bengal. The two parties were Siraj-ud-daulah, the lastissued to the independent Nawab of Bengal, and the British East India Company.employee of East The Result: When the war took place, the actual army of Siraj under Mir Jafar did not fight. Siraj hadIndia Company to do no information that Mir Jafar had been bought out by Robert Clive. The poor intelligence of Indians intrade, the war was one big reason for the failure. This battle is considered as a ‘fixed battle’ as the main player Mir Jafar did not participate. Siraj was killed by Mir Jafar’s son Miran. Mir Jafar was appointed the new Nawab of Bengal by E.I.C Post Battle Of Plassey: British extracted a huge amount of cash from 1757-60 which resulted in the exhaustion of the Bengal treasury. Mir Jafar was replaced by Mir Qasim in 1760 Battle Of Buxar (1764) The Battle of Buxar was fought on 23 October 1764 between the British East India Company led by Hector Munro, and the combined Muslim army of Mir Qasim, the Nawab of Bengal; Shuja-ud-Daula the Nawab of Awadh and the Mughal King Shah Alam II. The battle fought at Buxar, then within the territory of Bengal, was a decisive victory for the British East India Company. Reasons why the British easily won: • They modernized their army • Improved weapon system, they were swifter with their lighter weapons • Better organization under one central command ship This war exposed the technological backwardness of India as the company won easily with their modern equipment. The Great Revolt of 1857 I. Causes (i) Military – Uses of cartridges made from cow and pig fat (rumored) in new Enfield rifle replaced the older ©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 39. Brown Bess. This use of fat was respectively offensive to the Hindus and Muslims– Overseas deployment, which was against the belief of Hindus in not crossing the seas– Differences in salaries for equal ranks (Refusal to pay Batta (allowance) to Indian soldiers).Special provisions for European soldiers- Religious identities seemed to be in crisis, under the threat of conversion– Regular humiliation at the hands of British officers(ii) Political cause– Doctrine of Lapse (by Lord Dalhousie) – states under this revoltedNana Sahib was refused pension, as he was the adopted son of Peshwa BajiRao II. Awadh wasannexed in 1856, on charges of mal-administration. Satara, Jhansi, Nagpur and Sambhalpur wereannexed owing to Doctrine of lapse(iii) Economic causes– High rate of taxation– Discriminatory tariff policy against Indian products and destruction of traditional handicraftsresulted into deindustrialization which resulted in unemployment(iv) Socio- Religious causes– Some reforms like Anti Sati Resolution (1829), Widow Remarriage Act (1856) were unpopularamong orthodox Hindus.– Racial discrimination by British against Indians, Forceful conversion to Christianity Sepoy Mutiny (May 10, 1857) –Bloody uprising at the garrison in Meerut Mangal Pandey –Sepoys marched to Delhi and “placed –was a sepoy in 34thBengal Native themselves under the leadership” of the. Infantry regiment of E.I.C. Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah. – known for his involvement in the – The bewildered Emperor reluctantly initial stages of revolt of 1857. accepted the sepoy’s allegiance and agreed to – originally from Awadh. give his countenance to the rebellion. – 1stperson to revolt, at Barrackpore. – The Mughal Emperor announced Bakht Khan as commander-in-chief.II. Important centres and their leaders Centre Indian Leader(s)Delhi Bahadur Shah II ‘Zafar’ and Bakht KhanBareilly Khan Bahadur KhanKanpur 1. Nana Saheb [adopted son of BajiRao II] 2 .Tantia Tope [accountant of Nana Saheb] 3. AzeemUllah KhanLucknow Begum HazratMahal, mother of BirjisQadarJhansi Rani LaxmiBai©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 40. Faizabad Maulvi Ahmadullah Shah (Leader of Wahabi movement) Allahabad Liyaqat Ali Jagdishpur (Bihar) Kunwar Singh and Amar Singh Patna MaulviPir Ali (leader of Wahabi movement) III. Reasons for Failure of the Revolt  British forces were better equipped as compared to the revolutionaries.  The revolt didn’t spread to the entire country. South India remained quiet and Punjab and Bengal were only marginally affected.  There was no vision for the post mutiny institutions and the leaders didn’t have any forward looking program.  Lack of complete nationalism-Scindias, Holkars, Nizam and others actively helped the British.  Lack of coordination between sepoys, peasants, zamindars and other classes. IV. Outcomes Queen’s Proclamation Queen Victoria Proclaimed The Government of India Act 1858.  No state would be annexed. Secretary of State of India appointed with a council  No more intervention in religious of 15 members to assist him. matters. Viceroy to be appointed.  No conversion in religion by force.  Viceroy – Representative of British  No discrimination in recruitment of Army Crown Services.  Governor General – Head of The Govt. of India Act 1858 Government of India – Company’s territories in India were to be vested in the Queen and be governed by her. st – The Queen’s Secretary of State received the power1 Secretary of State – Charter Wood and duties of the company’s Court of Directors.1st Governor General – Lord Warren Hastings st – The Crown was empowered to appoint a governor1 Governor General of India – Lord William general & governor of presidencies.Bentinck – Provision created for Indian Civil Services underLast Governor General of India – the S.O.SC Rajagopalachari – All property of E.L.C were transferred to the Crown1st Viceroy & Governor General – Lord Canning ©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 41. PRACTICE TEST[Every session will have a practice test immediately following the session.These 150 session-based-tests will be in addition to 8 Full Length Mocks. Theanalysis of these tests (session based as well as Full Length Mocks) will bestate-of-the-art, providing computer generated feedback on your strengthsand weaknesses] 1. Nana Saheb, a leader of the revolt of 1857, belonged to which center? (a) Kanpur (b) Lucknow (c) Buxar (d) Delhi Ans: a Explanation: He was the adopted son of Bajirao II. 2. Battle of Buxar was fought in the year a) 1757 b) 1764 c) 1765 d)1756 Ans: b Explanation: In this epic battle, the British army defeated the combined Muslim army of Mir Qasim, the Nawab of Bengal; Shuja-ud-Daula the Nawab of Awadh and the Mughal King Shah Alam II. 3. The first governor general of India was a) Lord Hastings b)Lord Bentinck c) Lord Canning d) Lord Wood Ans: b Explanation: Remember – 1st Secretary of State – Charter Wood 1st Governor General – Lord Warren Hastings 1st Governor General of India – Lord William Bentinck Last Governor General of India – C Rajagopalachari©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 42. 1st Viceroy & Governor General – Lord Canning 4. Doctrine of Lapses was introduced by a) Lord Hastings b) Lord Bentinck c) Lord Dalhousie d) Lord Canning Ans: c Explanation: According to the Doctrine, any princely state or territory under the direct influence of the British East India Company , as a vassal state under the British Subsidiary System, would automatically be annexed if the ruler was either "manifestly incompetent or died without a direct heir". It, in many ways, triggered the revolt of 1857. 5. The 4th Anglo Mysore was fought in the year a) 1769 b) 1792 c)1782 d)1799 Ans: d Explanation: The war resulted in the death of Tipu Sultan.©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 43. FAQs on TestCracker 1) Who are you people? We are a pack of dogs. No, seriously, we are not trying to be cute or creative here. We are ferocious dogs who like to outrun the speeding car – we run as fast as we can – give it all we have – we usually get the damn car. We have outraced many cars, but we have not yet figured out what to do with the cars we conquer. Hell, we don’t even know how to drive. So we then set our sights on another car, preferably faster than the previous one and the chase begins again. It all started when we cracked one test long back. Then we did not know what to do next; we were completely confused about life after the test. So we wrote another test, then another, and cracked all of them. Alexander, it is said, looked at the breadth of his empire and wept bitterly, for there were no more worlds to conquer. We know that feeling - we are left with no more tests to be cracked and we can tell you that is a very sad thing. It is easy to deal with the tests – there is a prescribed syllabus. Life is tough to figure out – it is very open ended. Jobs we tried to do, but they were not challenging enough – we mean, come on, anyone can make the presentations and write the codes. So here we are – back to our fortress, our comfort zones – conjuring the magic, recreating the madness. We don’t want to scare you, but we have to admit – we are maniacs of the highest order – we get possessed by our work. We are most comfortable working with fellow maniacs. The serial killers have their own unique rituals. We, the serial crackers, have our own little rituals. You will know them soon. Like car chases? Join the pack. Crack the test. 2) Why am I here? You want to clear the exam and you are looking for the best possible online course. Most likely, you are someone who is fairly confident to go all the way to the top on your own, with a little professional help. Let us profile you – hmm let’s see; most probably, you are an adult Indian citizen between 18 and 35 years of age, who believes in all earnest that s/he can leave everyone else behind. Don’t be shocked – we are good at profiling people and predicting patterns – we watch all those crime drama TV series on the telly. 3) Why do I have this urge to crack that test? Take any test – the success ratio is close to 1%. So, even before you begin preparing for the test you know that 99 out of 100 will not make it. You still go ahead with your preparation because you are confident you will be that One who will make it to the other side. That there are lakhs of forms filled for any competitive exam means that there are lakhs of people like you, who think too that they will be The One. We all are born with illusions of grandeur and convictions about our greatness. And we are not©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 44. wrong. We are entitled to greatness. The easiest way to experience a hint of that greatness is through cracking a test. You fill the form – you sleep less eat less study more – you write the test – you get the result – you see your name and roll number right at the top. TestCracker worships competitive exams. In an unequal world, an examination provides you an opportunity to walk inside the examination hall as an equal to anyone else. You want to crack the exam because in many ways it is the answer to all the questions the world asks you daily. We know the feeling you seek – victory, vindication, sweet revenge. We know the road to victory – we will take you there. We were there once. 4) What do I need to clear the exam? Intelligent support, some talent and a lot of madness. We have seen in our experience that the most commonly found characteristic in Test Crackers is brute force. They are desperate to be there and they do whatever it takes to get there. TestCracker believes in brute force. This place is going to explode – we are loading dynamite here. Want some of it for yourself too? Join us. 5) You people use too many words in your FAQs. Help me understand in simple words - why does TestCracker exist? Every particle has an anti-particle. Every test has a TestCracker. We exist because the balance of the world has to be maintained. 6) Alright, so one more ‘best online programme’ – what differentiates you? This module is conceived by the most talented and destructive brains you can find in this country. More importantly, all of us are maniacs of the highest order. When we committed ourselves to clearing exams, we did not leave any stone unturned to come at the top. We prepared hard, we prepared smart, and we turned our ambition into achievement. We are here to infect you with the same mania, so that you get the same results. One clarification – this is not just a test platform. This is an end-to-end preparatory platform which gives you complete visibility of the syllabus, tests you on all the content that you read here, along with the regularly released mock tests. The analysis of our daily practice tests as well as mock tests is state-of-the-art. In neat colourful graphs and graphics, you will get to know the current status of your preparation. One more clarification – unlike all other online platforms, TestCracker does not assume anything – it does not assume that you are attending classes somewhere, reading other books, referring to other free online resources. In fact, it doesn’t even assume that you would have understood all that you just read – the daily practice tests will test you and tell you if you have really grasped the topic. The more we make you sweat in peace, the less you will bleed in war.©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 45. One promise - we have a bagful of tricks. Trust in TestCracker to not let you down. We will not just collate material from various sources and present to you in a different form. We will refer to our own notes, we will give our own insights, and we will personalize everything you get. Even a cursory look at our sample content will tell you what to expect from the entire program. We need to be proud of what we are giving you before we expect you to be proud of TestCracker. The sole purpose of our existence – our raison dêtre – is to make this an end to end test preparation platform. This is not a supplement to whatever you have been doing. This is all there is. We are maniacs. We will be doing a lot many things here which are bad for business, but good for you. TestCracker is your class. TestCracker is your daily assessment. TestCracker is your feedback. TestCracker is your exam. 7) What if I do really well – will TestCracker reward me? Mr Y, our co-founder and Maniac-in-Chief, is a collector of swords. And he intends to give one of his prized swords to whoever gets the best rank this year. However, to be a worthy recipient of The Sword of Y, you really need to crack the damn test – tear it apart with your talent and relentless labour. This is no ordinary sword – for you get this after the war is over. Till then, you live by the sword. 8) So who prepares your content and designs your tests? Everything here is handcrafted by the Crackers of the Tests. It has to appeal to our refined taste to make the cut. If we had to do ordinary work, we would have continued working with the multinational companies as small cogs in their big wheels. We are here to seek creative satisfaction, a lot of it. We will here write the bibles of all the tests in this world. We will wreck ourselves day in and day out to find that one line which will keep you coming back. This is a promise we will keep. 9) Alright please stop – I am convinced. How do I join? Until we integrate the payment gateway to our system, you need to make online transfer of the fee for your course. Account Name – Yashaswi Kumar©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 46. After making the transfer, send the following details to support@testcracker.in (via email) or to 09739800887 (via sms) –  Your name & course (IAS Crasher in this case)  Transaction ID (for online transfer)  Your Email ID (if you are sending it through sms)  Your mobile number (if you are sending it through email) Once you have sent the above details, you will get access to our program within 16 working hours. You will get an email from us informing you about the same. 10) Oh, I get it, so this was all about money? What about all that talk about passion? Unfortunately, bodies and souls have to be kept together, vendors have to be paid and this site has to be running till it becomes self-sustainable. So, yes, we shamelessly charge some fees for what we offer. But if you do even a little research you will forgive us for this shamelessness. For TestCracker offers you everything that you need for your preparation in the best ways conceivable at the lowest price possible. Like we said, we have poor business sense. We aren’t in this for money. The day we figure out a way to keep the bodies, souls and websites together without charging any money from anyone, we will make this site completely free. Till then, we have many free features lined up. 11) Any closing remark? Stay under the knife, live by the sword, do your best, be possessed by a test. You are fortunate you have a greater goal in life – make the most out of it. As in all cases, the journey is much better than the destination. Revive your animal spirits. Be a dog. Chase the car. Crack the test. Be a Test Cracker.For any other question, comment, bouquets, brickbats, bribes, vibes, pleasewrite to support@testcracker.in or call up 0 8103331238. We wish you all the best for your test. See you on the other side. In case you want to join the madness right away, the next page will tell you how.©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 47. Payment Options We do charge some fees to keep our bodies, souls and this website together. Course Fee IAS Crasher 7,200 CLAT Crasher 4,200 If you think you can make us your friends, philosophers and guides to crack the test of your choice, you can pay us through two modes – Cash Deposit and Online Transfer. I. By Cash – You can go to the nearest branch of HDFC Bank and deposit the amount mentioned above (as applicable to your course) in the account mentioned below. After depositing cash, please let us know through an sms to 9739800887 or a mail to support@testcracker.in with the following details – i Your name & course (IAS/CLAT) ii Your email address & mobile number iii The branch where you deposited the amount You will get access to TestCracker within 16 working hours. Please keep the receipt of the payment safe with you – just in case we may need it. II. By Online Transfer – Just log on to your internet banking account and make an online (NEFT) transfer. After making the transfer, send the following details to support@testcracker.in (via email) or to 9739800887 (via sms) – i Your name & course (IAS/CLAT) ii Transaction ID (for online transfer) iii Your Email ID (if you are sending it through sms) iv Your mobile number (if you are sending it through email) Once you have sent the above details, you will get access to our program within 16 working hours. You will get an email from us informing you about the same. Account Details©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238
  • 48. If you indeed trust us with your preparation, we assure you – justice will be done. With TestCracker on your side, even an Act of God will not be able to stop you from entering the prestigious Law Schools.©TestCracker 2013 Contact: support@testcracker.in Call: 08103331238

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