Media Education in Ukrainian Schools. Analitycal report. English translation. 2016

96 views

Published on

The analytical report provides info about progress in implementation the media literacy curricula in secondary schools of Ukraine. The pilot program on Media Literacy was launched by USAID supported Media Project (U-Media)/ Internews in 2010. Key implementing partner - the Academy oof Ukrainian Press.
The evaluation report 2016 summarizes gains and losses of the media literacy (ML) component of U-Media, and includes recommendations on further promotion the ML course among secondary schools.

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
96
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Media Education in Ukrainian Schools. Analitycal report. English translation. 2016

  1. 1. Implementation of media education and media literacy courses in secondary schools in Ukraine Analytical Report on the Results of Complex Study conducted during 2014-2016, commissioned by Ukrainian Media Project (U-Media Program) implemented by Internews Network Kyiv June 2016
  2. 2. p.2 Contents SUMMARY...............................................................................................................................................8 SECTION 1. MEDIA EDUCATION IN OIPES.........................................................................12 1.1. Organization of Training on Media Education in OIPEs...........................................................................12 1.1.1. Training of coordinators .......................................................................................................................12 1.1.2. Formats of teaching media education in OIPEs................................................................................13 1.1.3. Training programs .....................................................................................................................................13 1.1.4. Media education course participants in OIPEs.......................................................................................13 1.1.5. Topics taught..............................................................................................................................................14 1.1.6. Creative groups..........................................................................................................................................15 1.1.7. Collecting information on teaching media education in secondary schools ......................................15 SECTION 2. MEDIA EDUCATION IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS (ZOSH – MIDDLE SCHOOLS OF GENERAL EDUCATION)....................................................................................17 2. 1. Status of Media Education Implementation in Secondary Schools.......................................................17 2.1.1. Tendencies and changes ..........................................................................................................................17 2.1.2. Transformations.........................................................................................................................................17 2.2. Organization of Media Education Process in Secondary Schools ...........................................................18 2.2.1. Participation in the Experiment................................................................................................................18  Expert Opinion: Motivation to encourage participants to take part in the experiment and its further development ..........................................................................................................................................................20 2.2.2. Forms of ME/ML implementation.............................................................................................................21  Expert Opinion: Specifics of Teaching........................................................................................................23 2.2.3. Course name and topics taught...............................................................................................................24 2.2.4. Textbooks....................................................................................................................................................25 2.2.5. Pupils’ skills and abilities...........................................................................................................................26  Expert Opinion: Pupils’ interest...................................................................................................................27 2.2.6. Parent involvement in media education .................................................................................................28 2.3. Personal Experience of Teachers ................................................................................................................29 2.3.1. Teaching/Learning process.......................................................................................................................29 2.3.2. ME teaching experience............................................................................................................................30 2.3.3. The use of the AUP resources..................................................................................................................31 2.3.4. Major problems associated with media education in secondary schools...........................................32  Expert Opinion: Barriers to implementation of media education and ways to overcome them ........34 2.3.5. Assessment of the status of ME implementation in Ukraine ...............................................................35 2.3.6. Assistance needed to further implement media education..................................................................36  Expert Opinion: Prospects for further media education development ..................................................37 SECTION 3. FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSIONS WITH SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN DIFFERENT GRADES, WHO ATTEND MEDIA EDUCATION COURSE..................................................................................................................................................39 3.1. Perception of Terms and Concepts Taught during Media Education Course .......................................40 3.2. Pupils’ Understanding of the Goal and Objectives of Media Education Course....................................42 3.3. Media Education Experience........................................................................................................................43 3.4. Understanding Benefits of ME/ML ..............................................................................................................46 3.5. Interest in Spreading Information about Media Education .....................................................................47
  3. 3. p.3 RESEARCH GOAL, OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY The goal of the research, conducted in two waves in 2015 and 2016, is to assess the effectiveness and to study the experience of media education implementation in secondary schools (ZoSh) in different regions of Ukraine. The main purpose of the 2016 study was to record changes in media education teaching during 2015-1016 school year. Research Objectives:  to inspect methods and means of media education implementation;  to study available and needed resources;  to register and evaluate new developments and changes in media education/media literacy (ME/ML) implementation process;  to determine and analyze difficulties faced by secondary school personnel when teaching media education course;  to analyze the effectiveness of the existing methods of media literacy teaching. Research Design:  Telephone survey of coordinators working in Regional Institutes of Postgraduate Pedagogical Education (OIPE) and guiding the ME implementation process in their oblasts.  Telephone survey of ME course teachers in secondary schools, N=100 (2015) and N=133 (2016).  In-depth interviews with school administrative personnel (principals, assistant principals), N=6 (2015) and N=8 (2016).  Focus Group discussions with pupils from different classes, who study ME course, N=6 (2015) and N=8 (2016). Research Methodology at the Quantitative Stage In order to study the effectiveness and quality of implementation of the experiment on media education/media literacy (ME/ML) introduction in secondary schools (ZOSh), as well as the specifics of media education course organization, two telephone surveys were conducted at the first quantitative stage of the research: the survey of coordinators of the Regional Institutes of Postgraduate Pedagogical Education (OIPEs) and the survey of teachers who personally teach ME course in secondary schools (90 teachers in 2015-2016). Special bilingual questionnaire (in Ukrainian and Russian), consisting of two parts ("Personal experience of being a course participant/learner" and "Organization of ME/ML courses in secondary school"), was particularly developed for conducting surveys of secondary school teachers. The questionnaire remained almost unchanged, if compared with the one of 2015. Only some questions on changes and needs of teachers were added to the previous 26 questions. The questionnaire was designed to conduct a 10-15 minute interview (see. Annex 1).
  4. 4. p.4 Survey Database Creation Since the surveys were conducted among both OIPE coordinators and secondary school teachers, survey databases were created as follows:  The AUP provided the Database of OIPE coordinators, who run and steer the process of media education implementation in their oblasts. It includes 17 coordinators (two being residents of the same oblast).  The Database of teachers includes the teachers, who are involved in ME/ML implementation in secondary schools and who attended the ML courses in the Academy of Ukrainian Press (AUP) and OIPE. Respondent database consists of: (1) the participants of the AUP’s summer and winter media literacy school; (2) the list of schools that take part in the experiment on media culture implementation, developed and managed by the Institute of Social and Political Psychology of NAPS of Ukraine; (3) participants of conferences and other events dedicated to ME/ML implementation; (4) contacts of teachers, which are provided by regional coordinators of the experiment; (5) contacts of teachers, provided by school principals who encourage ME/ML implementation; (6) contacts of teachers, provided by their colleagues. In 2016, the initial list of respondents consisted of 165 contacts, but the number of respondents decreased to 128 persons after the first contact made (see. Annex 2). Teachers’ contacts database has been noticeably updated: in certain schools, some teachers, who initially taught the course, had various reasons to pass it on to their colleagues (there were 13 such cases reported). In other schools, media education courses were cancelled due to lack of new trained ME teachers. Some schools that participated in the experiment stopped ME implementation and ME/ML courses, while the other schools handled the situation in quite an opposite manner: there are the enthusiasts who plan to or already implement media education in schools on their own. Respondents’ Profile Coordinators The interviewed coordinators are the members of staff at Regional Institutes of Postgraduate Pedagogical Education (OIPEs) in Vinnytsia, Dnipro (Dnipropetrovsk), Zhytomyr, Zaporizhzhia, Kyiv, Luhansk, Lviv, Mykolaiv, Odesa, Poltava, Sumy, Kharkiv, Khmelnytskyi, Cherkasy, Chernihiv and Chernivtsi oblasts. In most cases, the respondents occupy the position of senior lecturer/lecturer.
  5. 5. p.5 Diagram 1. Position held by coordinators at OIPE Q.1. What is your position at OIPE? (N=20, 2014 and N=16, 2016) 10 4 0 0 3 2 8 1 3 1 2 2 Senior Lecturer/Lecturer/Teaching Assistant Assistant Professor/Professor Head of Department (Chairholder) Head of educational- methodical office Head/Coordinator of … Center Vice-rector (Prorector) 2016 2015 It is to be noted that the experiment is not carried out in secondary schools in two oblasts, while the course is taught in OIPEs there. Teachers The surveyed secondary school teachers live and work in the southern (Kherson, Zaporizhzhia and Mykolaiv oblasts), central (Kyiv, Cherkasy and Poltava oblasts), northern (Chernihiv and Sumy oblasts), eastern (Kharkiv, Dnipro (Dnipropetrovsk), Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts) and western (Lviv oblast) regions of Ukraine. The questionnaire containes two questions about ME teaching in secondary schools: the first one asking whether ME/ML is being taught in school at all. The research findings show that ME course is not being taught in 30 schools out of 128 participating in the survey. The main reason for such a phenomenon, as reported by 59% of respondents, is the same as in 2015 – the lack of academic hours. 17% of interviewees stated that schools lack trained teachers as well. The second question is aimed at finding out whether the teacher has personal experience of teaching this particular course. As to relevant experience of most teachers, 13 respondents reported having various reasons for not teaching the course but provided contacts of their colleagues, who were also asked to complete the survey. As a result, the 2016 database, similar to the 2015 one, consists of 90 teachers who personally teach the course.
  6. 6. p.6 Diagram 2. Positions held by teachers in secondary schools Q. 6. What position do you hold at your school? N=90 (2015) and N=90 (2016) 16 14 13 14 9 12 14 29 10 17 18 6 Computer science/ math teacher Literature and language teacher History/social sciences teacher Director (depute director) Other (write down) Psychologist, social teacher, teacher- organizer 2016 2015 The survey demonstrates that teachers specializing in different scientific fields teach the ME/ML courses in schools – teachers of humanities, as well as of exact and natural sciences. Comparison of research findings obtained in 2015 and 2016 makes it clear that the numbers of teachers of diverse specialties are almost identical. Nevertheless, teachers of humanities usually constitute the larger group – those are mostly teachers of literature/languages, whose number has significantly increased since the beginning of 2016 (by 15 persons), and teachers of history/social sciences (their total share was estimated to 29% in 2015, but increased to 42% in 2016). With the regard to gender distribution, the respondents were predominantly women. As in 2015, their share equaled to 84% of all the interviewed teachers, which generally reflects gender distribution of the Ukrainian teachers community. Diagram 3. Gender distribution of the respondents 84% 16% Women Men N=128
  7. 7. p.7 Research Methodology at the Qualitative Stage The team developed special scenarios, taking into account many peculiarities of the target groups of the qualitative research stage (see. Annexes 3-4), in order to conduct relevant focus group discussions (FGD) and in-depth interviews (IDI) at the second research phase. Schools for FGDs were selected using the following criteria:  Regional reach. The survey included schools in Dnipro (Dnipropetrovsk), Mykolaiv, Kyiv, Cherkasy, Poltava, Chernihiv and Lviv oblasts.  Inclusion of schools with various formats of teaching media education, in particular: compulsory lessons, media education integrated in teaching other subjects, afterschool clubs or elective courses, Cinema clubs.  Recommendations provided by the OIPE coordinators and the AUP experts.  The survey findings demonstrating changes in schools that took place during 2015-1016 school year. In accordance with the research design, eight in-depth interviews (IDI) were conducted with school administration representatives and teachers of this particular course. The interviews were held in schools in Dnipro (Dnipropetrovsk), Mykolaiv and Poltava, as well as in certain cities of Kyiv (Khotiv), Lviv (Novoiavorivsk), Mykolaiv (Pohorilovo), Chernihiv (Kozelets) and Cherkasy (Smila) oblasts. Structure of the Report The Report consists of Conclusions and three Sections, which represent: (1) comparative quantitative data from the survey of OIPE coordinators in 2014 and 2016, respectively; (2) comparative quantitative data from the survey of secondary school teachers in 2015 and 2016, which are supported by qualitative data – the information obtained from the experts – ME teachers and secondary school administration personnel – in 2016; (3) analysis of focus group discussions (FGD), conducted among pupils attending ME courses in their schools.
  8. 8. p.8 SUMMARY  Media education (ME) implementation in secondary schools throughout Ukraine is a gradual but dynamic process, although the dynamics is not that evident. It is expected that in the near future - in two or three years – the dynamics of the process will become more noticeable. The study demonstrates that media education teachers have acquired new experience, have considerably improved teaching techniques and developed new ideas related to elaboration of practical assignments for pupils, as well as to ways of encouraging and engaging the widest possible audience in studying the subject. The most specific accomplishments of the last year include successful integration of media education in different school subjects, inclusion of the elements of media literacy course in the educational process, spread of media education teaching for different age audiences – starting with junior school and up to the seniors. Media literacy teachers are open to new ideas, exchange of experiences and practical achievements, and consider media education course to be one of the hallmarks of modern Ukrainian school system.  In view of the ME teaching during the last year, 79% of the interviewed teachers noticed enhancement of media education implementation in three main areas: increase in the number of ME/ML teachers in schools (15%), ME integration in other social subjects (10%), pupils’ participation and victories in ME competitions/festivals (10%); 9% of respondents expressed their ideas about ME teaching in senior classes, introduction of ME training for parents, teachers participation in international exchange programs/competitions/training. 21% of teachers did not observe any significant changes in media education teaching during the 2015-2016 academic year.  Assessing the level of ME implementation in secondary schools using a 10-point scale, the majority of the surveyed teachers – 25 people – assigned “5” points to this category. They explained their choice mainly by the fact that “there is still too much to do”. All other teachers preferred high scores: form 7 to 10 points. Media Education in Secondary Schools (ZOSh)  Media education has achieved sustainable development in the past five years. At present, we can distinguish a group of leading schools where teaching staff developed own educational programs and introduced media education course thanks to combination of the enthusiasm of teachers/school administration and the ongoing assistance/support from the Academy of Ukrainian Press, which runs trainings for ME teachers, develops educational materials and textbooks and provides opportunities for exchange of acquired experience.  Media education course is taught under various names (“Media Culture”, “Media Literacy”, “Media Education”) and in diverse teaching formats in schools in 14 oblasts of Ukraine (according to coordinators’ estimations, there are more than 300 schools of the kind). Media education course has already been taught for 4 or more years in 50% of schools participating in the survey.  The experiment on media education course teaching, entitled “Media Culture” and initiated by the Institute of Social and Political Psychology of the National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences, was implemented in 10 oblasts of Ukraine and completed in 2016. ME course has never been taught in 30 secondary schools out of 128 included in the survey. The main reason for such phenomenon, as explained by 59% of teachers from these schools, is the lack of academic hours. 17% of respondents indicated the insufficient number of qualified teachers. The success and effectiveness of media education implementation depend on the level of teachers training, their abilities to continuing education and acquiring new
  9. 9. p.9 knowledge, as well as proactive position and motivation of school management who allocate academic hours for teaching media education. ME is successfully implemented in schools where teachers make efforts to integrate ME in teaching of as many school subjects as possible and engage the entire teaching staff in media education course introduction. In the context of effective cooperation, all obstacles and barriers are overcome: academic hours are allocated to add media education course in the curricula, additional funding is found and money is spent on improvement of the material and technical base, including engagement of pupils’ parents.  The schools, where the interviewed teachers work, joined the experiment at its different stages, and, therefore, they demonstrate diverse levels of media education development. For the purpose of the study, the schools participating in the survey can be roughly divided into the following groups: a. The first group includes schools that joined media education implementation in 2014-2015 academic year, they are now at the stage of adaptation of educational programs, search for opportunities to use the acquired knowledge in practice, and relatively low level of media education integration in other school subjects. Pupils from these schools demonstrate critical thinking skills, but at the same time, they do not show high interest and engagement in the subject. b. The second group incorporates schools with 2-4 years of media education teaching experience. Both school administration and regional coordinators in OIPEs support these schools. However, due to the rotation of ME teachers, the teaching staff of these schools need opportunities to share experience and require assistance in introducing new methods and practices, as well as integrating the course in different school subjects. c. The schools in the third group already have at least a five-year history of teaching media education. Teachers from these schools have developed their own training programs, they use numerous ways of ME integration not only in teaching other school subjects, but also in awareness-rising work with children (annual thematic festivals in Dnipropetrovsk) and parents (open lectures on media hygiene for parents in Mykolaiv and Pohorilovo). In the near future, these schools may not only be an example for other educational institutions, but also a platform for new teachers training and further development of media education implementation in Ukraine.  The different levels of ME teaching in schools should be considered when organizing trainings and master classes. It is also recommended to engage teachers with extensive practical experience as coaches. Teaching Formats  During the last year, the number of schools where media education course is taught as a compulsory lesson – one academic hour a week – has significantly decreased, at the same time, the number of schools where compulsory lesson is integrated in teaching humanities and natural sciences has increased. ME is also introduced into school curricula in the format of optional afterschool class or as ME interest group/media club.  Most schools tend to mix different formats of teaching to implement media education in the curricula, which leads to further combination of theory and practice: teachers reinforce theoretical knowledge of critical thinking development by enhancement of pupils’ practical skills in media production field.  Most experts and teachers insist on the application of both formats of media education implementation – integration of media education in different school subjects and teaching it as a separate school subject with its own system of control and assessment, which should discipline secondary school students.
  10. 10. p.10 Textbooks and other Information Sources  Secondary school students are not sufficiently supplied with media education textbooks. Therefore, ME teachers prepare and use printed handouts and media presentations for each lesson.  Among all the textbooks and educational materials elaborated by the Institute of Social and Political Psychology of NAPS of Ukraine and the Academy of Ukrainian Press, teachers choose the materials that generate interest in pupils and are easily accessible. Then, teachers look through the textbooks/educational programs and select topics that can be presented in schools given the available technical equipment and qualifications of teachers.  Textbooks are used selectively because some of them contain too much theory. Once again, experts emphasize that special creative groups consisting of scientists and practicing teachers, who are able to develop cases taking into account the pupils’ age, should be organized to elaborate student textbooks of high quality. Pupils’ Skills and Abilities  Independent critical thinking development remains the priority of media education, which is also emphasized by teachers. Meanwhile, there is an increase in the number of respondents who chose the following answers to multiply choice question: “conscious perception of information”, “development of protection skills” and “the ability to counter manipulation”. The refocusing of ME teaching is associated with teachers’ response to current information challenges. Teachers understand well the importance of helping pupils realize the scale of information manipulation in the modern world and teaching them how to counter this phenomenon. Parent Involvement  There was a greater tendency of parent engagement and involvement in media education process over the past academic year. In fact, 68 out of 90 interviewed teachers apply various forms of parent engagement: most common forms include teachers’ presentations at teacher-parent meeting in class (49%) and at general meetings in schools (7%), as well as pupils’ presentations for their parents at teacher-parent meeting (20%). ME course of lectures for parents is applied as a short specialized course by 24% of the interviewed teachers. Factors that could Speed up Media Education Implementation  The majority of the interviewed teachers (83 persons out of 90) and all 17 regional coordinators believe that The Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine on Compulsory Media Education Course in secondary schools could be the guarantee of successful media education implementation in Ukraine. Such an order would open opportunities for actual implementation of media education in all schools throughout Ukraine: it would provide paid academic hours, extra funding for teachers, so that they could elaborate high quality textbooks and other relevant materials and buy necessary technical equipment.  The second place was given to financial assistance for development of proper ME materials. Such assistance can take the form of additional payment for elaboration of methodological guidelines/textbooks that correlate with the actual needs of schools and practicing teachers, or extra payment for afterschool work with interest groups or different inter-school activities. Financial incentives also promote the increase in number of joint activities and
  11. 11. p.11 bring teachers together to organize creative groups, which should lead to a generalization of the best experiences and practices and incorporate the results in new educational materials. At the same time, experts and teachers admit that they lack experience in preparing competitive grant applications and expect assistance in this area from the AUP and relevant international organizations.  Systematic professional development was listed as the third most influential factor for the successful media education implementation. Regular exchanges of experience, seminars and conferences for teachers, as well as opportunities to learn international experience of media education introduction in school curricula would become an additional factor intensifying media education implementation in Ukrainian schools and raising the professional qualification of teachers. Future Prospects  We can define three major promising areas and future prospects of media education development: 1) Organizational, that is the comprehensive administrative support of ME implementation in the educational process through various formats (as a separate school subject, a course integrated in other school subjects, course introduction in junior classes), provided by the school management and the Ministry of Education. 2) Methodical, which consists in elaboration and distribution of relative educational materials – textbooks, educational programs, student workbooks, methodological works and interactive applications, multimedia material and practical cases for ME teaching in secondary schools. 3) Communicative, which implies ensuring proper conditions and creating actual opportunities for intensive experience exchange, training, professional communication among teachers.
  12. 12. p.12 SECTION 1. Media Education in OIPEs 1.1. Organization of Training on Media Education in OIPEs 1.1.1.Training of coordinators To implement media education in the system of secondary schools in Ukraine, the coordinators and leaders of the Academy of Ukrainian Press found the most powerful and, as the experience has shown, the most sustainable approach to training secondary school teachers to teach media education. The first stage consisted of training for OIPE lectures, who later became a source of information, as well as media education trainers and coordinators in their regions. As evidenced by data from the 2016 survey, they update their knowledge on the regular basis – 8 coordinators out of 17 surveyed retook the course in the AUP’s summer (winter) schools during the 2015-2016 school year, three respondents participated in international conferences and exchanged knowledge with international partners. The others self-studied. The OIPE coordinators do not only teach ME course in their educational establishments. The most recent tendencies reveal that scientific research work becomes very popular (10 teachers pointed this out in 2016), as well as presenting lectures on the subject of ME in schools in the oblast (5 teachers in 2016 against 1 in 2015). Diagram 1.1. The use of media education knowledge during teaching activities in OIPEs Q. 4. In what ways did you use your knowledge of ME/ML on practice when teaching media literacy? (N=18, 2014 and N=17, 2016) 5 0 14 18 7 9 4 1 5 3 0 1 17 8 5 4 10 5 I have elaborated an actual educational program for media literacy course in OIPE I have elaborated an actual educational program for ZOSh (secondary schools) I have designed original model lessons/lectures for media literacy course I took part in elaboration of INTEGRATED ME/ML classes I teach Media Literacy course in OIPE I conduct seminars and training on media literacy for other teachers/school principals/school counselors in I organize and run extracurricular activities with pupils/interest groups/festivals/school I deliver lectures on media literacy in higher education institutions (regional or in other oblasts of Ukraine) I am engaged in scientific research, I speak at conferences on the subject of media education I deliver lectures on media literacy in secondary schools within the oblast 2016 2015
  13. 13. p.13 1.1.2. Formats of teaching media education in OIPEs Most often, as in 2014, the main format of teaching media education in OIPEs is a 2-4 hour class as a part of a continuing education course (10 coordinators confirmed this tendency in 2016). However, similar to 2014, there are also different formats of teaching that are oriented to the needs of course participants and aimed to match their specialty field. Coordinators list:  extension courses and two-week day courses, consisting of 3-4 lectures and practical training every day (Luhansk oblast);  4-6 hour course for computer science teachers and 28 hour distance learning course (Zaporizhzhia oblast);  one- or two-day seminars with lectures and practical training activities (Poltava and Dnipro (Dnipropetrovsk) oblasts);  8-12 hour on-campus continuing education course (Sumy and Mykolaiv oblasts). 1.1.3. Training programs As in 2014, coordinators mainly rely on the program developed by the MON (the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine) for participants of continuing education courses in OIPEs (7 persons), or use their own program, elaborated on the basis of the MON's program (10 respondents). 1.1.4. Media education course participants in OIPEs According to the coordinators’ estimations, 35 824 people attended media education courses during the 2015-2016 academic year. 23% of course participants account for teachers of all categories, 21% – principals and assistant principals, 15-16% – teachers-moderators, teaching methodology experts, psychologists etc. These data are very similar to the findings of the 2014 study; therefore, OIPE target audiences are evenly distributed. Diagram 1.2. Course participants Q. 19. Who are the participants of media education course at your OIPE? (N=17, 2016) 21% 23% 12% 13% 16% 15% Secondary school Principals and Deputy principals Teachers of all categories Elementary school teachers Pre-school teachers Teachers who organize extracurricular activities and other (school mentors, psychologists, social teachers etc.) School counselors
  14. 14. p.14 1.1.5. Topics taught The 2016 survey results show that there were shifts in topics of the most importance and interest to OIPE lectures. Thus, the number of respondents preferring the subjects related to the theory of and methods for teaching media education has definitely increased; similar to 2014, the topic of media manipulation remains very popular. Perhaps, the AUP should take a close look at these data and reconsider the training program, focusing more on the topics that are gaining more popularity and support at the expense of the subjects that are of low interest for coordinators. Diagram 1.3. The most important topics to be taught Q. 5. Which topics, among the ones recommended by the AUP for teaching courses in OIPE, appeared to be the most important and useful for your educational activities? (N=18, 2014 and N=17, 2016) 6 6 5 5 2 5 11 3 3 3 4 6 0 0 5 12 8 12 6 3 9 0 1 4 2 0 2 1 The concepts of "communication" and "mass communication". Media and formation of public opinion. Basics of media education. ME methods and techniques. Guide on how to start teaching media education Theoretical foundations of media education The leading media education methods and techniques Globalization and modern tendencies in media environment: where everything moves? Models of existence of printed and Media manipulation Artistic thinking. The camera as a creative tool. Advertising strategies and personal safety. Practical media literacy. Modern formats of Ukrainian TV The influence of the Internet on future generations. Age-related peculiarities of modern media influence on a child History of the screen: The history of language – The history of perception: Animation Professional journalistic standards in modern media. Journalists Ethics Code. Where professional ethics ends and 2016 2015 It is interesting to note that the topics that are mentioned as important by coordinators are taught during media education course on the regular basis. Although some titles sound a bit too formal, for instance “Media in the educational-bringing-up process in secondary schools and higher educational institutions”, very interesting and practice-oriented lectures, designed to inspire teachers to teach media education in school, are usually hidden behind such titles. The list of compulsory topics should be completed by “Media texts”, “Manipulation technology and techniques”, “Hate speech” etc. Thus, not rejecting to explain the mandatory methodological and theoretical foundations of ME teaching to course participants, the
  15. 15. p.15 coordinators still refer to other topics that are of essential importance and of great interest to the audience. As a matter of curiosity, we should refer to one of the comments made by the coordinator from Zaporizhzhia: “On the basis of the philosophy of constructivism, we introduce such notions as information search, virtual cards, intelligent notepads and metacognitive moments (tracking of the individual knowledge acquisition process). We teach pupils to self-reflect. The teacher’s goal is to teach a child to acquire knowledge independently and to develop critical thinking”). Diagram 1.4. Compulsory topics Q. 8. Which topics do you always include in your media literacy course? (N=17, 2016 26% 20% 9% 21% 12% 12% Media in educational-bringing-up process in secondary schools and higher education institutions Media competency of teaching and academic staff Media culture philosophy/Philosophy of media literacy Development of teacher's media literacy competence Media literacy as the ideological basis of teacher's competence The Theory of Influence 1.1.6. Creative groups The existence of creative groups, bringing together ME teachers, and their activities over the past few years was only reported by 6 coordinators from Dnipro (Dnipropetrovsk), Zaporizhzhia, Mykolaiv, Kharkiv, Cherkasy and Chernihiv oblasts. All of them have different statuses: those who used to work and the ones that are still working as a part of OIPE. It should also be noted that some groups reduced or stopped their activities due to termination of the experiment. 1.1.7. Collecting information on teaching media education in secondary schools 10 coordinators (two being residents of the same oblast) collect information about schools that implement media education, 5 coordinators do not gather any information. In addition, in two oblasts there are no schools participating in the experiment and no schools that express own interest in engaging in ME implementation. The data provided by coordinators indicates that 323 secondary schools in 9 oblasts of Ukraine participate in the experiment or implement media education using their own resources. This number should be considered with a critical attitude as some findings do not look that reliable (for example, ME is already taught in 132 schools in Lviv oblast, where ME implementation
  16. 16. p.16 process began during the 2014-2015 academic year. In comparison, only 50 schools in Dnipropetrovsk oblast participate in the national experiment and 41 school engage in it on the regional level, although ME implementation process in the oblast started 4 years ago). This can be explained by the following facts: (1) participation in national school media competitions, which usually involve approximately 200 schools in the oblast, is sometimes confused by the coordinators with teaching media education course in schools; (2) the use of technical means in the classroom is often perceived as media education; (3) there are no exact and clear criteria as to what media education in schools actually is; (4) the figures only reflect the number of experiment participants “on paper”, while there are definitely fewer of them in reality (commentary of the coordinator from Poltava: “18 schools participate in the experiment on the regional level, but media education course is actually being taught in only 10 of them”). The coordinators are not ready to calculate the number of pupils who are media educated.
  17. 17. p.17 SECTION 2. Media Education in Secondary Schools (ZoSh – Middle Schools of General Education) 2. 1. Status of Media Education Implementation in Secondary Schools 2.1.1. Tendencies and changes Personal interviews with Valery Ivanov, professor and president of the Academy of Ukrainian Press, and Okasana Volosheniuk, program manager, were designed to identify changes noticed by the experts and closely related to the process of ME/ML implementation from its very beginning. The main changes that the experts pointed out were then taken into account when elaborating the survey questionnaire for teachers and scenarios for in-depth interviews. These changes are:  Systematization of the ME course.  Increase in the number of schools that have already introduced or plan to introduce the ME/ML course in the near future.  Attraction of new audiences – school children in grades of all levels and preschoolers.  Course integration into teaching of other school subjects.  Formation of creative groups on the temporary basis to bring together ME/ML teachers.  Development of international teacher exchange program.  Holding of both regional and national competitions for secondary school students. According to experts, the main difficulties to be overcome include:  Lack of trained teachers who would be qualified to introduce and implement ME/ML in secondary schools throughout Ukraine.  Absence of a permanent mechanism for transferring experience and sharing practical skills for proper ME/ML teaching.  Obsolescence of the concept underlying the experiment carried out by the Institute of Social and Political Psychology of NAPS of Ukraine.  Narrative and theorization, commonly found in many textbooks and other educational materials, which should be updated to the needs of teachers and students. 2.1.2. Transformations One year is a fairly short period to make significant and visible transformations in the school system, which is distinguished by its conservatism. Nevertheless, the 2016 survey questionnaire included questions about transformations. Only teachers, as people who made those transformations real and noticed them, could adequately reply to these questions. 21% of teachers reported no transformations being noticed. 79% of teachers confirmed having experienced some transformations taking place in their schools during the 2015-2016 academic year.
  18. 18. p.18 The 3 major transformations were distinguished among many other options: increase in the number of ME/Ml teachers (15%), integration of ME into teaching of other common subjects (10%), students participation and winning in ME competitions/festivals (10%). Such transformations as introduction of ME courses in high school, ME for parents, teacher participation in international exchange programs/competitions/trainings – each received 9%. Some indices are still rather insignificant. However, those figures demonstrate that the transformations that have been reported by the experts are actually taking place in real life – ME integration into teaching of diverse school subjects, ME courses for pupils of all years if school, expanded contact list of both teachers and pupils who are engaged in ME. Diagram 2.1. Changes and transformations in media education implementation in secondary schools Q. 7. Prove or disprove the following statements about changes and transformations related to ME/ML implementation in your school. (YES), multiple choice. (N=90, 2016) 15% 9% 4% 3% 1% 10% 8%10% 1% 9% 9% 21% There is an increase in the number of ME/ML teachers in school ME/ML course is introduced in senior classes (grades 10-11) ME/ML course is introduced in middle classes (grades 5-9) ME/ML course is introduced in younger classes (grades 1-4) The school has been provided with ME/ML textbooks for pupils ME/ML course has been integrated in social subjects ME/ML course has been integrated in natural sciences (physics, chemistry, biology etc. Pupils won ME/ML contest/festival Teachers won ME/ML competitions in Ukraine ME/ML course for parents has been introduced Teachers participated in international exchange programs/training/contest Nothing has changed 2.2. Organization of Media Education Process in Secondary Schools 2.2.1. Participation in the Experiment Secondary schools with media education courses have different statuses that have hardly changed since 2015: in 2016, 39% of respondents confirmed their schools participation in the national experiment, 41% mentioned being part of the experiment on the regional level. In general, termination of the experiment in 2016 did not influence the schools where ME has already become part of “school life”.
  19. 19. p.19 It is to be noted that the share of schools that implement ME/ML using their own resources increased from 12% to 16%. Only few respondents did not answer the following question and it can be assumed that they were not participants of the experiment. Diagram 2.2. Participation in the Experiment (Q.14 (20) Does your school participate in the experiment on media education implementation? N=90, 2015-2016. 34 37 11 6 36 36 14 4 Yes, our school is the part of the national experiment Yes, our school is the part of the regional experiment No, we do not take part in the experiment, we implement ME/ML on our own I do not know 2016 2015 ME/ML courses have been taught for more than 4 years in 46% of schools. Then, the next large groups include schools where ME has been already implemented for 3 (22%) or 2 years (17%) (Diagram 1.2). Diagram 2.3. The number of years of teaching ME in school (Q. 15/21. For how many years has ME/ML been taught in your school?) 26% 22% 20% 18% 14% Four years Two years Three years One year Don't know N=90, 2015 46% 22% 17% 7% 5% 3% More than four years Three years Two years One year Four years Don't know N=90, 2016
  20. 20. p.20 The share of teachers who have only recently started teaching ME/ML is estimated to 7%. There is a significant decrease in the share of respondents who are unaware of how much time has passed since the introduction of ME course in their schools (3% in 2016 against 14% in 2015).  Expert Opinion: Motivation to encourage participants to take part in the experiment and its further development1 The relevance and importance of media education is clear to all respondents representing schools that were participants of the experiment or introduced ME independently. That is why, regardless of whether the experiment is officially prolonged/renewed or not, the interviewees express their persistent intentions to continue work in this direction. Especially as the respondents have many developments made within the framework of media education implementation and they are willing to share them with the colleagues. One of the most important achievements of the experiment is that it brought up and put the light on a range of problems that are relevant for both secondary school education system and the Ukrainian society as a whole. These issues are usually associated with the emergence and growing popularity of media technologies that have become an integral part of the daily life. Understanding the importance of inclusion of these aspects in the educational process is what distinguishes the experiment participants among others, what encourages their active and creative endeavor towards implementing media education and makes them go on and on: "This is what you need, it is at the right time" (Khotiv) "It is not possible to manage without ME today. Yet, this issue should not only be addressed by the Institute of social psychology alone, but also by the authorities of the state level " (Mykolaiv).2 However, the level of media education introduction varied significantly in different regions and schools during the experiment implementation period. Despite the fact that in all schools, where the team conducted interviews with teachers and school administration, media education course is being taught, the effectiveness of their inclusion in the process of ME introduction into school education is quite different. At the same time, the most important factor is not so much the introduction of the media education (media culture or media literacy course) in the curriculum of high school students or the qualification of ME teachers (attendance of specialty-oriented courses, participation in the seminars) anymore. The successful progress and effectiveness of the experiment implementation depend more and more on the scale of ME integration into teaching of other school subjects, as well as on active involvement of all the teaching staff, showing their positive interest and receiving support from school administration – principals and assistant principals. Given the overall involvement in such cooperative process, all obstacles and barriers should be triumphed over: few academic hours should be selected in the busy schedule of the curriculum and then contributed to teaching ME course, additional funding and money should be donated to improve the material and technical base. Support provided by school administration and existence of like-minded fellows in the teaching staff are important components of successful ME introduction in schools. Sure, individual enthusiasm and inspiration of a teacher is and will always be one of the most important keys to progress in this field. However, the successful implementation of the ME project would not be possible without the collective support, as well as the opportunities for development and improvement. As one teacher said in an interview: “We need to create a situation with a sense of success. So that a person could feel the acknowledgement and appreciation of own work, - then, his/her wings will grow” (Dnipro). 1 Hereinafter, the Expert Opinion block is a result of the analysis of in-depth interviews with ME teachers. 2 Hereinafter, the respondent’s direct speech is presented in italics, retaining vocabulary and syntax.
  21. 21. p.21 During the experiment implementation period, different teachers followed their own paths. Some of them state that they “have only become more familiar with the subject matter” and that “pupils show more interest now” (Lviv). Other teachers demonstrate great achievements in the field. For example, in Mykolaiv, teachers have developed and implemented their own media education model, which is distinguished by the following principles: media immunity - critical thinking - media literacy - media creativity. They also emphasized that media creativity can only be achieved at the last stage of personal media culture development. If a person moves backward, it can only lead to increase in the number of low quality products. Before introduction of media education in the teaching/learning process, for a whole year the teaching staff of one of the lyceum schools in Mykolaiv devoted time at the teachers’ meetings to the discussions of the mechanisms and methods of implementation of this course into school curriculum. All teachers participated in these discussions. In Pohorilovo, Mykolaiv oblast, one of ME teachers acknowledged having faced many methodological difficulties at the first stages of ME teaching when dealing with diverse teaching models presented during seminars, as well as lack of clear guidelines, so he developed and proposed his own educational program, which was later defended and approved in the Mykolaiv OIPE. This program – "Practical Media Culture" – mainly focuses on the practical aspect of teaching: "I have realized that children need to acquire practical skills. It is hard for them to memorize large amounts of information". At an open lesson, pupils presented one of the tasks included in the program - it was a round table for pupils on the results of a web-quest. Teachers usually show great openness and willingness to share their teaching practices with the colleagues. For example, one teacher from the Lyceums in Mykolaiv regularly organizes open ME lessons in different towns and villages in the oblast. In Dnipro, people organize and hold annual school festivals that are thematically related to ME. Children that are in different school grades participate in such festivals, even when they do not have a media education course in the curriculum yet. This provides an opportunity for making pupils of all ages interested and engaged in media education. Thus, teachers initiated and held a social advertising festival this year. Pupils of junior classes got the victory. Last year, the school hosted a municipal school booktrailer festival, which helped in creating an image of a media-oriented school. It is becoming increasingly clear that individual enthusiasm and initiative are not enough to implement the project successfully. There are other important components of such progress: support provided by the entire school community, engagement and interest in the idea, the sense of productive and acknowledged work and understanding of future prospects. According to respondents, the real accomplishments of pupils, such as winning in the city/national competition or creation of a school newspaper/radio/news show, become the evidence of the productive and acknowledged work of teachers. Real achievements and prepared media products encourage further work and improvement efforts. 2.2.2. Forms of ME/ML implementation Schools have chosen diverse methods of ME/ML teaching. However, during the 2015-2016 academic year, many schools made important changes primarily reflecting the search for opportunities to work one’s way through formal limitations of school curricular hours. In 2015, the most popular format of ME teaching was a compulsory lesson – one academic hour a week (49 schools). Then, in 2016, the number of such educational establishments decreased to 31 with a simultaneous increase in the number of schools where a compulsory course is being integrated into teaching of natural sciences and humanities (26 schools in 2016 against 9 in 2015).
  22. 22. p.22 In addition, there was an increase in the number of schools introducing this course as elective/optional for pupils or in the form of ME interest groups and media clubs (accounting for 27% and 19%, respectively, in 2016 against 15% and 13% in 2015). In 2015, 21% of schools had teachers-enthusiasts, initiating and supporting the development of school media – newspapers, radio and websites. Their share decreased to 6% in 2016. Diagram 2.4. Forms of teaching ME/ML in schools (Q. 17/23. How is ME/ML teaching organized in your school? N=90, 2015-2016, multiple choice) 9 49 17 14 2426 31 33 23 7 Mandatory ME/ML classes integrated into another subject Mandatory class - one hour per week Elective course, voluntary participation of pupils ME/ML club There is a school club (school newspaper, radio, Internet site to disseminate ML basics) 2015 2016 As demonstrated in diagram 2.4., ME/ML course is mainly taught in high school for pupils in grades 9-11 (83% in 2015, 60% in 2016). This is related to participation in the experiment, as media culture course, developed in the Institute of Social and Political Psychology, is designed for pupils of 10 year of school. At the same time, there is a tendency of the course’s “sliding” to middle school (25% in 2016 against 10% in 2015). It should be noted that 6% of respondents mentioned ME/ML course being taught to pupils of junior classes, which was not the case in 2015. Diagram 2.5. Pupils in the following Grades are taught ME/ML Q. 18/24. Pupils in which grades are taught ME/ML courses? (Multiple choice, N=90, 2015 and 2016) 84% 10% 6% 0% Pupils of 9-11 grades Puplis of 5-8 grades Pupils of 1-4 grades Students of all grades N=90, 2015 60% 25% 9% 6% N=90, 2016
  23. 23. p.23 According to teachers’ calculations, the number of “media educated” secondary school students was 5410 persons in 2016, which equals to 10% of the total number of pupils – 50490 – in 90 schools participating in the survey. If we recall that, according to the data provided by the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, the total number of school graduates in Ukraine was 200,500 in 2016 and the number of secondary schools was 17,337, then we can only imagine the range of work and efforts required for the proper ME implementation in those schools.  Expert Opinion: Specifics of Teaching In schools where the in-depth interviews were conducted, media education course is taught once a week to pupils of higher grades at the expense of a variable part of school curricula (grade 10 – in Khotiv, Kozelets, Smila, Lviv, grades 8-9 in Poltava, grades 10-11 – in Mykolaiv, Pohorilovo, grades 8,9,10 in Dnipro. The majority of teachers had to revise the proposed programs in order to adapt it to both the required terms of the curriculum (the first version of the program included a 4 hour per week course) and the needs of pupils (enforcing the practical component to interest and engage schoolchildren in work as much as possible). If, according to respondents, the process of adaptation to administrative terms and reduction of the first version of the program took place in almost all schools, the process of adaptation to the needs of secondary school students has become quite an experience for teachers as it required much personal efforts and creative work. Those teachers, who managed this task at their own initiative and with the support provided by school administration and fellow teachers, can now demonstrate both real achievements and significant progress made in this area. Thus, media education teachers from Pohorilovo in Mykolaiv oblast have developed and approved their own educational program – “Practical Media Culture” – for pupils in school grades 10-11. Teachers from Mykolaiv Lyceum have elaborated their own model of ME teaching and ME integration into teaching of other school subjects. The underlying elements of this particular model are the following: media immunity – critical thinking – media literacy – media creativity. Pupils from schools in Dnipro often participate in various festivals dedicated to media literacy and present their own projects there. Teachers confirm that ME helped them create a special attractive image of their school in comparison with other schools in the city and district and the fact the school is media-oriented played one of the most important roles in this process. Therefore, introduction of the media education course was both a challenge and an opportunity for teachers to realize their creative potential beyond their essential work in the specialty field. The correlation between theoretical and practical knowledge is one of special issues related to teaching media education in schools. The interviewed teachers are well aware of the importance and necessity to present theoretical part of the course to secondary school students. But, at the same time, they insist on the greater significance of the practical component, which is the mechanism of encouraging pupils’ interest and engagement in the course: "They need theoretical knowledge as well, but they also need to be creative, that’s why they should do practical assignments" (Dnipro). All teachers stress the need for combination of theory and practice, as well as the importance of practical activities. Teachers from schools where media education is at early stages of implementation (Khotiv, Lviv) and even many experienced teachers (Poltava) acknowledge that they still lack practical knowledge on how to organize practical activities and elaborate practical assignments, and sometimes, they also lack a purely technical knowledge on how to implement media education: elementaries of work with video materials, software etc.: "What we lack is a technical training on organization of practical activities " (Poltava).
  24. 24. p.24 Efficient technical support facilitates and advances successful ME integration into teaching of all other subjects in schools. Technical means are actively used in schools in Mykolaiv and Dnipro. Different subject teachers often use media presentations, movies and various media tools during their classes. For instance, in Dnipro, one chemistry teacher used own recourses to produce a documentary about D. Mendeleev for pupils in his school. In Mykolaiv, physical training teachers explain the benefits of exercising to pupils using media presentations to show which types of muscles work during particular exercise. Certainly, this approach is far from the traditional understanding of media education aimed at developing critical thinking, but still, it stimulates students’ creativity in learning diverse school subjects. That is to say that ME integration is not only a perspective, but it has already become a part of actual everyday work and organization of teaching/learning process in many schools. At the same time, most experts support the idea that ME should be taught as a separate subject of the school curriculum. Proper academic performance assessment should be applied. ME classes should not be taught as elective or optional course: "It is better to implement it as a separate subject – as it disciplines better. The work during electives is less strict. We cannot make our pupils attend it. But if ME is a school subject – pupils need to study for it, to do assignments. As a result – it is only a plus" (Dnipro (Dnipropetrovsk), "If we want to have results, it should be a separate school subject, with academic performance control" (Lviv). On the other hand, absence of formal assessment systems, free form of communication, possibilities to debate and express own views are the features of media education course that attract secondary school students. 2.2.3. Course name and topics taught Almost half of respondents identified the course that they teach as “Media Culture” (46 teachers) or “Media Education” (17 teachers). There are also many other names used, such as “Basics of media literacy”, “Steps to media literacy”, “Basic elements of media literacy” or “Media literacy” (13 teachers), as well as the more precise names: “Basics of multimedia technology” or “Visual media culture”. 11 teachers defined their course as “The course integrated in social subjects”, “ME course integrated in Ukrainian language course”. Many elective courses and clubs also have various names: “Media education club”, “Media literacy club”, “Media technology club”, “Journalism club”. In some schools, ME course for pupils in grade 10 is called “Media culture” and for pupils in grade 8 – “Basics of media literacy”. As a rule, teachers have one same answer for all questions about the topics they teach during the course – “we stick to educational program”, therefore, the topics studied within the course are organized into the following groups (modules): 1. History of media (photo, cinema, TV, newspapers, magazines, the Internet) and analysis of media texts/materials/other media products (for example, TV show); 2. Visual media culture. Practice of creating media and advertising products, developing plots and storylines, producing reports, photo and video materials. 3. Fundamentals of information security. Online safety. Media hygiene. 4. Manipulation technology. Spreading information and propaganda, hate speech, stereotypes. Psychological impact of media and ways to counter manipulation. Most teachers point out that, taking into account the current conflict situation in Ukraine, such topics as Countering manipulation and propaganda are of great significance nowadays.
  25. 25. p.25 2.2.4. Textbooks In comparison with 2015, the number of teachers using course programs and textbooks developed by the Institute of Social and Political Psychology of NAPS of Ukraine has slightly decreased. It, in particular, concerns such textbooks as Media culture of an individual: socio- psychological approach, ed. Naydionova L.A and Baryshpolets O.T., which was mentioned by 13 respondents; Cherepovska N.I., Media education and media culture of secondary school pupils: visual media culture – listed by 6 teachers; and Naydionova L.A and Baryshpolets O.T., Practical media culture – recalled by 10 teachers. Textbooks and teaching materials developed or issued in the AUP are also widely used. First, it is Fundamentals of media literacy. Teacher textbook. 8 (9) grade: Lessons curricula, Media literacy. Teacher textbook (Cyndy Scheibe) – 64 and 51 teachers out of all 90 interviewed chose these textbooks, respectively. Media literacy in classes on social studies is also gaining popularity (it was mentioned by 49 teachers). Diagram 2.6. The use of textbooks and other educational materials Q. 27. Do you use the following textbooks/materials in teaching ME/ML? (YES), N=90, multiple choice 27 37 39 49 51 64 Media Education and Media Literacy for Higher Education Institutions. Practical Media Education: original lessons. Collection of works. Media Education and Media Literacy. Brief overview. Media Literacy in Social Science Lessons: Teacher's Manual Media Literacy: The Teacher's Guide / Cyndy Scheibe, Faith Rogow / Transl. from Eng. 2014. Basics of Media Literacy: Curriculum guide for Teacher's in Grades 8 (9). Lesson plans. In general, most teachers do not limit the use of textbooks to the abovementioned ones (“We use all educational materials that were offered in the AUP’s schools”), they usually use the Internet to search for new teaching materials as well.  Expert Opinion: Educational Materials Communication with experts put the light on the reasons why some textbooks become less popular nowadays than in 2015. For example, on the one hand, the textbooks on media education under the editorship of Naydionova L.A, Baryshpolets O.T. or Cherepovska N.I. provided the basis for teaching media education course during the experimental period, though on the other hand, they are still too complicated for pupils and require considerable adaptation work. That is why they are selectively used in schools ("Media culture of an individual" is too difficult for pupil’s perception, so we choose only some topics” (Dnipro (Dnipropetrovsk). However, the majority of teachers have already acquired their own experience of teaching ME and started to develop own instructional materials, often rejecting the proposed textbooks.
  26. 26. p.26 Special workbook elaborated by Cherepovska N.I. is one of the most popular materials mentioned by the interviewed teachers. However, it is also used on a selective basis due to a very small number of academic hours in school curriculum allocated to ME (1 hour a week). Several educational guidelines/textbooks prepared or issued by the Academy of Ukrainian Press received teachers’ approval as well. Meanwhile, experts point out that it would be very interesting to read and perhaps even introduce in the educational process the methodical developments of their colleagues from other cities. For the same reason, most respondents emphasize the need to strengthen ties and communication with fellow teachers – to hold round tables and seminars or to create forums and virtual platforms for sharing experience and materials. According to interviewees, a perfect textbook on media education should be prepared using joint efforts of scientists who understand the subject and teachers who should elaborate practical recommendations on actual organization and implementation of the course. Academic Performance and Knowledge Control Creative tasks and projects are the dominant methods of knowledge and academic performance control. Thus, In Pohorilovo in Mykolaiv oblast, one teacher attempts to assign only those tasks and activities that are interesting and relevant to pupils in the class and tries to include as many of them as possible in the course. For example, he assigns to cut audio tracks that pupils listen to during the day or to take pictures to make photo collages (when the topic is photography), as to TV topics – he asks kids to create a TV guide for the weekend. By the end of the course, secondary school students prepare personal "portfolios" that include their works and examples of assignments/tasks done within the subject area. According to respondents, academic performance and knowledge control tasks are designed to provide students with opportunities to demonstrate their knowledge. At present, the constantly increasing number of teachers abandons traditional forms of control and focus more on development of students’ creative potential. 2.2.5. Pupils’ skills and abilities According to teachers, students are mainly interested in the practical aspect of the course, especially in creation of their own media products wherever and whenever possible. In schools with no media (own newspapers or radio) or access to the Internet, most teachers focus on critical analysis of media materials, which they find interesting and attractive for pupils. Quantitative analysis of the collected data as to the questions about the main focus of ME/ML teachers shows that the development of critical thinking skills was indeed a priority in 2015 and still remains very important in 2016 (76 and 66 responses, respectively). “The ability to think creatively” was only mentioned by 27 teachers in 2016 compared with 54 in 2015. At the same time, there was an increase in the number of respondents who chose "conscious approach to perception and dissemination of information" (36 responses in 2016 against 11 in 2015) and "psychological ability to protect oneself from unnecessary information" (18 responses in 2016 compared with 7 in 2015). The number of respondents who chose “ability to counter media manipulation” remained unchanged. It is worth noting that by choosing the responses
  27. 27. p.27 like "conscious approach”, "psychological ability to protect oneself”, “ability to counter”, teachers react to information challenges of the time when media space is filled with fake, manipulative information, as well as aggressive and discriminatory vocabulary. They believe that they have to help secondary school students gain insight into the outbreak of new information challenges and to teach them how to protect themselves in this situation. Diagram 2.7. Pupils’ main skills and abilities (Q. 23/30. What skills/abilities related to ME/ML do you want to develop in your pupils? Choose up to 3 options. N=90, 2015 and 2016) 7 11 30 41 43 54 76 18 35 36 31 42 27 66 Ability to protect oneself from unnecessary and aggressive information on the Internet (Internet Responsible consumption and dissemination of information Ability to create own media products Ability to read, analyze, assess and realize communication while using different types of media Ability to resist media manipulation and aggressive advertisement Ability to think creatively Independent critical thinking 2016 2015  Expert Opinion: Pupils’ interest All respondents acknowledge that pupils tend to demonstrate a rather high level of interest in the subject, especially when teachers do their best to engage children not only in the educational part of the class, but also in the creative process. According to the participants of the interview, there are always those who may be interested in the subject. However, generation of pupils’ interest in the subject is one of the challenges for a teacher, who must be skilled enough to select and present educational material or assign the tasks in such a way that secondary school students would be engaged and excited about the class: "We need to make children interested in the subject, then they would do even the most complex tasks and assignments. To make them really excited about it" (Dnipro (Dnipropetrovsk). According to the interviewees, pupils’ engagement in the subject grows when they switch to practical activities: "when we begin performing specific analysis, watch videos, when they are assigned to make media presentation, then they get really involved in the practical work. They are familiar with such activities; they know how to use a computer and how to make a video material" (Poltava). The topics related to advertising and media hygiene are the most popular ones among secondary school students. The history of media and digital divide are assessed as less interesting. The experts insist on the idea that the subject itself is very interesting as it meets the requirements and challenges of our time: "Most topics are interesting, the subject has fallen into the mainstream, it was introduced at the right time" (Dnipro (Dnipropetrovsk).
  28. 28. p.28 Preparing and conducting the project on the status and importance of learning the Ukrainian language was one of those tasks that generated interest in secondary school students from Kozelets ("We spent a lot of time choosing the main theme, children discussed it arguing their choice and finally, we decided to stick to this particular topic and to develop this project. No one had to be forced, because they all felt that they were sociologists, journalists, operators, analysts..."). 2.2.6. Parent involvement in media education The 2015 study registered a new tendency related to media education implementation in secondary schools – involvement of parents. Many pupils who participated in focus group discussions made fun of their parents laughing at very low levels of their media literacy, still acknowledging that real-life experience helped them to perform media-related tasks. Only several schools have already introduced certain forms of media education for parents. The administration of these schools insists that it is not only necessary to tell parents about the importance of media education for their children, but also to encourage parents to join activities and cooperate. This idea evolved and that is why, the 2016 questionnaire for teachers included the following question: “Do you try to involve pupils’ parents in ME/ML course introducing/learning?” And 68 teachers out of 90 interviewed answered positively to this question. The school teaching and administrative staff use various educational formats to introduce media education to parents. The information is also disseminated during teacher-parent meetings on both the class (49%) and the school levels (7%). Classroom teachers and ME/ML teachers act as major information providers. One of the interesting forms of providing information on media education to parents is pupils’ presentation of the subject at teacher-parent meetings (20%). Nearly a quarter of the surveyed teachers uses a compressed course of ME lectures for parents as a form of media education teaching. Diagram 2.8. Forms of parental involvement Q. 32. In what ways do you involve parents in ME/ML course learning/introducing? (N=90, 2016) 49% 20% 24% 7% Information presented by a class teacher or a ME/ML teacher at teacher-parent meetings Information (media presentation) prepared by pupils and demonstrated at teacher-parent meetings A brief ME/ML course for parents, a course of lectures for parents Information (media presentation) prepared by ME/ML teachers and demonstrated at teacher- parent meetings on the school level
  29. 29. p.29 2.3. Personal Experience of Teachers 2.3.1. Teaching/Learning process The majority of respondents (84% in 2015 and 69% in 2016) attended a course on ME/ML teaching methods and techniques. The number of self-educated teachers has also increased (16% in 2015 and 31% in 2016), (Diagram 2.7.). In particular, this group consists of teachers from the schools where the substitution of ME/ML teachers took place, as well as teachers from schools in Lviv and the oblast, who joined ME/ML implementation not until fairly recently. Diagram 2.7. Training of teachers to teach ME/ML Q. 1. Have you attended a special training on ME/ML course teaching methods and techniques? 84% 16% Yes No, I studied on my own N=115, 2015 69% 31% N=128, 2016 Respondents were asked to choose all options that applied when answering the question about learning formats. As demonstrated in Diagram 2.8, the path suggested by the AUP – to act in coordination with OIPEs together with offering ME teacher-training courses in summer and winter schools – produced noticeable results. In 2016, 44 teachers joined ME/ML implementation by attending continuing education courses in OIPEs, 57 persons (40% in 2016 in comparison with 24% in 2015) studied the subject in the AUP’s summer/winter schools. Some teachers acquired necessary knowledge during special courses for the experiment participants (10 people) and only 2 teachers engaged in courses organized in schools in 2016. According to 16 interviewees, a new form of training is becoming popular – exchange of experience with foreign partners – no one mentioned it in 2015.
  30. 30. p.30 Diagram 2.8. ME/ML training modes Q. 3. Where did you acquire knowledge on ME/ML course teaching methods and techniques? (N=97, 2015 and N=128, 2016) 40 35 35 20 14 15 44 57 10 2 16 At OIPE seminars/courses, at the additional oblast department of education seminars/courses At OIPE's teacher training courses At summer (winter) AUP schools At seminars (courses) organized for teachers (coordinators) taking part in the experiment of the National At the training organized at my school At the international conferences 2016 2015 2.3.2. ME teaching experience As in 2015, the interviewed teachers still teach ME/ML courses in their schools (90 persons). Unfortunately, we must admit that in 2016, there was a decrease in the number of teachers involved in scientific research work (from 26 to 20 people) or conducting extracurricular activities related to school media (from 26 to 13 people). Diagram 2.9. The use of acquired knowledge during extracurricular/practical activities with secondary school students Q. 8. How did you apply the knowledge acquired during training in secondary school practical activities related to media education? (N=90, 2015 and N=90, 2016) 3 4 8 13 26 31 90 6 13 3 10 26 20 20 90 2 5 Developed ME/ML model lessons Conduct seminars and media education training for teachers at Developed ME/ML course outline for a club (after school lessons) Developed ME/ML course outline for my school Conduct after school media work (school radio, TV, newpapers) Conduct scientific research, take part in conferences on media education Conduct after school theoretical classes on ME/ML (club,courses) Teach ME/ML at my school I have designed practical activities and assignments for ME/ML course I took part in elaboration of INTEGRATED ME/ML classes 2016 2015
  31. 31. p.31 Nevertheless, there are also positive developments indicating that a number of teachers have already gained enough experience of ME teaching and now can and want to share it with teachers from other schools. Thus, 18 teachers confirm that they share their knowledge with teachers from those schools where the experiment has not been carried out yet, which was not the case in 2015. 13 teachers in 2016 against 3 in 2015 assist their colleagues form other schools where ME is taught. A small group of teachers is involved in elaboration of uniquely designed model lessons (6 people), integrated lessons (5 persons) and practical assignments (2 teachers). Answers to the following question (see Diagram 2.10.) prove that the professional level of teachers who have already been teaching media education in schools for more than four years is rather high and these teachers are very competent regarding the subject. Teachers, who feel that they lack relevant knowledge, try to deal with this challenge on their own by searching necessary information on the Internet. Since 2015, the number of such teachers has significantly increased (79 teachers in 2016 against 54 in 2015). In addition, a large group of teachers go over the materials and recommendations received during training in OIPE and the AUP (50 teachers in 2016 compared to 7 in 2015). Regional coordinators, as well as the experts of the AUP and the Institute of Social and Political Psychology of NAPS of Ukraine are also reliable sources of information support (35, 24 and 14 respondents choose this options, respectively). Diagram 2.10. Asking for assistance (Q. 12/9. Whom do you ask for advice when you feel that you lack knowledge or have doubts about teaching methods or techniques? N=90, 2015 and 2016) 54 48 45 7 6 4 79 35 17 50 14 5 Look for information on the Internet on my own Turn to oblast experiment lead Turn to colleagues from other schools Read through recommendations/textbooks/lecture materials that I got at the AUP Turn to experiment lead from Institute for Political and Social Psychology Turn to school administration 2016 2015 2.3.3. The use of the AUP resources 86 respondents are aware of the AUP’s resource; the majority of them – 83 persons – use the website materials. Only four respondents did not know about the portal’s existence, three more knew about the site but did not use site materials. Most users of the AUP portal were completely satisfied with the quality of materials they used (65 persons), 17 assessed that they were “rather satisfied” and only one teacher replied in a negative way (“rather not satisfied”).
  32. 32. p.32 Diagram 2.11 shows that in 2016, teachers mostly consulted the programs of lectures and lesson plans, media presentations and video materials. Educational programs and collections of articles/publications took the second place in the rating of the most popular website materials. Sadly enough, student textbooks translated from English are mostly unpopular. Diagram 2.11. Popularity rating of the AUP materials (Q. 9/14. Which website materials do you use when teaching media literacy course? N=86, 2015 and N=83, 2016) 5 20 23 29 36 38 45 47 2 44 50 27 47 24 47 41 Textbooks for students translated from English Curricula/programs of the Ministry of Education Lecture/lesson outlines Calendar of events Video materials Model lessons on various school subjects Presentations Collected works on ML/master classes 2016 2015 2.3.4. Major problems associated with media education in secondary schools Both regional coordinators and ME teachers answered questions about major difficulties faced during the process of media education implementation in secondary schools. Let us compare the answers that bring into the picture the three main issues. In 2016, regional coordinators assumed that the most important problem is “insufficient number of academic hours for ME teaching in school curricula”. Their opinion completely coincides with answers of 66 schoolteachers. According to the majority of teachers, the second most important problem is “lack of student textbooks for pupils in different school grades” (51 teacher), but only 8 regional coordinators agree with such a statement. “The lack of modern equipment” was rated as the third most important problem by 44 teachers (in comparison with 62 in 2015 - does this mean that the issue is almost solved?). 12 regional coordinators named the same problem. In summary, we see an almost complete match in the assessment of problems related to management and content filling of ME/ML teaching in secondary schools, as viewed by schoolteachers and OIPE personnel.
  33. 33. p.33 Diagram 2.12. The main problems related to organization and content filling of the ME/ML teaching process in secondary schools, as viewed by the ME coordinators Q. 16/29. Which problems, related to ME/ML course organization and content filling, do ME/ML teachers usually face during educational process? (N=19, 2014 and N=17, 2016) 7 11 14 9 12 5 12 16 8 1 2 2 1 6 Lack of modern equipment (multimedia) to teach ME/ML Limited number of school hours to teach ME/ML course Lack of ME/ML textbooks for pupils Lack of basic ME/ML course outlines for different grades Lack of ME/ML teacher guides School administration's lack of interest Limited opportunity for sharing experience with other ME/ML State's indifference towards the experiment 2016 2015 Diagram 2.13. The main problems related to organization and content filling of the ME/ML teaching process in secondary schools, as viewed by the ML teachers (Q. 24 /33. Which problems, related to ME/ML course organization and content filling, do you usually face? (N=90, 2015 and 2016) 62 45 41 17 11 10 5 3 44 66 51 20 17 14 1 6 6 1 1 Lack of modern equipment (multimedia) to teach ME/ML Limited number of school hours to teach ME/ML course Lack of ME/ML textbooks for pupils Lack of basic ME/ML course outlines for different grades Lack of ME/ML teacher guides Lack of examples, practical materials for study School administration's lack of interest Limited opportunity for sharing experience with other ME/ML teachers State's indifference towards the experiment Lack of control materials of ME/ML Lack of interest an indifference of pupils 2016 2015
  34. 34. p.34  Expert Opinion: Barriers to implementation of media education and ways to overcome them The barriers, referred to by expert ME teachers in 2015, were also mentioned by the interviewed teachers participating in the 2016 survey. At the same time, most respondents can share first-hand experience to demonstrate how these barriers could and should be overcome and that is why, they do not believe that the identified issues are insurmountable. Based on the results of ME implementation process and counter fighting the barriers to media education implementation in secondary school system, all schools participating in the research and the experiment can be divided into three groups. Representatives of the first group include teachers who did not start teaching ME course in schools until fairly recently (schools in Lviv and the oblast (Novoiavorivsk), Khotiv (Kyiv oblast). They admit that they "lack knowledge and enthusiasm" to implement ME successfully in their schools, as only 1-2 persons are engaged in the ME introduction process there. The representatives of this group are usually distinguished by lack of actual support provided by teaching staff and insufficient personal enthusiasm to implement the project to the full extent. The representatives of this group determine the following problems related to implementation of the project:  lack of clear scientific guidance and instructions on the experiment implementation;  lack of methodological support (the existing and developed materials require further adaptation, which also causes numerous difficulties);  insufficient number of academic hours in the variable part of school curricular to implement ME teaching course;  absence of opportunities to participate in seminars and trainings on ME teaching methods and techniques;  issues related to poor technical and material support of secondary schools. The representatives of the second group (Smila (Cherkasy oblast), Kozelets (Chernihiv oblast), Poltava) are those who have already gained experience of teaching ME in secondary schools and feel enthusiastic about it. Nevertheless, substitution of teachers in certain schools violates the institutional memory and requires extra effort to maintain proper level of teaching. Teachers in this group do not have any reason to complain about the indifference of school administration or lack of attention/assistance from OIPE coordinators, although there are still problems related to poor technical and material support or insufficient number of student textbooks. In general, parents of pupils deal with such issues in modern schools. Triumphing over these difficulties, schoolteachers help their students to win honorary awards in media production competitions. The representatives of the third group of schools (Mykolaiv, Pohorilovo, Dnipro (Dnipropetrovsk) had also faced all the above-mentioned problems during the process of experiment implementation. However, they always manage to solve them rather quickly by developing own educational programs and adapting them to the terms of school curricula (reducing the number of planned academic hours from 4 to 1-2 hours per week), as well as by including more practical activities in educational process, seeking new knowledge, participating in seminars and trainings, finding new opportunities of financial funding and technical support. According to the respondents in this group, the share of teachers who use elements of media education in the process of teaching their specialty subjects has definitely increased in recent years. Many schools have become similar to media holding organizations producing own newspapers, radio and TV news programs. Secondary school students become very ambitious about production of video materials, as well as participation in local and national competitions. The curious fact is that, when asked to assess the results of ME implementation in native school using a 10-point scale, the teachers in the first group considered the situation objectively by
  35. 35. p.35 giving low scores (3 points). At the same time, the respondents in the second group, taking into account all the complexities of such assessment ("it is as difficult as if you were asked to assess your beloved child" (Dnipro (Dnipropetrovsk), marked rather high scores close to 10 points (9 – Dnipro (Dnipropetrovsk), Mykolaiv, 8 - Pohorilovo). Experts in the third group chose average scores – 6-7 points (“There is still too much to do, to learn and to teach”). 2.3.5. Assessment of the status of ME implementation in Ukraine We asked regional coordinators and schoolteachers to assess the status of ME implementation in Ukraine using a 10-point scale and to explain their opinion.  None of coordinators gave 10 points, when 11 teachers assigned such score (“teachers make efforts, pupils like it”, “everything that is done is thanks to teachers’ enthusiasm”, “schools where the experiment is being implemented receive 10 points”).  Regional coordinators explained that the high scores reaching 8-9 points were assigned taking into consideration current situation in the country (“8-9 points, as such scores correspond to real political situation”) or “future prospects”. The opinions of only two teachers are similar to the coordinators’ views. This group consists of 13 schoolteachers (“9 points…we do not deserve 10 points yet”).  7 points – this score was assigned to ME implementation status by 3 regional coordinators and 16 teachers.  Only one coordinator chose 5 points on the assessment scale, but 25 teachers assigned this score to the status of ME implementation in Ukrainian schools. They explained such scores as follows: ”there is still too much to do”, “it is not enough, its implementation is very important, but there is no such course in the curriculum of most schools”, “I can’t see the structure”, “because there are the enthusiasts, though in general, there are problems” …) .  Two regional coordinators assessed ML in Ukraine by giving only 2 points to this criterion, three other – only 3 points (“First, the wrong direction was chosen, something they wanted did not happen, but they now want everyone to report on media education, although no one can still figure out what it is about. Creating your image of the world with the use of media and bearing responsibility for it. Then you become a personality”, “There is not enough… in Ukraine, not enough computers, not enough teaching staff, there is still too much work to be done”). Teachers did not assign any scores that were that low. Diagram 2.14. Assessment made by coordinators Q. 31. Please, assess the ME/ML implementation status in Ukraine using a 10-point scale. (N=17, 2016) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 0 3 1 2 1 3 3 2 0 scores number of coordinators, who rated
  36. 36. p.36 Diagram 2.15. Assessment made by teachers Q. 36. Please, assess the ME/ML implementation status in Ukraine using a 10-point scale. (N=90, 2016) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 8 25 10 16 13 4 11 scores number of teachers, who rated In IN conclusion, we can state that teachers demonstrate better understanding of the situation and are more critical regarding the assessment of their work. And of course, they need assistance and support. 2.3.6. Assistance needed to further implement media education The answers to questions about the types of assistance needed by teachers to further implement media education in Ukraine did not evoke surprise. Teachers and experts repeatedly emphasize that the widespread introduction of media education in Ukrainian schools cannot progress without a special Order of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine. But no order has been issued yet, as it would have to be followed by allocation of additional funding and extra hours. However, 83 teachers believe that the order could be a key to actual ME implementation, and their opinion is supported by positive answers of 17 regional coordinators. According to 12 coordinators, systematic professional development took the second place in the rating, when teachers put it on the third place (33 teachers). At the same time, 42 schoolteachers assigned the second place to financial support required for the development of ME teaching/learning materials and 9 coordinators agreed with this opinion. As many as 30 teachers and only 8 regional coordinators believe that sufficient quantities of textbooks also constitute an important factor contributing to ME implementation in schools. Finally, such options as creation of professional teachers association and additional funding for extracurricular activities related to Media education, are hardly supported by coordinators (3 and 3 persons), while 24 and 22 teachers out of 90 interviewed insist that such types of assistance are always necessary. Meanwhile, they admit having almost no experience of preparing tender proposals and expect assistance in this area as well ("and then, we will be able to do everything we need...").
  37. 37. p.37 Diagram 2.16. Assistance provided to teachers (as viewed by coordinators) Q. 30. In your opinion, what types of assistance/support provided to teachers could contribute to faster implementation of ME/ML course in secondary schools? (N=17, 2016) Diagram 2.17. Assistance provided to teachers (as viewed by teachers) Q. 34. In your opinion, what types of assistance/support provided to teachers could contribute to faster implementation of ME/ML course in secondary schools? (N=90, 2016.) 3 3 9 10 12 17 24 22 30 42 33 83 Financial assistance (individual grants for teachers) for running extracurricular educational activities related to ME/ML course (interest groups, festivals, trips, visits to editorial offices etc.) Organization of professional union/association for sharing experience and discussing ME/ML educational materials Providing every school with sufficient number of ME/ML textbooks Financial assistance (individual grants for teachers) for elaboration of ME/ML course-related materials Systematic regional/inter-regional continuing education courses for Me/ML teachers, participation in special master classes The Order of the Ministry of Education and Science On Mandatory Implementation of ME/ML course  Expert Opinion: Prospects for further media education development Prospects for further media education implementation have not changed significantly, when compared with the findings of the previous study. Like a year ago, most respondents defined the following priority areas: Organizational:  Administrative and organizational support of ME implementation process. "The MON [The Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine] must specify clear objectives, the Academy of UP – develop accurate criteria, which could be used for elaboration of this course and ensuring of experts’ proper work" (Poltava).  Although there are examples of ME integration in teaching of other school subjects, which is usually unconscious, still, it should be more comprehensive. Methodical:  Elaboration and dissemination of necessary educational materials – textbooks, programs, workbooks etc.  Creation of an interactive digital textbook for secondary school students. Communicative:
  38. 38. p.38  Exchange of experience among ME teachers, an insight into the best examples of ME implementation in schools.  Active cooperation with parents, who should be engaged in ME teaching, in particular, if some of them are competent in this subject. All respondents expressed high interest in receiving such type of support as grant financing. The interviewees have also defined major barriers to applying for grants, which include lack of experience of writing and submitting grant applications, as well as purely psychological barriers, such as uncertainty about own abilities, which is often the case.
  39. 39. p.39 SECTION 3. Focus Group Discussions with Secondary School Students in Different Grades, who Attend Media Education Course Focus group discussions with secondary school students, who have experience of media education learning and are participants of the experiment on the national/regional level, were conducted in 8 cities throughout Ukraine: Dnipro (Dnipropetrovsk), Mykolaiv, Poltava, Lviv, Khotiv in Kyiv oblast, Pohorilovo in Mykolaiv oblast, Kozelets in Chernihiv oblast and Smila in Cherkasy oblast. In Novoiavorivsk, Lviv oblast (ZOSh No.3) media education course is taught once a week for pupils in grade 9 in the form of a separate lesson. According to respondents, the subject is not that different from other school subjects and is not perceived as more important or useful. Many interviewees observe such phenomenon as high level of media dependence, which is not regarded in a critical manner. Children honestly admit that they usually spend 2-3 and more hours surfing the Internet, searching for educational information, watching movies and video clips online, chatting with friends in social networks. At present, teenagers are less interested in TV and respondents confirm that no more than 1 hour is spent on watching TV every day, with preferences being given to entertainment programs (TV shows) and movies. Vkontakte and Facebook are the most popular social networks. Respondents mention Skype, Instagram and Viber as well. In Khotiv (Kyiv oblast), media education course is taught for pupils in grade 10 once a week during one semester (spring) in the format of a separate school subject. Pupils show interest in the subject, although they acknowledge that they know little about it. As to teaching, theoretical approach prevails. Respondents admit that they usually spend 5-6 hours a day using the Internet and that secondary school students are not interested in watching TV. Only several pupils confirmed that they spent up to 1-2 hours every day on watching TV. They are mainly attracted by various entertainment shows, sitcoms and a bit less – by news broadcast. In Poltava (Gymnasium No.28), media education course is taught once a week for pupils in grades 8 and 9 in the format of a separate school subject. The priority is given to the theoretical part of educational process, which is why pupils’ engagement and interest in the course are only declarative. Secondary school students spend from 1 to 4 hours a day on the Internet, while TV takes much less time of the teenage life – only 2-3 hours a week. Entertainment programs, social networks, online movies and sitcoms, online games are the most popular reasons for the use of media channels. In Dnipro (Dnipropetrovsk - Educational Complex No.122), media education course have been taught for pupils in grade 10 for 5 years already: 2 lessons per week, 2 semesters. The school owns all the necessary technical equipment. Secondary school students are very interested and engaged in the creative media production process. Most respondents state that they spend no more than 1-2 hours on the Internet every day, mostly using social networks or watching movies and sitcoms online. In Mykolaiv (Economic Lyceum No.2), media education course is taught in grades 8, 9 and 10 (a 3 year course), one lesson a week. Media education is also integrated in educational process related to teaching other school subjects and is demonstrated in the form of individual project

×