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U-Meida Project of Internews Network funded Journalists Survey. Implementer: InMind Factum Group. Field Work - september - November 2012. Report - Janaury 2013.

U-Meida Project of Internews Network funded Journalists Survey. Implementer: InMind Factum Group. Field Work - september - November 2012. Report - Janaury 2013.

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Intenews Survey of Ukrainian Journalsits 2012 English Report Intenews Survey of Ukrainian Journalsits 2012 English Report Presentation Transcript

  • Survey of UkrainianJournalistsAnalytical reportJanuary 2013The research became possible due to support United States Agency for InternationalDevelopment (USAID) provided through U-Media project of Internews. Allconclusions are responsibility of InMind and do not necessary reflect the opinions ofInternews, USAID and American government.
  • 2ContentsResearch objectivesResearch DesignKey findings1. Professional Journalism Standards2. Research on opinion of audience3. Paid journalism4. Influence by owners of media5. Censorship6. Protection of journalists7. Employment relations8. Law literacy9. Education10.Demography
  • Research objectives3Overall goal of the survey was studying journalists’professionalism and needs in training and othertechnical support.The survey had the following objectives:1. Study level of journalists’ professionalism2. Estimate how journalists perceive state of freedom ofspeech3. Research on inside and outside factors impacting thequality of journalist work and performance of their socialrole, including employment relations, salary level, ethicalbasis of journalism4. Learn to which extend media outlets consider audience’sinterests5. Estimate the level of awareness on media legislation inparticular, access to information, defamation, use ofpersonal data, etc.
  • 4Research designMethod: Online surveyGeography: entire Ukraine; cities having population 50 thousands or moreFieldwork timing: October 15 – December 19, 2012Total sample: 243 respondents- Regional media: 185- National media: 58- Journalists: 115- Editors: 128- Print media: 119- Internet: 83- Television: 34- Radio: 7
  • 5Key findingsJournalists’ role in the society• The role of journalism in the society is mainly perceived by Ukrainian journalistsas production of news and information (83%). More proactive social roles i.e.keep authorities accountable to the public, shape public opinion, improve citizens’lives were mentioned by about 20% of survey participants.Paid journalism• Paid journalism in Ukrainian media is a wide-spread practice. Resp0ondentsestimated the volume of paid journalism at level more than 60% of all content.Every second journalist has experience in paid journalism.• Only 50% of respondents are negative towards paid materials. It’s important tosay that journalists are unwilling to discuss paid journalism – in most cases thelevel of refusals (in either form) to answer questions about paid materials reaches20%.• Paid journalism is mainly initiated by editors – this has been mentioned by 76% ofrespondents, who had experience with such materials. Direct orders to journalistwere mentioned by 40% of respondents.
  • 6Key findingsInfluence of media ownership on content• Majority of journalists were aware about who owns the media they work for (88%of respondents). Influence of media-owners on editorial policy is frequent – 55%of journalists have stated that media owners in either way influenced editorialpolicy.Censorship• Rejection of «problematic» materials, editing of materials «for the sake of editor’speace» - were quite well-spread occurrences in Ukrainian media: from 50% to70% of journalists have experienced or heard of such situations.• For regional media, rejections of materials for the sake of keeping the author safewere more specific.• Influence of public authorities on editorial policy was a well-spread occurrence –every second journalist has been experiencing or heard of such influence.• Regional media are less protected from such influence comparing to nationalmedia (22% in national media and 41% in regional media). Influence ofauthorities is mostly revealed in orders regarding what, when and how to presenta certain topic.
  • 7Key findingsJournalists’ safety• Majority of journalists experienced limitations by their supervisors during fulfillingtheir professional responsibilities (66%). Most often, the limitations regardedselection of topics (one third of respondents) and demand to follow the editorialpolicy (one third of respondents).• Half of journalists have experienced limitations of their labor rights – 73% werelimited in work process (had longer working day, did not get a paid vacation, etc.);51% mentioned delayed paychecks and other non-complied financialresponsibilities of the employer, etc. about 16% experienced dismissals orpressure purposefully for making a journalist quit.• Not all journalists feel equally socially protected. In age disaggregation: youngerjournalists (up to 35 years old) feel more secure comparing to ones older than 35.
  • 8Key findingsLegal literacy• Respondent demonstrated spontaneous awareness of media legislation: 60 to68% mentioned only 2 out of 20 documents that regulate rights andresponsibilities of journalists .• Journalists demonstrated poorly awareness about legal responsibility for paidjournalism: only 6% have given the right answer. At this, one third ofrespondents believed that there is no legal liability for production of paid contentand hidden advertisement.Needs in professional training• Disregarding the fact that almost 90%of respondents have experience in varioustraining, more than 50% of respondents demonstrated highly interest inprofessional journalism training.• In particular, 1/3 of respondents expressed interest in legal training, ¼ - in newmedia training. Researches noticed the particular strong interest towardsInternet media development among regional newsrooms.
  • PROFESSIONAL JOURNALISMSTANDARDS9
  • Role of journalism in society10Question: What is the main role of journalism in the society? (multiple choise) N=243, total sample• Predominant majority of respondents perceive the key role of journalism in society asproduction news and information (83%). However, 59% respondents envision a slightlymore socially proactive in their profession: they envision their role in keeping authoritiesaccountable, developing society, shaping public opinion.83%23%23%13%6%1%7%83%22%22%12%7%1%7%81%26%26%16%3%2%7%Informing the society / Objective informingDevelop / improve / educate / bring up /clarify the societyShaping of the public opinionControl of authoritiesAnalysis of informationEntertainingOtherTotal sample RegionalNational39% of respondentsmentioned this functionsolely
  • Journalism Standards1152%52%32%28%27%21%16%15%16%11%8%7%2%53%52%32%29%26%19%17%17%15%12%9%7%2%50%52%34%24%29%28%12%10%19%7%7%7%3%ReliabilityObjectivityHonestyRespect towards private lives of publication…Benefit of the doubtDetachmentResponsibilitySocial responsibilityIndependenceRespect towards cultural and social valuesFair practiceTactOtherTotal sample RegionalNationalQuestion: How do you think, which of standards of journalism a journalist must notbreak at any price? (no more than 3 answers)N=243, total sample• Majority of respondents consider reliability and objectivity (52% each) as key standards ofjournalism, both of them related to presentation of information.• Relatively small group of journalists believe “responsibility” and “social responsibility” to bevital journalism standards.31%
  • Familiar73%Unfamiliar27%Adopted the code43%Use some ofregulations, but thedecision is made by theowner of media44%Not adopted14%National 28%Regional 49%Code of Journalism Ethics1230%25%22%20%20%16%15%12%12%12%11%10%10%10%9%7%6%5%5%5%2%28%26%24%19%22%18%14%12%12%14%8%10%8%12%8%5%5%3%6%5%3%36%22%17%25%11%14%19%14%14%6%19%11%17%3%11%11%8%11%0%3%0%All of themObjectivityDetachmentRespect towards private lives of publication protagonistsPresentation of different opinionsFreedom of speechReliabilityTactFair practiceAnonymity of sources of informationBenefit of the doubtResponsibilityRespect towards culture and social valuesNo plagiarismHonestySocial responsibilityIndependenceNo publications of unverified informationFreedom of authors opinionAdopted informallyAdopted regulations of other countries / internationalTotal sampleRegionalNationalN=243, total sample• Majority of respondents are familiar to the ethical code of journalists (73%).• 43% of surveyed newsrooms adopted the Code of Journalism Ethics; regional media adopt code of ethicsrarer than national ones.Used in newsroomRegulations used by editorialsN=177N=153Question: Are you familiar with the ethical code of Ukrainian journalist? Which of the regulations of the ethicalcode does your editorial use?
  • CONSIDERATION OF AUDIENCEINTEREST IN EDITORIAL POLICIES13
  • Count opinion ofaudience 90%Follow editorialpolicy 74%23%67%7%3%22%70%6%2%28%59%9%5%Our editorial policy is built exclusively on opinionand interests of our audienceEditorial office, when possible, accounts interestsof the audience, at this it still follows its editorialpolicyAll the journalists follow clearly establishededitorial policy, disregarding on opinion of theaudienceHard to say / Dont know Total sample RegionalNationalTaking into account audience’s interests.14Question: How do you think, to which extent your editorial office accounts interests ofthe audience when selecting topics and form of presentation of materials?N=243, total sample• Majority of newsrooms (90%) either way take count of their audience opinion in editorial policies.• Only 7% of respondents’ newsrooms totally disregard audience opinions in their editorial policies.
  • Researches71%Im not aware of it12%Doesnt research7%Hard to say10%Approach to Audience Research1581%37%24%17%9%2%86%36%20%15%8%0%64%38%36%26%10%5%We account the audience feedbacks –letters, feedbacks on the website,editorial mail, etc.Internet-surveys done by themselvesOpen data of sociological and otherresearchesWe order surveys in researchcompaniesOtherHard to sayTotal sampleRegionalNationalN=243, total sample• National media use sociology research more often than regional ones: explore open sources, order surveyswith research companies.• Regional media more use feedbacks from readers / viewers (letters, feedbacks on websites, e-mails) inorder to learn audience opinion.Research on interests of the audienceWays of researchN=172Question: Does you editorial office research the opinion of your audience(readers/viewers/listeners)? In which way?National 2%Regional 9%41%
  • PERCEPTION OF PAID JOURNALISMAND HIDDEN ADVERTISEMENT16
  • 100%98%92%89%79%76%66%65%61%32%21%10%6%2%5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100% of paid materialsEvaluation of incidence of paid journalism17Question: according to your opinion, what is the share of paid materials in Ukrainian media, if we take allthe materials published and aired for 100%?N=243, total sampleSpecified69%Hard tosay31%% of respondents• Paid journalism is a wide-spread occurrence in Ukrainian media – 60% of journalists reckonthat more than a half of all journalist materials are paid.
  • Attitude towards paid journalism1823%28%18%14%3%10%4%19%30%20%13%3%11%4%36%22%12%17%2%7%3%Extremely negatively, this is violation of standards ofjournalismNegatively, this has negative impact on reputation of editorialNeutrally, if theres a demand for such service – so journalistscan do itNeutrally, the editorial office is free to make money in anyavailable wayPositively, this is a good way to earn additional moneyOtherHard to say Total sample Regional NationalQuestion: What is your attitude towards the problem of paid materials in media? N=243, total sample• Half of respondents (51%) have negative attitude towards paid journalism, since paid journalism maynegatively impact the image of the editorial.• 23% of journalists see paid journalism as serious violation of journalism standards; such opinion is morespecific for journalists of national media rather than regional ones.• Third of respondents are neutral toward paid journalism and hidden advertisement and 3% of surveyedjournalists positively justify jeansa.Negatively 51%Positively 3%Neutrally 32%
  • Experience in production paid materials andhidden advertisements19Question: Have some of your colleagues / acquainted journalists made paid materials?Have you personally ever made paid materials?N=243, total sample• Ukrainian journalists actively practice paid journalism: 51% of respondents produced ordered materials;80% are aware about this practice from their colleagues.• However, it is worth mentioning that there’s a high rate ( up to 9%) of refusals to answer the questionsregarding paid journalism.Yes80%No12%Refusal8%Yes51%No40%Refusal9%JournalistsColleagues / acquainted
  • 20Question: How often have you or your colleagues have been offered or told to make and publishpaid materials?N=243, total sampleHow often journalists are offered to produce apaid material• More than 60% of surveyed journalists received offers to produce paid report at least one time; 1/3 ofrespondents receive such offers on a regular basis.• A quarter of respondents (26%) declared they refused producing paid materials.6% 20% 9% 9% 14% 10% 33%RefusalHard to sayNot offered1-2 times during my entire journalist practiceUp to 10 timesMore than 10 timesOffered on a regular basisHave been offered to make paid materials 65%No answer 26%
  • Who initiates production paid materials?21Question: How do you think, preparation of paid materials is most often assigned by the editorial officeor are these a journalist’s personal orders? (One answer only)N=243, total sample• Editors are key customer for paid content that journalists produce: 76% of respondents declared thatreceived editor’s assignment to produce “jeansa”. Personal orders make a smaller share – 42% ofrespondents received such orders in person.• Journalists of national media refused answering this question (19% ) more often than regional journalists(8%).By assignment fromeditorial office 76%Personal orders 42%45%31%11%11%2%46%32%11%8%3%40%29%10%19%2%Most often by assignment from the editorial officeSometimes assigned by the editorial office,sometimes - personal orderMost often - personal ordersHard to say / Dont knowRefusalTotal sample Regional National
  • MEDIA OWNERSHIPCENSORSHIP22
  • 2%15%13%16%30%25%Owners entirely determine editorialpolicyEditor consults to the owner ifmatter in controversyOwners dont get involved intoeditorial policy, they concern aboutprofitsNo influence at allHard to say / Dont knowRefusalInfluence of media owners on editorial policies23Question: Are you aware of who owns your media? To which extent, by your opinion, owners influence theeditorial policy of your media?N=243, total sample• Almost all the surveyed journalists (88%) are well aware about who owns their media; respondents fromregional media are better informed about who owns the media they work for.• Media owners influence on editorial policies is significant: 55% of respondents have indicated that theowner determines editorial policy either in full or in particular cases.Aware88%Notaware8%Hardto say5%Influence of media ownerAwareness on media ownershipNational 77%Regional 91%Influenceeitherway 55%Noinfluence29%
  • 24Question: Have you ever experienced a situation when your texts/materials were edited or cut before publishing forthe sake of peace/elimination of potential problems for the editor, editorial office and you personally?2%9%19%25%44%Have experiencedHeard of such situationsHave not experiencedHard to sayRefusalN=243, total sample*N=140Editing of politically sensitive materials• About 70% of respondents admitted that they or their colleagues edited their reports to avoid “problems” fortheir editors in chief.• Regional journalism is more dangerous of authors, since situations of editing materials for a sake of thejournalist safety is higher (27%) comparing to national media (12%).2%11%63%23%Have experiencedHave not experiencedHard to sayRefusalFor the sake of editor’s in chief «peace»For the sake of the author6%19%34%29%7%6%Almost every material is"polished" to eliminate potentialrisksAbout half of materials are editedin that wayUp to 10 times1-2 times in my entireprofessional practiceHard to say / Dont knowRefusalFrequencyNational 12%Regional 27%*Haveexperienced42%National 20%Regional 37%
  • There have beensuch situations49%There have neverbeen such situations30%Hard to say18%Refusal3%25Question: Have you ever experienced situations in your professional practice when the editor rejected a topic offered byyou because it was potentially problematic for the editorial? How often have you experienced these situations?N=243, total sampleFrequency of refusals to report on politicallysensitive topics• Editors quite often reject produce politically sensitive content: half of surveyed journalists (49%) wererefused to write on important but sensitive topic; 60% of them receive refusals regularly.• Journalists demonstrated unwillingness to discuss issue of censorship: about 20% refused or haddifficulties in answering this question.N=118Situations when the editor has rejected aproblematic article3%9%27%48%6%7%RefusalHard to say / Dont know1-2 times in entire professionalpracticeUp to 10 timesHalf of materials are edited in thatwayAlmost every material is polishedin order to eliminate any potentialriskFrequencyHave experiencedfrequently61%
  • 26Question: Are you aware of calls/ letters/ oral orders done by authorities, which would have influenced the editorialpolicy of your media (prohibited topics, requirements to presentation of events, etc.)?2%7%35%18%37%Yes, I am aware ofsuch factsI have only heardrumours, I dont knowfor sureNo, Im not aware ofsuch factsHard to say / DontknowRefusalN=243, total sampleInfluence on editorial policy done by authorities• Authorities have strong influence on editorial policies of respondents: 55% of respondents experienced orheard about authorities’ interference into editorial policies.• National media are more protected from influence of authorities comparing to regional media: 22% innational media against 41% in regional ones. In most cases, authorities dictated journalists/editors how toreport on certain topic.46%19%14%10%6%5%14%48%21%15%11%6%6%10%38%12%12%4%8%4%12%Provided directions on how/when toreport on a certain topicOrdered to report on certain topicsProhibited reporting on certain topics /personalitiesOrdered cancelation of printing preparedmaterials/investigationsProhibited critical publicationsOtherRefusal, No commentsTotal sampleRegionalNationalN=133National 22%Regional 41%55%
  • 27Question: Have there ever been the cases of journalists being dismissed because he/she hasrefused publishing paid materials on editors’ request?9% 81% 7% 2%Hard to sayNo, there have never been such casesEven if there have been such cases, I am not aware ofthemN=243, total sampleFrequency of dismissals for refusal to preparepaid materials• 2% of respondents knew about dismissals caused by refuse to produce paid materials;• Journalists of national media more aware (17%) about facts of dismissals for non producing paidjournalism content than regional reporters (3%). National 17%Regional 3% National 67%
  • JOURNALISTS LABOR RIGHTS28
  • 29Question: Do you experience any limitations from your management when carrying out yourprofessional responsibilities? What kind of, exactly?2%33%34%21%11%Yes, I experience suchlimitations all the timeI sometimes experiencedifferent kind of limitations, butthese limitations are notsystemicI experience it, but these aremostly sporadicNo, I dont experience suchlimitationsHard to say / Dont knowN=243, total sampleLimitations on management side• 66% respondents experienced limitations from their management when did journalism work.• The most of limitations concerned prohibitions to report on certain topics, report on certain politicalparties/authorities, forced positive reporting about particular events, socially important materials were notpublished (open ended question).33%31%10%8%8%8%6%3%4%11%36%35%10%9%8%7%4%3%3%11%25%27%11%5%5%8%11%0%8%14%Prohibition to write a material on a certain topicDemand to follow the editorial policyPrefer a certain party, a certain authority/personalityForced positive evaluation of eventsProhibition on critiqueSocially significant materials are not publishedThe editor / the manager alternates the accents /polishes edges in the materialForced making of material on a certain topicOtherHard to sayTotal sample RegionalNationalN=158
  • 15% 13% 11% 18% 21% 11% 11%“Protected”“Non-protected”30Question: How would you evaluate the level of social protection (insurance, paid sick leaves, official maternityleave, paid vacation, etc.) of employees in your newsroom?N=243, total sampleSocial Security. Labor rights.50%52%68%33%Younger than 35years oldOlder than 35years old“Protected”“Non-protected”T3Box (3 top values) 33%B3Box (3 bottom values) 42%• Responses on social security depended on age of respondents: young specialists (up to 35 years old) feltmore secure than older colleagues older 35 y.o.• Overall, third of respondents (33%) felt “protected” and a bit bigger groupTotally unsafely Totally safely
  • 36%17%7%1%42%31%16%2%9%2%4%7%3%37%15%7%1%43%33%17%2%10%2%2%8%3%31%22%6%0%41%28%13%3%6%0%9%6%3%Unpaid / incomplete payment of thesalaryNot paying sick leavesUnpaid work in overtimeDelays in paychecksExcess of office hoursCuts on vacation / refusal to issue avacationIllegal dismissal / pressure with demandof quitting the jobRefusal to make the employment officialInsults / humiliationCensorshipOtherHave not experiencedRefusalTotal sampleRegionalNational31Question: Have you ever experienced in your journalist practice any violation of you labor rights? What cases ofviolation of labor rights have you experienced?7%39%4%15%35%YesMy rights were not violated, butthere were violations of otherjournalistsI dont know since Im not aware ofthe labor legislationNoRefusalN=243, total sampleLabor rights• Half of surveyed journalists (50%) experienced violation of labor rights of themselves or their colleagues.• Major violations concern the exceed of working hours, cuts or refuse pay vacation time and seek days,illegal dismissals or delays with salary payments.N=12115% 13% 11% 18% 21% 11% 11%1 – extremely low level 2 3 4 5 6 7 – extremely high levelLevel of social protectionViolation of labor rights40%40%
  • 32Question: Have there ever been cases of dismissal of pregnant employees or employees on maternity leave inyour editorial office?N=243, total sampleCases of dismissal of pregnant femalejournalists• Only 2% of respondents mentioned that knewabout cases when pregnant female journalistwas dismissed from the position;• 8% assumed that might happened but theynever experienced such situation;• 78% respondents never heard aboutdismissing pregnant employees.• Experts noted difference in national andregional media: journalists of national mediaassumed existence of such situations moreoften (17%) than regional media professionals(5%). However, more national journalists(21%) had difficulty to answer that questionthan regional journalists (9%).2%8%78%12%1%3%5%83%9%1%0%17%62%21%0%Yes, these situations havehapennedSuch cases have probablytaken place, but I neverheard of themNo, such cases have nevertaken placeHard to say / Dont knowRefusalTotal sampleRegionalNational
  • 54%44%25%12%7%54%41%25%14%8%55%52%24%5%5%Fixed monthly salaryHonorarium for the number ofmaterialsOfficial additional payments:bonuses, incentives, additionalpayments, etc.Unofficial payments: bonuses,incentives, additionalpayments, etc.Other61%20%14%4%61%20%15%4%62%21%14%3%Officially employedFreelancer / project employment/ part-timeUnofficially employed (no workrecord book and officialdocumentation)Other Total sampleRegionalNational33Question: Please choose one statement which best describes your employment relations with the media you workfor at the moment. What does your paycheck consist of? (all answers)N=243, total sampleEmployment relations: salaries payment• Majority of journalists (60%) are officially employed and have fixed monthly salary (54%).• 20% of respondents work part-time or freelance; 14% do not have official labor contracts or employmentrecord book in accordance to Ukrainian legislation.Employment relationsPaycheck consists of
  • 43%25%25%7%Most part of the paycheck Ireceived as a hidden wage,less part of it I receive officially50/50 – half of my paycheck Ireceive officially, while ytheoether part I get as hiddenwageMore than a half of mypaycheck I get officially, lesspart of it - as a hidden wageRefusal55%23%10%12%52%25%11%12%64%17%5%14%Official paycheckPart of the paycheck is official, another partis a hidden wageEntire paycheck is paid as hidden wagesRefusalTotal sample RegionalNational34Question: What paycheck practice is specific for your editorial office? (one answer only). What is the ratio of yourofficial part and hidden wage of the paycheck? (one answer onlyN=243, total samplePaycheck: official VS unofficial payments• Slightly less than half of respondents (45%) does get payments in envelopes (unofficial, hidden wages).• When mixed type of payments (partly official payments, partly unofficial payments; in 23%), hidden wages dominate (for43% of journalists).• Situation when journalists are not officially paid makes media workers vulnerable due dependence from employers andmedia owners. The media company have legal liability only in case when journalist is officially employed and get the fullsalary in official way.Practice of paychecks Types of mixed paymentsN=56Received hiddenwages 45%
  • LEGAL LITERACY OFJOURNALISTS35
  • 36Question: Could you please name main laws of Ukraine, which regulate rights and responsibilities of journalists. Noprompt.N=243, total sampleAwareness on media legislation• Majority of respondents were able to name 2 out of 20 laws that regulate work of journalists and mediaorganizations: law of information (68%) and law on print media (61%).• About third part of respondents remembered Ukrainian Constitution, law on access to public informationand law on television and radio broadcasting.68%61%31%29%29%22%15%13%9%7%6%5%9%7%On informationOn print media (press) in UkraineConstitution of UkraineOn access to public informationOn television and radio broadcastingOn state support for mass media and social protection of journalistsOn informational agenciesOn reporting about activities of governmentCriminal code of UkraineOn copyright and related rightsCivil code of UkraineOn advertisingOtherHard to say
  • 37Question: With which of the regulations listed below are you familiar? Prompted. N=243, total sampleKnowing content of media legislation• Absolute majority of respondents pretended knowing content of three laws: Constitution of Ukraine (86%),law on information (85%) and law on access to public information (83%).• Respondents demonstrated bad knowledge of the majority of laws that regulate media in Ukraine86%85%83%70%67%58%52%44%40%38%36%35%31%21%21%18%16%13%12%11%7%Constitution of UkraineOn informationOn access to public informationOn print media in UkraineOn parliamentary electionsOn advertisingOn copyright and related rightsOn television and radio broadcastingCivil Code of UkraineOn reporting about government activitiesOn state support for mass media and social protection of…On state secretsOn informational agenciesOn amendments to laws of Ukraine regarding protection of…On National Council on TV and RadioOn system of public television and broadcasting of UkraineOn publishingOn creative professionals and creative unionsOn communicationsOn protection of information in automatic systemsOn scientific and technical information
  • 38Question: Please name main laws and regulation acts of Ukraine which protect human honor and dignity. Withregulations of which of these laws are you familiar?N=243, total sampleAwareness of the main legislation protecting human rights anddignity• The main law protecting human rights and dignity, according to journalists, is the Constitution of Ukraine. Atthis, only one third of journalists name the Civil Code as the document to protect human dignity.Spontaneous Prompted64%84%62%7%58%Civil codeOn informationCriminal codeOtherOn elections of peoples deputies74%30%12%10%10%5%4%4%4%3%8%6%Constitution of UkraineCivil code of UkraineAdministrative code of UkraineAon informationCriminal code of UkraineOn protection of personal dataOn access to public informationOn print media (press) in UkraineOn protection of public moralityOn amendments to lawsOtherHard to say
  • 39Question: Could you please name the main elements of an informational inquiry towards authorities and otherinstitutions?N=243, total sampleKnowing elements of informational inquiry42%42%39%10%10%7%4%4%1%6%5%15%5%3%46%45%42%8%10%5%2%4%1%6%5%17%5%2%31%33%31%19%9%12%10%2%2%7%5%9%5%7%Outgoing data, from whomRecipient of the inquirySummary of the inquiryOn the media company form / authorized by the editor in chiefA reference to the Law on information should be present in…The Law on information should be quoted (or a reference to it)In arbirtrary formInquiries are not usedI wrote only the text / the editorial makes the formI can nameI dont understand the questionI cannotOtherHard to sayTotal sampleRegionalNational• The survey showed poor awareness of journalists about writing official informational requests in accordance to the law onaccess to public information.• About 40% of respondents could call some elements of informational request i.e. outgoing data, inquiry recipient,summary of the inquiry.• 15% respondents acknowledged that don’t know how to compile official informational request.
  • 17%13%11%6%2%25%2%4%17%8%17%13%13%5%3%25%1%4%16%7%16%12%5%7%0%26%5%5%22%12%AdministrativeCriminalPenaltyCivilPublication of retractionNoneMoralTheres no term of plugola in the LawDont knowOtherTotal sample Regional National40Question: What kind of accountability of the media / journalists is provided by the Ukrainian Law for placement ofpaid materials / unfair advertising (plugola)?N=243, total sampleAmenability for spreading hidden advertisement(jeansa)• Journalists are poorly aware about amenability prescribed for placement of paid materials: only 6% ofrespondents mentioned civil amenability.• One third of respondents think that there’s no accountability for jeansa at all.• 17% recognized that do not aware about responsibility for hidden advertisement (jeansa)Legal amenability - 49%No amenability - 31%
  • 41Question: What kind of accountability is provided by the Law of Ukraine for libel, violation of copyright? N=243, total sampleAccountability for libel, violation of copyright• Journalists are aware that for libel there’s civil amenability by a court suit (67%), however almost half ofjournalists think that there’s administrative amenability for libel.• Journalists are aware that for violation of copyright there’s provided civil, administrative and criminalamenability.For libel For violation of copyright54%45%35%2%2%10%Civial amenability viacourt suitAdministrative amenabilityCriminal amenabilityNo accountabilityOtherHard to say / Dont know67%49%28%2%1%8%Civil amenability via court suitAdministrative amenabilityCriminal amenabilityNo accountabilityOtherHard to say / Dont know
  • NEEDS IN PROFESSIONALTRAINING42
  • Haveparticipated33%Haventparticipated67%Haveparticipated88%Haventparticipated12%Journalists education: experience4376%38%15%11%7%10%TrainingsSeminarsStudy trips / internshipProfessional conferences(national, international)LecturesOtherN=243, total sample• Majority of journalists (88%) have participated in training events. Most often these were trainings orseminars.• There was noticed growing popularity of webinars – one third of journalists experienced that relativelynew format.Participation in educational events Types of eventsN=214Question: Have you ever participated in educational events for journalists / editors / media?What kind of events were those?Distance courses, webinars
  • 44Question: What kind of events were those? What were they about?N=214, having experience intrainingJournalists education: topics of events• The most frequent mentioned topics were new media (23%), content production (20%), legal training (18%)and investigative reporting (17%).• In 20% cases, respondents could not remember topic of the event or training.20%18%17%23%5%5%5%4%4%4%4%3%3%3%2%2%1%1%5%20%18%18%18%16%6%5%6%5%4%5%5%4%4%4%3%2%1%1%4%21%26%21%13%6%2%6%4%2%4%2%0%2%2%2%0%2%2%2%9%15%19%24%18%10%3%8%4%9%7%7%1%3%2%2%1%1%2%2%3%22%21%14%16%17%7%4%6%1%2%2%6%4%5%5%4%3%1%0%6%18%News, reports, improving excellenceLegal aspectsInvestigationsNew mediaManagementEconomy, budget, bankingElectionsCodes, ethicsPoliticsHealthcare issuesSocial, publicRegional mediaEU, eurointegrationInteraction with court system and Ministry of Internal affairsEcologyGender policyEducation, cultureEuro-2012OtherDifferent / I cant remember / Hard to sayTotal sample Regional National Journalists Editors
  • 45Question: How strong is your need in additional professional training? What topics of trainings would interest you atthe moment?7%7%11%22%23%12%18%7 - I need a lot654321 – I dont need at allN=243, total sampleNeeds in professional education31%24%15%12%7%6%6%5%5%31%27%13%11%8%8%7%7%6%32%14%21%14%4%0%4%0%4%Legal training to protect media /journalistsInternet mediaInvestigative JournalismJournalism methods and writingskillsEverything is interestingMedia managementHow to oppose censorship /protect freedom of speechMonetization / marketingHard to sayTotal sampleRegionalNationalNeed in professional training TopicsN=129• 53% of respondents indicated high interest in further professional training.• The most popular topics: legal training for journalists/media organizations and new media. 6% ofresponders expressed interest in skills to opposing censorship and protecting freedom of speech.• Regional journalists expressed more interest in new media training (27%); national professionals moreneed legal training (32%) and investigative reporting (21%).
  • 46Question: What topics of trainings would interest you at the moment?Training Needs: distribution by groups• There is no statistically significant difference between regional and national media in preferable training.• As well as there was not statistically significant difference observed in the split of editors / journalists.28%20%14%10%8%6%6%2%1%6%8%4%2%28%23%14%10%10%8%5%1%1%7%8%3%1%28%10%12%10%2%0%7%5%0%3%9%7%3%31%15%16%10%3%2%7%3%0%6%12%3%3%24%25%12%11%13%9%5%1%2%6%4%4%1%Law aspects of protection of media / journalistsInternet media / Development of Internet mediaJournalist investigationsMethods of journalismMonetization / marketingMedia managementCountermeasure to censorship / protection of freedom ofspeechDevelopment of communicative skills / psychology ofcommunicationResearch of the audienceEverything is interestingHard to sayNo needNo time for thatTotal sample Regional National Journalists EditorsN=243, total sample
  • DEMOGRAPHY47
  • 48Demography: Type of media34%49%14%3%76%24%83%56%30%15%10%8%40%50%3%1%82%75%22%16%14%13%9%7%5%2%1%34%51%12%3%84%57%31%16%8%9%35%43%4%1%79%72%25%18%15%14%12%8%6%3%1%34%41%21%3%81%53%26%12%16%3%57%29%2%91%84%10%10%10%12%2%5%3%0%0%27%53%17%3%67%33%81%62%27%10%13%4%85%3%92%89%8%4%8%12%3%2%6%2%0%41%45%11%3%84%16%85%51%32%20%7%11%75%5%0%73%63%34%27%20%14%15%13%5%2%2%76%24%88%51%27%13%8%4%31%54%2%2%90%81%22%17%13%14%12%5%6%4%0%80%20%79%61%30%15%10%10%44%34%3%1%76%73%23%20%14%13%9%10%4%2%2%65%35%88%50%32%18%15%6%50%26%3%0%82%71%15%6%12%12%6%6%9%0%0%71%29%71%71%57%29%0%29%29%29%14%0%86%71%43%0%29%0%0%0%0%0%0%InternetPrint mediaTelevisionRadioRegional mediaNational mediaSocio-politicalSocialCulture, science, educationEntertainmentOtherAdvertising, information, congratulationsReporter / journalistEditor and reporter / journalistCommissioning editorColumnist / bloggerPreparation of materialsCollection and processing of informationEditorial office / responsibilities of the editorEditing of materialsPlanning of the issue, selection of materialsJournalist investigationsAdministrative activityManaging of the editorial officeCommunication with readersAdvertisingMake-upType of mediaType of contentResponsibilitiesPosition in editorialN=243, total sampleTotalsampleRegionalNationalJournalistsEditorsInternetPressTVRadio
  • 49Demography: Gender, Education, Education, Experience48%52%14%37%28%14%7%1%1%6%92%45%20%14%9%3%4%4%3%2%10%2%14%35%44%1%45%55%15%38%28%14%5%1%1%6%92%44%19%13%9%3%3%5%3%3%10%2%16%35%43%2%57%43%12%33%31%12%12%7%93%50%21%16%10%5%7%2%3%0%10%2%7%38%47%0%42%58%17%42%26%10%5%2%1%7%90%49%22%12%6%3%3%1%4%3%11%3%17%40%33%3%53%47%11%32%30%17%9%1%5%94%42%17%16%12%4%5%7%2%2%9%11%31%54%0%52%48%18%46%17%16%4%1%10%89%40%18%18%9%5%5%5%5%5%8%1%20%35%39%2%47%53%9%29%34%15%12%1%2%5%92%52%18%13%9%3%4%3%2%1%12%1%10%32%51%0%44%56%18%38%38%6%3%97%38%29%6%12%0%3%9%6%8%3%15%44%35%3%29%71%29%43%29%0%0%0%0%0%100%29%14%14%14%14%0%0%0%0%29%14%0%57%29%0%malefemaleUp to 25 years oldFrom 25 to 35 years oldFrom 36 to 45 years oldFrom 46 to 55 years oldOlder than 55 years oldSecondaryVocational trainingHigher incompleteHigher completeJournalismPhilologyTechnical / engineer specializationHistoryPRLawEconomyPhilosophy / culturology / literaturePolitologyOtherLess than 1 year1-3 years4-10 yearsMore than 10 yearsThis is just a hobbyGenderAgeEducationProfessionProfessional experienceN=243, total sampleTotalsampleRegionalNationalJournalistsEditorsInternetPressTVRadio
  • 50Demography: Regions8%8%8%7%6%5%5%5%5%5%4%3%3%3%3%3%3%3%2%2%2%2%2%1%1%1%1%8%8%8%6%6%4%5%4%5%5%4%3%4%3%4%2%3%2%3%3%2%3%2%1%1%31%7%9%7%5%2%10%2%5%2%0%0%2%0%2%0%7%2%5%0%2%2%0%0%0%0%12%9%9%6%6%5%8%5%3%5%3%1%1%3%1%3%4%3%2%1%3%3%2%1%0%1%5%7%7%9%5%5%3%4%5%4%4%5%5%3%5%3%2%2%3%4%2%1%2%2%2%1%8%11%7%8%8%5%2%8%2%2%7%1%1%4%4%2%2%2%1%4%0%4%1%1%1%7%8%9%6%5%4%7%3%7%5%5%2%3%3%2%3%3%3%3%3%2%3%1%2%1%1%12%6%12%3%12%9%3%9%6%3%6%3%6%3%3%3%3%14%14%29%14%14%14%KyivDonetsk regionZaporizzhya regionKharkiv regionDnipropetrovsk regionAR CrimeaKyiv regionVolyn regionLviv regionOdesa regionKhmelnitskyy regionSumy regionZhytomyr regionKirovograd regionMykolayiv regionPoltava regionTernopil regionChernivtsi regionVinnytsya regionIvano-Frankivsk regionLuhansk regionKherson regionCherkasy regionChernigiv regionZakarpattya regionRivne regionN=243, total sampleTotalsampleRegionalNationalJournalistsEditorsInternetPressTVRadio
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