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One part tech_two_parts_learning

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  • Today, I want to talk to you about we can combine emerging technology with innovative pedagogy to improve student learning and retention ...But first, I want to address a common myth ...
  • Among many technology evangelists, faculty as a whole are painted as this mule … stubborn laggards, holding back progress ....
  • Although in reality, we find about an equal proportion of faculty members hold on to tried and true technology solutions as those who push TECHNOLOGY to keep up with them
  • as THEY create educational programs and systems to more effectively teach their students while they test theories of teaching and learning to inform the practice of other educators.
  • Hence an idealized model might be to combine computer and communication technologies that are stable enough to be reliable with emerging understandings of how people learn to produce educational technology innovations for which we have a reasonable theory of WHY they would support a particular kind of student learning.
  • But what do I mean by "emerging pedagogy"? This list is by no means exhaustive, and in many cases is not all that new by comparison to the age of emerging technologies. Some of these as theories of teaching date from the late 80's or 90's in this country and as historical practices go all the way back to Socrates. These practices really are emerging in that they move us away from the model of education as content delivery
  • And recognize that there are various ways of knowing and understanding our world and ourselves.
  • Emerging technology, on the other hand, is pretty easy to recognize. For one thing, we are all probably carrying an example with us right now [hold up my iPhone ]In practice ....
  • ... the range of technology that can be considered "emerging' in higher education runs a broad gamut .This is a tag cloud generated by some work being done at Grinnell College right now. We have been interviewing all tenured and tenure track professors to find out what educational technology they are currently using in their classrooms. We are about 1/2 done -- and this list shows the responses of about 75 people. The larger, darker words indicate that more faculty mentioned those than did the small, lightly colored terms. As you can see "video" along with the Learning Management System were the two most frequent responses out of a VERY large set.
  • When asked in the same interview about what they would LIKE to be using in their classroom but were not yet doing, "video" became the overwhelming top choice as an emerging technology on our campus. So, as an example, I will use video as a way to talk about how to combine technology and pedagogy for student learning.
  •     I see three major categories that describe how video is used in instruction on the liberal arts campus. Video can be used for instruction, as a production assignment to students, and in assessment and feedback to students. When we use video in instruction, it is often to show movement, interaction, or the unfolding of a process over time. You might use video to show a dance, how humans or animals interact in groups, or how a plant grows and dies. In the classroom, the video might come from a DVD or VHS tape, but increasingly, we are finding that faculty show a clip that is available online - often through YouTube or the website of a colleague or professional organization. This CAN be particularly helpful to students if they also access the video outside of class, either by following the link or through inclusion in Moodle so that they can review the material to reinforce their understanding, reflect and relate the material to readings and experiences from other classes.
  • For student assignments, video productions can take a number of forms. They are sometimes used to narrate a student's reflection on a personal experience or growth of understanding and perspective as is demonstrated in this video in which a young Latina woman reflects upon the various ways in which she and her peers come of age …. [show a few minutes of the clip]Student videos can also be used to show either technical or artistic progress in disciplines as varied as dance and theater, sports, student teaching, and journalism. Since they are often intensive assignments, they may be assigned as group projects, which can then be used to demonstrate the ability to collaborate and work in interdisciplinary ways, which are skills that we value in the liberal arts.Finally, these projects can help take students into critical reflection, just as in the video clip I showed, where the young woman juxtaposes the ideal of her cultural heritage with the sobering reality of teen pregnancy amongst her friends and family.
  •   Finally, video can be used by faculty to review, assess and give feedback to students regarding their emerging ability to create media or engage in performance. While face to face review and discussion is an important part of this type of learning, the ability to annotate and share feedback for repeated review can be a very powerful part of a student's learning. Tools from sports and qualitative research are emerging as useful tools for recorded assessment and feedback in other disciplines such as education and dance.These types of recorded response to a student's work or performance have long term value as they prepare for further performances but also can become valued artifacts in a student's portfolio of work. These can be retained to show perhaps how far a student has progressed both technically as a performer but also as a thinker who chooses subject matter and presentation modes with increasing sophistication over time.  
  • So, let's take that thought and move to considering how video instruction and assignments align with good educational practice at a liberal arts college.For the sake of time, I will just look at this technology integration through the lens of Chickering's 7 Principles of Undergraduate Education. These are not particularly new, but they are widely used in higher education and apply quite well across the curriculum more than 20 years after they were proposed.
  • If we look first at video used in INSTRUCTION, we see that --- if we can provide video material to students outside of class time, through links, via Moodle, or the Library, students MAY spend more time with the material, which generally leads to better retention and possibly deeper understanding of the material, if students are given guidance about what to look for and how --- often through leading questions and the promise of later discussion.Using audio and video in instruction also certainly respects the needs of students who are stronger spatial, visual, or auditory learners, and it generally appeals to the net-generation.
  •   If video production is used as an assignment media - especially in groups, we may also see benefits in collaborative learning, active learning, and the expectation that students will complete demanding tasks to demonstrate their learning. We also retain the benefits of time spent engaged in the learning task and in using multiple modes of knowing and communicating information, to appeal to different learning strengths and the preferred media of the younger generation.
  •   If we look at the use of video in assessment, assuming the ideal case, the video would be, at first, a prompt to get faculty and the student to meet for a discussion of the assignment or performance. Although it still can be unnerving for students to talk to faculty, an artifact to share and discuss can be a way to evaluate a student's performance with an example to reinforce what the teacher sees in the classroom or studio. In this sense, the feedback is always PROMPT since it addresses what is seen together NOW in the video, even if the recording happened days prior.
  • Although there are numerous benefits to be gained by using video to increase student learning, there are always considerations and various costs to consider in the balance. Faculty must first evaluate the appropriateness of video for instruction or assignments and how that relates to desired learning outcomes. Resource management and coordination are also considerations when deciding to use video in a class. This is particularly significant when creating video production assignments and making sure that equipment, labs, and support are available for students when they will need them. Finally, copyright remains a thorny issue for both faculty and students. It is not always clear in each situation what is an allowable use of video material for educational purposes. Frequently, faculty and IT need to partner with the Library …
  • which is a a group VERY experienced in navigating these sorts of issues having dealt for years with questions of copyright in the text-based world after the advent of photocopiers!! In partnership with the Library, IT will need to devise ways to grant students and faculty appropriate access to digital media collections based on roles and enrollment.For IT, as well as the Library to some extent, the incorporation of video into instruction and assignments has an impact on resource planning. Video files, as previously mentioned, can be quite large - easily many gigabytes each - which can put a strain on network bandwidth and storage servers, so we need to plan ahead to develop the infrastructure that will support this type of educational media.IT also needs to work with faculty to provide production resources in the form of videocameras and related devices, computer lab space for students, and possibly instruction for both faculty and students in efficient use of both hardware and software. Lastly, IT needs people who understand education and can partner with faculty while assignments are being developed to ensure that assignments are clear, align with learning goals, and will be feasible given the tools and support currently available.
  • So that emerging technology, combined with faculty expertise and curricular support, will be positioned to enhance student learning.


  • 1. One Part Tech, Two Parts Learning ... Barbara Zebe Johnson
  • 2. image from: http://theoparadox.blog.com
  • 3.  
  • 4. Educational Technology Developers
      • Chris Dede, Harvard - River City Project
      • Sasha Barab,  Indiana University - Quest Atlantis
      • Kurt Squire, University of Wisconsin, ARIS
      • Ted Castronova, Indiana University - Arden, the World of Shakespeare 
      • Aaron Doering, University of Minnesota - Go North!
      •   Hundreds of educators in Second Life
  • 5.  
  • 6. Emerging Pedagogy ....
      • Active learning
      • Collaboration
      • Inquiry-based learning
      • (Social) constructivism
      • Interdisciplinary studies
      • Learning communities
      • Critical pedagogies
      • Knowledge construction
      • Habits of thinking/apprenticeship
      • Emanipatory learning
      • Chickering's 7 principles of undergraduate education
  • 7. Ways of knowing
      • Bloom's taxonomy
      • Wiggins facets of understanding
      • Gardner's intelligences
    image from: http://ehlt.flinders.edu.au image from: http://edorigami.wikispaces.com image from: http://bnleez.blogspot.com
  • 8. Emerging Technologies
      • Ubiquitous computing
      • Mobile computing
      • Augmented reality
      • Virtual worlds
      • Social media
      • Participatory media
      • Videogames
      • Simulations
      • Voice over IP
      • Wearable computers
      • Multimedia
    image from: wired.com/gadgetlab
  • 9.  
  • 10.  
  • 11. Video in Instruction
      • Used to
        • Convey information
        • Show processes
        • Movement
        • Change
      •   Variety of sources
        • DVD
        • YouTube or other site
        • Video camera
        • Screen capture 
      • Presentation modes
        • In class
        • Links from instruction website or LMS
        • Embedded in PowerPoint or LMS
  • 12. Video Production Assignments example: http://listenup.org/screeningroom/index.php?view=54fab213eaf7eaf300208d2553490e09 image from: http://techtv.mit.edu
  • 13. Video in Assessment/Feedback/Reflection
      • Video of performances
        • Produced by student
        • Produced by faculty
        • Produced by outside staff
      • Feedback
        • Face to face
        • Recorded feedback
          • Game Breaker
          • PowerSketch
          • Transana
      • Retention, Reflection, Improvement
        • Recorded feedback used to prepare next performance or assignment
        • Inclusion in a portfolio for reflection or to show mastery of concepts or techniques
  • 14. Good educational practice ...
      • encourages contact between students and faculty,
      • develops reciprocity and cooperation among students,
      • encourages active learning,
      • gives prompt feedback,
      • emphasizes time on task,
      • communicates high expectations, and
      • respects diverse talents and ways of learning.
    By Arthur W. Chickering and Zelda F. Gamson.  From The American Association for Higher Education Bulletin, March 1987
  • 15. Video instruction ...
      • encourages contact between students and faculty,
      • develops reciprocity and cooperation among students,
      • encourages active learning,
      • gives prompt feedback,
      • emphasizes time on task ,
      • communicates high expectations, and
      • respects diverse talents and ways of learning .
    By Arthur W. Chickering and Zelda F. Gamson.  From The American Association for Higher Education Bulletin, March 1987
  • 16. Video production assignments ...
      • encourages contact between students and faculty,
      • develops reciprocity and cooperation among students,
      • encourages active learning ,
      • gives prompt feedback,
      • emphasizes time on task ,
      • communicates high expectations , and
      • respects diverse talents and ways of learning .
    By Arthur W. Chickering and Zelda F. Gamson.  From The American Association for Higher Education Bulletin, March 1987
  • 17. Video assessment and feedback ...
      • encourages contact between students and faculty,
      • develops reciprocity and cooperation among students,
      • encourages active learning,
      • gives prompt feedback,
      • emphasizes time on task,
      • communicates high expectations, and
      • respects diverse talents and ways of learning .
    By Arthur W. Chickering and Zelda F. Gamson.  From The American Association for Higher Education Bulletin, March 1987
  • 18. Considerations for Faculty
      • Instructional design
        • Is this the best way to improve student learning?
      • Finding or producing material
      • Resources
        • Equipment
        • Software
      • Logistics
        • Presentations
        • Storage
      • Training
        • Self
        • Students
      • Copyright
  • 19. IT/Library Planning and Support
      • (Streaming) video
        • Appropriate access for students & faculty
        • IT/Library partnership for e-Reserve
        • Bandwidth
        • Storage
          • Faculty
          • Students
      • Support/training for
        • iMovie, Final Cut, and/or Windows Movie Maker
        • Equipment checkout
      • Lab space and trained assistants
        • Location and hours critical 
      • Partner with faculty to develop production assignments
  • 20.  
  • 21. ... is a powerful combination