Child Abuse

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Child Abuse

  1. 1. Child Abuse: Prediction and Prevention <ul><li>Stress and Anger as Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas: Predicting Parental Child Maltreatment Risk </li></ul><ul><li>by </li></ul><ul><li>Christina M. Rodriguez and Michael J. Richardson </li></ul><ul><li>The Effect Of Alaska’s Home Visitation Program For High-Risk Families On Trends In Abuse And Neglect </li></ul><ul><li>by </li></ul><ul><li>Bradford D. Gessner </li></ul>
  2. 2. Child Abuse: Prediction and Prevention <ul><li>Reviewed by </li></ul><ul><li>AABDA J. KHAN </li></ul><ul><li>HEIDI M. RAFTER </li></ul><ul><li>DEVERY W. MCDONALD </li></ul><ul><li>PSYC 308 </li></ul><ul><li>UMBC </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction “ Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas” <ul><li>This study examines aspects of Social Information Processing (SIP) theory in predicting physical maltreatment risk in a community sample. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction “ Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas” <ul><li>What is SIP Theory? </li></ul><ul><li>The SIP theory proposes that cognitive processes within parents potentiate their risk to abuse </li></ul><ul><li>At-risk or abusive parents report maladaptive cognitions pertaining to parent-child interactions, and negative attributions about their children’s behavior </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction “ Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas” <ul><li>Four Stages of Information Processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 1= Parents perception of a new event (inaccurate perceptions of a parent-child situation are associated with abuse risk) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 2= Parents’ expectations, interpretations, and evaluations of the situation affect their likelihood to abuse </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Introduction “ Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas” <ul><li>Four Stages of Information Processing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 3= Parents integrate all available information from the situation and consider their alternative response options. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stage 4= Parents implement their selected discipline response and monitor their own behavior (abusive parents experience difficulty monitoring the escalating severity of their physical discipline. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Introduction “ Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas” <ul><li>Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Preexisting cognitive schemas can predict child abuse beyond the contextual factors of parental stress or anger. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Method “ Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas” <ul><li>Independent variable #1: </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual Factors- </li></ul><ul><li>Parental stress parents experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents experiencing greater stress display more controlling, abusive and punitive parenting behaviors. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parental anger & hostility proposed as markers of negative affect that can influence the SIP model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to manage anger has been implicated in abuse risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The extent of physical punishment a parents delivers is also associated with the degree to which a parent felt angered by the child </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Method “ Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas <ul><li>Measures of Contextual Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Parental stress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parenting Stress Index (PSI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>101 items on a 5-point Likert-type scale </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parental anger </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>44 items on a 4-point Likert-type scale </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Method “ Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas” <ul><li>Independent variable #2: </li></ul><ul><li>Parenting-related Preexisting Cognitive Schema </li></ul><ul><li>(beliefs about discipline, their child, the nature of parenting and parent-child interactions) </li></ul><ul><li>External locus of control </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding of developmentally appropriate norms </li></ul><ul><li>Empathic perspective taking </li></ul><ul><li>Parental positive attachment to a child </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Measures of Preexisting Schema </li></ul><ul><li>External locus of control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI); 28-item measure of empathy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developmentally appropriate norms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Child Development Questionnaire (CDQ); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents indicate age of 40 developmental abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Empathic perspective taking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parent Attribution Test (PAT); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents rate success or failure of child interactions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parental positive attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Parental Attachment Level (PAL); 11 items on a 5-point Likert-scale </li></ul>Method “Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas ”
  12. 12. Method “ Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas” <ul><li>Dependent Variables and Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI): </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>77 items --screen for physical child abuse risk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS-PC) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency of specific behaviors implemented during parent-child conflicts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Parenting Scale </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>30 items on a 7-point scale to identify dysfunctional disciplinary style. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Method “ Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas” <ul><ul><li>Participants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>115 parents of children ages 4-12 (M= 7.44 years) from a preschool and elementary school in the Mountain West </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>92% White, 6.1 % Hispanic, 1% Native American, 1% other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>n = 86 mothers, n = 29 fathers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mean age of Parents = 37.62 years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Majority reported living with a partner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Raising average of 3 children </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mean annual income of $ 50,067 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Median $45,000 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Method “ Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas” <ul><ul><li>Procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parents recruited from child’s school through a consent form that was sent home about a study on parenting and discipline </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interested parents returned the consent forms with contact information; one-third returned </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Session scheduled in their home with those who responded </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All instructions and items delivered on laptop computer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responses entered anonymously and privately </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parents received $10 compensation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Results “ Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas” <ul><ul><ul><li>Preliminary correlational analyses indicated the age of parent, number of children in family, and parents’ number of years of education were unrelated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CTS Psychological Aggression scores was significantly negatively correlated with age of parent meaning younger parents reported using more psychological aggression tactics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No significant associations between income and an predictors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No substantive differences between groups to be more likely to exceed developmental norms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No differences in parents living with partner and no partner </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Results “ Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas <ul><ul><ul><li>Parent’s knowledge of developmental norms was unrelated to predictors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parenting stress and anger expression we associated with a number of predictors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>External locus of control orientation and empathic perspective-taking ability was also associated with a number of predictors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CAPI Abuse Scale scores for abuse potential were significantly associated with stress, anger, empathy, locus-of-control orientation, and attachment measures. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CTS-PC Psychological Aggression subscale had several strong effects with predictors and Neglect scale </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Discussion “ Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas” <ul><li>Findings partially support the hypothesis that preexisting schemas can help predict physical child abuse beyond contextual variables </li></ul><ul><li>Parents’ stress and anger play a critical role across the three measures of parent-child aggression risk </li></ul><ul><li>Among the cognitive schemas, external locus-of-control orientations were correlated to all three measures of parent-child aggression risk </li></ul><ul><li>Empathetic perspective taking predicted overreactive discipline while perceived attachment predicted child abuse potential </li></ul><ul><li>In contrast, development expectations were not significantly associated with the dependent variables or predictors </li></ul>
  18. 18. Discussion “ Contextual Factors and Preexisting Cognitive Schemas” <ul><li>The study is limited by the nature of the parents who volunteered. </li></ul><ul><li>Future research should consider single parents with more ethnic and racial diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Study relied on parent self-reporting measures </li></ul><ul><li>Study was limited to physical child abuse. </li></ul><ul><li>Correlational nature of the research design cannot address causality. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Introduction “ Alaska’s Home Visitation Program For High-Risk Families” <ul><li>Reasons for study—Healthy Families Alaska Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Home visitation program designed in 1995 to decrease child abuse and neglect and improve other child health outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After several years, state legislature required an evaluation of the program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Several studies from other areas have found that home visitation programs could decrease the risk of child abuse and neglect under some circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary goal of program was to decrease the occurrence of abuse and neglect among high-risk families </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Introduction “ Alaska’s Home Visitation Program For High-Risk Families <ul><li>Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Among children less than 2 years of age, enrollment would have a measurable impact on substantiated physical abuse rates when compared to unenrolled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Program would impact abuse and neglect referral rates and neglect substantiation </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Method “ Alaska’s Home Visitation Program For High-Risk Families” <ul><ul><li>Enrollment status was linked to birth certificates files for 1996-2002 which were linked to child protective services database for 1996-2004 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Families selected for study based Kempe Family Stress Checklist score </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Families divided into two high-risk groups: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children born pre-term ( n = 529) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children of single mothers with prenatal alcohol use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>( n = 499) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All children followed through the study databases until age 2 </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Method “ Alaska’s Home Visitation Program For High-Risk Families” <ul><li>Five outcomes evaluated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CPS referrals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referral for neglect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referral for abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referral for substantiated neglect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Referral for substantiated abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Number of referrals compared to non-enrolled children </li></ul>
  23. 23. Results “ Alaska’s Home Visitation Program For High-Risk Families” <ul><li>Physical abuse referrals among enrolled children decreased from 73 to 42 per 1000 child years of follow-up </li></ul><ul><li>All of this decrease occurred among children who received 20 or more visits </li></ul><ul><li>Enrolled children had modest decrease in the proportion with substantiated neglect but no difference in the proportion with neglect referral or physical abuse referral or substantiation </li></ul>
  24. 24. Discussion “ Alaska’s Home Visitation Program For High-Risk Families” <ul><li>Little evidence that the program had measurable impact on child maltreatment outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Similar decreases were seen in unenrolled children </li></ul><ul><li>Greater number of home visitation were not correlated with fewer abuse outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Study was not randomized </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness of people to refer children to CPS may be influenced by other characteristics other than occurrence of actual abuse </li></ul>
  25. 25. Questions <ul><li>Why were these studies conducted? </li></ul><ul><li>What purpose do they serve in dealing with the issue of child maltreatment? </li></ul><ul><li>Both of these studies share a common goal, what is it? </li></ul>

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