Ppt Child308


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Ppt Child308

  1. 1. Perpetrators of early physical and sexual abuse among homeless and runaway adolescents Researchers: Kimberly A. Tyler, Ana Mari Cauce Reviewed By: Rebecca Eitnier, Brian Jiggetts
  2. 2. Previous Research <ul><li>Very little is known about: </li></ul><ul><li>the specific types of abuse </li></ul><ul><li>intensity and duration of abuse </li></ul><ul><li>physical injuries and outcomes surrounding abuse </li></ul><ul><li>disclosure after abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Little research has been done on child relationships to perpetrators </li></ul>
  3. 3. Previous Studies <ul><li>Relationship To Abuser - 223 homeless/runaway adolescents (1990) </li></ul><ul><li>Results: Biological mothers listed by shelter staff as perpetrators of maltreatment, then biological fathers, then stepfathers </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian Study - With Canadian runaways/homeless adolescents caretakers were majority of perpetrators in female sexual abuse (84%) </li></ul><ul><li>While “others” were listed as majority of perpetrators for male sexual abuse (55%) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Previous Research <ul><li>Characteristics of Abuser: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both lone M/F perpetrators abuse more boys then girls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Female perpetrators are more likely to abuse younger children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 5% of sexual offenses committed against children done by females </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average age of perpetrators: Males 40yrs, Females 20-30yrs </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Objective <ul><li>To examine abuse specific variables in homeless and runaway adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>To look at perpetrators of childhood abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Provide information on different types of abuse as well as their duration, intensity and outcomes </li></ul>
  6. 6. Current Study <ul><li>372 homeless/runaway adolescents interviewed from Metropolitan Seattle </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewed either on the street or in shelters by outreach workers and youth service agencies </li></ul><ul><li>203 Males 55% </li></ul><ul><li>169 Females 45% </li></ul><ul><li>Race: 48% White, 6% African American, 5% Native American, 3% Hispanic, 2% Asian/Pacific, 36% Multiracial </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Identity: 22% identified as gay, lesbian or bisexual </li></ul>
  7. 7. Hypothesis <ul><li>Females would experience more sexual abuse with greater intensity of abuse compared to males </li></ul><ul><li>Level of physical abuse between males and females wouldn’t vary </li></ul><ul><li>Expect sexual minorities would experience highest rates of both physical/sexual abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of perpetrators of sexual abuse likely to be family or nonrelatives, as well male </li></ul><ul><li>Male perpetrators expected to be older then female perpetrators </li></ul>
  8. 8. Method <ul><li>Researchers were aware that it is very unlikely to sample randomly since unbiased enumeration was unrealistic </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic Sampling Strategy – use of street intercepts and locale interviewing </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents interviewed over 2 yr period </li></ul><ul><li>All available youth approached between ages 13-21yrs </li></ul>
  9. 9. Method <ul><li>Flyers, group informational meetings, solicitations by interviewers </li></ul><ul><li>1 st - Must be deemed eligible </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd – Questionaire 1.5-2hrs long </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd – Given $25 for participation </li></ul><ul><li>Response rate was 95% </li></ul><ul><li>Study approved by Institutional Review Board at University of Washington </li></ul>
  10. 10. Results Physical Abuse <ul><li>47% sample been physically abuse as child </li></ul><ul><li>87% reports age of initiation was before 12yrs old </li></ul><ul><li>67% extremely violent abuse </li></ul><ul><li>6% Males, 2% Females said abuse was not violent </li></ul><ul><li>Duration 1-16yrs </li></ul><ul><li>Average duration 5.4yrs </li></ul>
  11. 11. Type and frequency of early physical abuse and neglect Before on own, how often did any adult or someone at least 5 years older then you ever… Females N=154 Males N=172 Total N=326 Throw something in anger 112 73% 106 62% 218 67% Push, shove or grab you 128 83% 138 80% 266 82% Slap you in face/head 124 81% 122 71% 246 76% Hit you with something 107 70% 124 72% 231 71% Beat you up 64 42% 66 38% 130 40% Threaten with gun/knife 50 32% 47 27% 97 30% Assault with gun/knife 13 8% 18 11% 31 10% Go day w/o food, water, shelter, clothing 32 21% 28 16% 60 18% Abandon you for at least 24 hours 73 47% 70 41% 143 44%
  12. 12. Results Physical Abuse <ul><li>67% things thrown at them </li></ul><ul><li>82% pushed and shoved </li></ul><ul><li>76% slapped </li></ul><ul><li>71% hit by an object </li></ul><ul><li>30% threatened by gun/knife </li></ul><ul><li>10% assaulted </li></ul><ul><li>40% beaten up </li></ul><ul><li>44% abadoned for being beaten up </li></ul><ul><li>18% punished by going w/o food, water, clothing </li></ul>
  13. 13. Outcomes of Physical Abuse <ul><li>74% bruised/welted </li></ul><ul><li>48% lacerations </li></ul><ul><li>12% broken bones </li></ul><ul><li>15% burns </li></ul><ul><li>27% needed medical attention (doctor) </li></ul><ul><li>21% hospitalized </li></ul>
  14. 14. Disclosure of Physical Abuse <ul><li>88% told adult </li></ul><ul><li>82% told friend </li></ul><ul><li>Of those disclosed too, 52% adults, 19% friends not at all/somewhat understanding or even concerned </li></ul>
  15. 15. Types of Sexual Abuse <ul><li>22% asked to do something sexual </li></ul><ul><li>20% forced to do something sexual </li></ul><ul><li>21% been kissed or touched sexually </li></ul>
  16. 16. Type and frequency of early sexual abuse Before on own, how often did any adult or someone at least 5 years older ever… Females N=144 Males N=166 Total N=310 Ask you to do something sexual 38 26% 30 18% 68 22% Make you watch them do something sexual 14 10% 15 9% 29 9% Make you show your private parts in person/on camera 18 13% 14 8% 32 10% Have you touch them sexually 25 17% 21 13% 46 15% Kiss or touch you sexually 43 30% 21 13% 64 21% Force you to do something sexual 42 29% 20 12% 62 20% Put or try to put something into you sexually 23 16% 13 8% 36 12%
  17. 17. Sexual Abuse Results <ul><li>29% abused as child </li></ul><ul><li>Majority stated abuse began before age 12 </li></ul><ul><li>52% extremely violent (49% males, 51% females) </li></ul><ul><li>Duration: 1-12 years </li></ul><ul><li>Average was 2 years </li></ul><ul><li>92% told adults </li></ul><ul><li>78% told friends </li></ul><ul><li>21% of those disclosed to were not at all concerned </li></ul>
  18. 18. Outcomes Sexual Abuse <ul><li>17% had difficulty sitting/walking </li></ul><ul><li>13% pain or itching in genitals </li></ul><ul><li>5% venereal disease </li></ul><ul><li>13% bruising/bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>16% needed medical attention (doctor) </li></ul><ul><li>12% hospitalized </li></ul>
  19. 19. Perpetrators Results (Physical Abuse) <ul><li>12% reported four different perps </li></ul><ul><li>8% reported five different perps </li></ul><ul><li>15% reported six or more perps </li></ul><ul><li>Average 4.4 perps </li></ul>
  20. 20. Perpetrators Results (Physical Abuse) <ul><li>69% perps biological parents </li></ul><ul><li>33% mothers, 36% fathers </li></ul><ul><li>9% perps stepfathers </li></ul><ul><li>8% perps strangers or acquaintances </li></ul><ul><li>8% other family, relatives </li></ul><ul><li>90% victims listed family members as first to physically abuse them </li></ul>
  21. 21. Perpetrators Results (Physical Abuse) <ul><li>Avg. age perpetrator 30.8 years </li></ul><ul><li>Biological parents and step-parents who physically abuse kids – 26-35 years old </li></ul><ul><li>Strangers or acquaintances who physically abuse – 19-25 years old </li></ul>
  22. 22. Perpetrators Results (Sexual Abuse) <ul><li>57% listed one perpetrator </li></ul><ul><li>28% listed two or three </li></ul><ul><li>15% reported four or more </li></ul><ul><li>Average 3.1 perps </li></ul>
  23. 23. Perpetrators Results (Sexual Abuse) <ul><li>58% abused by strangers/aquaintances, 48% of the perpetrators were male </li></ul><ul><li>25% abused by family members </li></ul><ul><li>Males reported more sexual abuse from nonfamily then females </li></ul><ul><li>Average age of perpetrators 26.2 years </li></ul><ul><li>Male perps were significantly older then female perps, 28yrs vs. 19 years on average </li></ul>
  24. 24. Implications <ul><li>Runaway youth usually returned home back to their abusive homes </li></ul><ul><li>Returning youths to their homes increases risk of running away again </li></ul><ul><li>Need early intervention programs </li></ul>
  25. 25. Correlations To Class <ul><li>We have studied: both physical/sexual abuse among adolescents </li></ul><ul><li>Learned about types, and effects of abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Just as learned in class, victims of sexual abuse likely to report perpetrators as someone they know </li></ul>