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Psyc Of Women Presentation

  1. 1. Precursors and Correlates of Women's Violence: Child Abuse Traumatization, Victimization of Women, Avoidance Coping, and Psychological Symptoms Tami P. Sullivan, Katharine J. Meese, Suzanne C. Swann, Carolyn M. Mazure, and David L. Snow Reviewed by: Carmela Amankwaah, Mindy Cleaveland, Melissa Gilden, Fafa Kumassah, Carolyn Scott, and Rose Yesha
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Why do women use violence in relationships? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Victims of violence 10 times more likely to become violent themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical aggression between partners tends to be reciprocal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is important to understand women's violence in the relational context in which it occurs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is known about the major correlates of violence? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Child abuse traumatization and victimization of women have been established as correlates of violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological symptoms such as post-traumatic stress and depression, and avoidance coping may be related to women's use of violence </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Relationship between all the correlates of women's violence should be examined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship between correlates may look different if all factors are included in the same analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding the relationship between correlates may help predict violence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypotheses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High levels of child abuse traumatization will predict high levels of both use of violence and victimization in intimate partner relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High levels of child abuse traumatization, women's violence, and being victimized will be related to high levels of depressive and post-traumatic sympoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being victimized will have a positive and indirect relationship to symptoms through avoidance coping. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Methods <ul><li>Participants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>108 women who had used violence against a male intimate partner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly African American, low education and low income </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Child abuse traumatization, women using violence and being victimized, coping with relationship stress, depressive symptoms, and post-traumatic stress symptoms all measured by self-report </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistical analysis used to determine goodness-of-fit of path model </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Results <ul><li>Hypothesis 1: relationship of child abuse traumatization to women's use of violence and victimization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partially supported: high correlation between child abuse traumatization and use of violence, but child abuse traumatization and victimization not related </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis 2: relationship of child abuse traumatization, women's use of violence, and victimization to depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partially supported by high correlation of psychological symptoms with both child abuse traumatization and victimization, but not with women's use of violence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis 3: victimization and symptoms related through avoidance coping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supported by correlation of victimization with avoidance coping and avoidance coping with symptoms </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Discussion <ul><li>Supports existing evidence that women who use violence are also highly victimized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports increased need for violence prevention and intervention programs to stop this cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In relational context, when violence and victimization are considered together, victimization predicts psychological symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Women who use violence may feel greater sense of control </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Discussion <ul><li>Victimization leads to psychological symptoms through avoidance coping </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports intervention programs to teach healthier coping strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Childhood trauma predicts violence but not victimization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistent with some studies but not others – further study required </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Further Questions <ul><li>Based on this evidence what should intervention programs focus on? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you agree that victimization but not violence predicts psychological symptoms because women who use violence feel a greater sense of control? </li></ul>
  9. 9. References <ul><li>Sullivan, Tami P. et all. Precursors and correlates of women's violence: Child abuse traumatization, victimization of women, avoidance coping, and psychological symptoms. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 29(2005), 290-301 </li></ul><ul><li>Matlin, Margaret W. The Psychology of Women, 6th Edition </li></ul>
  10. 10. How Does it End? Project the Outcome of a Sexual Assault Scenario N. Tatiana Masters, Jeannette Norris, Susan A. Stoner, and William H. George Reviewed by: Carmela Amankwaah, Mindy Cleaveland, Melissa Gilden, Fafa Kumassah, Carolyn Scott, and Rose Yesha
  11. 11. Introduction <ul><li>Although the perpetrator is to blame for a sexual assault, a woman response to sexual aggression can affect it's outcome </li></ul><ul><li>What factors influence women's responses to sexual aggression? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual scripts: to what extent has a woman internalized traditional sexual roles? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alchohol: may affect sexual assault resistance through physiological, psychological, or social meaning effects </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Introduction <ul><li>A better understanding of the factors that lead to increased resistance to sexual aggression is important in understanding how to prevent sexual assault. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypotheses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants will show elements of a traditional sexual script in response to a hypothetical situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women who have consumed alcohol will be less likely to engage in assertive resistance to sexual assault </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Methods <ul><li>Participants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>371 women with an average age of 24.6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Majority European American and were either college students or had some higher education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants consumed one of four beverages: control, placebo, low alcohol dose, high alcohol dose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read a story involving low-level consensual sexual behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The story culminated in the man attempting sexual assault </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants projected themselves into the scenario as if it was happening to them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Responses were analyzed using content analysis, individually coding the first two actions of each participant </li></ul>
  14. 14. Results <ul><li>First action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most women described a verbally or physically assertive action at the point when the story ends. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More women said they would take physical assertive action as the story went on, with a prominent proportion describing verbally assertive behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Labeling and assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The majority of participants did not use the words “rape” or “sexual assault”, or refer to the man as a “rapist” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most described outcomes did not include the woman being forced to have sex against her will </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Results <ul><li>Alcohol effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol consumption was associated with fewer descriptions of physically or verbally assertive responses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thematic Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The majority of responses included traditional beliefs about male and female sexual roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A significant portion of responses included themes relating to interpersonal concerns such as pleasing a man or avoiding embarassment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A smaller but significant portion of responses included themes relating to empowerment, such as assertive physical and verbal resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alcohol consumption did not have a significant effect on the thematic content of stories </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Discussion <ul><li>Women have a repertoire of verbal and physical responses to sexually aggressive men, and most do resist. </li></ul><ul><li>However, few women labeled the hypothetical situation as rape or assault. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They view this situation as normal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alcohol lowers resistance to sexual aggression. </li></ul><ul><li>The scenario was hypothetical – the way women imagine themselves acting may differ from their real-life reactions. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Further Questions <ul><li>This scenario fit the legal definition of sexual assault, why do you think most women did not label it as such? </li></ul><ul><li>What implications might these results have for prevention and education? </li></ul>
  18. 18. References <ul><li>Masters, N.T., Norris, J., Stoner, S.A., and George, W.H. How does it end? Women project the outcome of a sexual assault scenario. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 30(2006), 291-302. </li></ul><ul><li>Matlin, Margaret W. The Psychology of Women, 6th Edition </li></ul>
  19. 19. An Exploratory Study of Rape Survivors’ prescription drug use as a means of coping with sexual assault. Marisa L. Sturza and Rebecca Campbell (2005) Reviewed by: Carmela Amankwaah, Mindy Cleaveland, Melissa Gilden, Fafa Kumassah, Carolyn Scott, and Rose Yesha
  20. 20. Introduction <ul><li>Past research has mainly focused on post-rape alcohol use. </li></ul><ul><li>This research studied the use of prescription drugs as a coping mechanism for women. </li></ul><ul><li>It tried to understand the factors that affect how victimized women use these drugs. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Method <ul><li>Participants: </li></ul><ul><li>102 sexual assault survivors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>51% African American </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>37% Caucasian </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6% Latina </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5% Multi racial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1% Asian American </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Method <ul><li>Participants were interviewed for about 2 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>Data was collected on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Demographics (age of assault, ethnicity, employment status, education, marital and parenting status) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental Health (depression or post traumatic stress) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical health (headaches, back pain, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug use in the past 6 months: sedatives, tranquilizers and/or anti depressants (prescription or illicit) </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Results <ul><li>43% reported using prescription drugs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Majority had obtained them through a doctor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>14% were using drugs illicitly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employed women more likely to use drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women with mental and physical health problems were more likely to use drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women who had been raped by a stranger were more likely to use prescribed drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 50% of women who used prescribed drugs disclosed the assault to their doctors. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Implications <ul><li>A lot of women resort to using prescription drugs (Valium, Prozac, Xanax, Paxil) to cope with sexual assault. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They report needing a “little lift” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women would not feel the rape after taking drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easier to “block out and escape” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To deal with poor mental health (i.e. depression, PTS) </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Implications <ul><li>Majority of women use drugs legally (through primary doctor). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 50% actually disclosed incident. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fear of judgment and rejection from their doctors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some reported a “cold or silent” reaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some women felt they were being “shut up” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Here, take this” reaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some felt guilt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>None of the women received referrals to crisis or counseling centers for help. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remaining 50% were very indirect about assault. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Implications <ul><li>Apparently, a lot of health specialist are uncomfortable when dealing with violence against women. </li></ul><ul><li>They try to “fix” situation by prescribing drugs to patients. </li></ul><ul><li>Women are then discouraged from disclosing assault. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could lead to drug dependency and/or abuse </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Conclusion <ul><li>Doctors and nurses should be trained on psychological implications of rape. </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate responses are imperative for victims when they disclose the assault. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-medication (using drugs illicitly) should be discouraged in women. </li></ul><ul><li>We should be aware of the resources and support centers that help with coping strategies. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Choices of assistance: drugs or psychological treatment. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Reference <ul><li>Sturza, L. M., Campbell, R. An Exploratory Study of Rape Survivors’ prescription drug use as a means of coping with sexual assault. Psychology of Women Quaterly, 29(2005), 353-363. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Reviewed by: Carmela Amankwaah, Mindy Cleaveland, Melissa Gilden, Fafa Kumassah, Carolyn Scott, and Rose Yesha Relationship Violence Among Adolescent Mothers: Frequency, Dyadic Nature, and Implications for Relationship Dissolution and Mental Health Milan, S., Lewis, J., Ethler, K., Kershaw, T., Ickovics, R. J.
  30. 30. <ul><li>Study looked at the prevalence of relationship violence amongst adolescent females </li></ul><ul><li>To determine if there is a difference between parenting and non parenting adolescents in: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship violence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mental health status </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship stability </li></ul></ul></ul>Introduction
  31. 31. Method <ul><li>Participants: </li></ul><ul><li>411 females </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ages from 14 to 19 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>203 pregnant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>41% African American </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>40% Latina </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>9% Caucasian </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10% multi racial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Majority of participants were from low socioeconomic categories. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Method <ul><li>Participants completed four 90-minute face to face interviews over 18 months. (every 6 months) </li></ul><ul><li>Data was collected on: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship violence on a 6pt scale (ranging from mild to severe physical violence, male or female enacted) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship dissolution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mental health (depression and anxiety) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demographics (age, race, income, education, living conditions) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Results <ul><li>54% reported relationship violence (both parenting and non-parenting groups). </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>53% of female-enacted violence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>34% of male-enacted violence. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>African Americans were more likely to report severe female-enacted violence. </li></ul><ul><li>Parenting females reported lower levels of relationship dissolution </li></ul><ul><li>Mental health decreased only in parenting females who were violent against their partners. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Implications <ul><li>More females engage in relationship violence (regardless of parenting status). </li></ul><ul><li>Families with high levels of female-enacted violence have higher rates of male-enacted violence. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to more severe injuries inflicted from male partner. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Low income families are more likely to experience relationship violence. </li></ul><ul><li>Parenting females are less likely to leave their partners even when there is violence. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional and economic needs of mother. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of security and poor alternatives. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Implications <ul><li>For some adolescents, violence is an indication of commitment. </li></ul><ul><li>Young women who are violent suffer higher levels of depression. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Conclusion <ul><li>Male batterer – female victim intervention programs are insufficient. </li></ul><ul><li>Parenting mothers should be empowered. </li></ul><ul><li>More resources should be provided so they do not feel compelled to stay in abusive relationships. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Question <ul><li>In women, does violent behavior lead to depression or does depression lead to violent behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of intervention would be most efficient for females adolescents who are violent in their relationships? </li></ul>
  38. 38. References <ul><li>Milan, S., Lewis, J., Ethler, K., Kershaw, T., Ickovics, R. J. Relationship Violence Among Adolescent Mothers: Frequency, Dyadic Nature, and Implications for Relationship Dissolution and Mental Health. Psychology of Women Quaterly, 29(2005),302-312. </li></ul>

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