LeadershipThe ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals.
Trait TheoriesTheories that consider personal qualities and characteristics that differentiate leaders from non leaders.Organizing traits around big five personality framework. Extraversion (ambition and energy traits, leader emergence, moderate assertiveness) Conscientiousness (disciplined and committed)
openness to experience (creative and flexible) Agreeableness Emotional stability Emotional intelligenceEmpathy (sense others’ needs, listens and read reactions of others).
Conclusion Traits can predict leadership Traits can not distinguish effective and ineffective leadership
Behavioral theories Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from non leaders. Trait Approach (selecting the right leader) Behavioral approach (training the right person)
Ohio state studies Researcher at Ohio state sought to identify independent dimensions of leader behavior. Found 1000 dimensions Narrowed the dimension in to two categories. Initiating structure: Define and structure his or her roles and those of subordinates for goal attainment Consideration: Job relationship characterized by mutual trust, respect for ideas and feelings).
Criticism Little knowledge about effective leaders Review of 160 studies found that both Initiating structure and Consideration were associated with effective leaders. Consideration is related to employee.
Michigan studies Two dimensions of leadership Employee oriented and production oriented Employee oriented: Emphasizes interpersonal relations, personal interest in the needs of employees and accept individual differences among members. Production oriented leader: A leader who emphasizes technical or task aspects of jobs.
Conclusion Researchers arrived at strongly favored the leaders who were employee oriented in their behavior. Managerial Grid
Contingency Theories Focus in on situational conditions.
Fiedler Model Fiedler contingency model The theory that effective groups depend on a proper match between a leader’s style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situations gives control and influence to the leader. Least preferred coworker questionnaire It measures whether a person is tasks oriented or relationship oriented. 16 contrasting adjectives (such as pleasant-unpleasant).
Ask respondent to describe his coworkers as Least enjoyed, Relationship oriented, Task oriented. 1 to 8 scale rating Determine the leadership style High score and low score indicates that the respondent is Least enjoyed, Relationship oriented, Task oriented.
Defining the situation: Three contingency dimensions that determine leadership effectiveness Leadership-member relations is the degree of confidence, trust and respect members. Task structure is the degree to which the job assignments are procedurized. Position power is the degree of influence a leader has over variables such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotion and salary increase.Evaluate the situations in terms of these three contingency variables. Leader member relations are either good or bad.
Better the leader member relations, the more highly structured the job, the ,ore control the leader has. Matching leaders and situations LPC scores and an assessment of three contingency dimensions help to achieve maximum leadership effectiveness. Figure
Evaluation. Researches Support problems with LPC questionnaire Contingency variables are complex and difficult to assess. Cognitive resource theory Stress unfavorably affects a situations and intelligence and experience can reduce the influence of stress on the leader.
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational theory Situational leadership theory Focuses on followers’ readiness. Two main points Followers: Who reject and accept leader. Readiness: the extent to which people have ability and willingness to accomplish Four specific leaders’ behavior …. From highly directive to highly laissez-faire.
SLT says that if followers are unable and unwilling to do a tasks, leader needs to give specific direction. Followers…unable and willing…leader needs to display high task orientation to compensate for the followers lack of ability and high relationship orientation. Followers….able and unwilling… leaders use supportive and participative style.
Follower able and willing leader does not need to do much. Evaluation Importance of followers Leaders can compensate for imitations in their followers Problems with research methodology.
Path Goal theory The theory A theory that states that is the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide the necessary direction to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group and organization. Leaders behaviors Directive leader Supportive leader Participative leader Achievement oriented leader
Path goal variables Environmental and personal characteristics moderate the relationship between leader’s behavior and followers outcomes. Predictions based on path goal theory Evaluation Mixed support
Leader member exchange theory A theory that supports leader’s creation of in-group and out-group; subordinates with in-group status will have higher performance ratings, lees turn over and greater job satisfaction. In-group follower: Trusted, gain leader’s attention, receive privileges Out-group follower: Formal authority interaction, get fewer rewards, and fewer time
Leaders induce LXM by rewarding those employees with whom they want a closer linkage and punishing those with whom they do not. Leaders tend to choose in-group members because they have attitude, demographic and personality characteristics that are similar to the leaders. Followers’ characteristics are driving the leader’s categorization decision.
Evaluation Research support theory Leader’s expectation for the employee to perform best also play an important role for incorporating that employee as in- group member.
Decision theory Vroom and Yetton’s Leader Participation Model Provides a set of rules to determine the form and amount of participative decision making in different situations. Leader behavior must adjust to reflect the task structure.
Model is normative i.e. Provides a set of rules to determine the form and amount of participative decision making in different situations. Seven contingencies (yes or No choices) Five alternative leadership styles
Revised Model Five alternative leadership styles Adds a set of problem 12 contingency variables
Criticism Stress, intelligence and experience are important. Complicated to use on a regular basis Not so realistic.